Hex editing UPK files
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Content
- 3 Hex Editing Overview
- 4 Programs & Tools
- 5 Hex editing I: changing single values
- 6 Hex editing IA: changing blocks of hex code
- 7 Hex editing II: re-writing functions
- 8 Control Structures
- 9 Data Structures
- 10 Recent Discoveries
- 11 References
This tutorial will attempt to cover every aspect regarding hex editing upk files for XCom:Enemy Unknown. It is assumed you are already familiar with the DefaultGameCore.ini file options and that you are aware what changes can be achieved by just editing the ini file and what changes need of hex editing. If you know that, even if you don't know what hex editing is, you're in the right place.
- Section 2 Programs & Tools offers a brief description of the tools used for hex editing upk files, along with a download link and installation tips.
- Section 3 Hex editing I: changing single values is a miscellaneous of several procedures to make a simple edit in a hex file organized in the form of a tutorial. It is aimed at beginners but it may contain useful tips for advanced modders.
- Section 4 Hex editing II: re-writing functions and following are dedicated to advanced hex editing, and they no more take form of tutorial but are rather focused on getting as detailed and precise as possible.
Hex Editing Overview
Hex editing is what we need to do when we want to change something in XCom:Enemy Unknown 2012 that we can't achieve by merely editing the DefaultGameConfig.ini file (DGC.ini from now on). It means accessing the .upk files (Unreal Package files) where the game stores compiled classes and functions (stored as UnrealScript bytecode - similar to machine language - not a table of values like in DGC.ini, although to look at it's not much different), and edit them by means of at least two programs. Unlike with DGC.ini, when editing the upk files we do it via its hex representation, instead of editing readable text.
Hexadecimal (hex for short) is a numbering system where a single digit can take up to 16 values, counting from 0 to 9 and then from A to F, consecutively, so with a single digit we can express a value ranging from 0 (0) to 15 (F). Like decimal counting, when we want to express a value greater than what we can express in a digit, we use more digits!, so to express the number '16' in hex we would write '10' instead, and so on. See Hexadecimal on wikipedia for more info.
Why hex editing
Due to technical limitations on modding XCom it is currently not possible to write in it's native language because we can't actually change the size of the files, so all that we can do is changing bytes of information.
Programs & Tools
See reference Modding Tools - XCOM:EU 2012 for links. Here are short descriptions of the necessary tools.
An Unreal Engine decompiler. For more information on decompilers in general, see this Decompiler Wikipedia article. This program lets you see the code almost as their creators wrote it, providing key information you will need to change upk files, such as getting its hex representation, etc.
We need it to de-compress upk files so we can edit them.
We need it update the XcomGame.exe to run with modified upk files.
UPDATE: XSHAPE is no longer required to modify the SHA values. It has been found that modfiying some string values in the XComGame.exe file will prevent the executable from checking SHA values at all. See thread Finding the first step or the Modding Tools - XCOM:EU 2012 article for more information.
HxD HEX Editor
A general purpose hex editor. This is the program used to actually change the upk files.
Light-weight text editor with good search functionality and other cool stuff that is pretty useful when hex editing.
This program lets you extract the files from uncompressed upk files.
WinMerge lets you compare text for differences and such.
JPEXS Flash Decompiler
JPEXS is a useful tool for decompiling actionscript file, once they have been extracted from the upk.
Hex editing I: changing single values
When first attempting to hex editing a upk file, it is strongly recommended that to start by replacing a single value for another value of the same type (i.e. replacing one number with another). This chapter will try cover every step necessary to achieve this; more advanced changes to the upk files will be discussed in later chapters.
A word of advice
Hex editing your upk files is an easy way to screw up your game, so a few things you should know before jumping into it:
- Making an incorrect change can cause the game to crash on start-up, and it won't show any error message that could tell what is wrong.
- Making an incorrect change can also cause the game to crash when the changed code is executed. So...
- Make back-up files before any change.
- Document every change made so if one change is proven wrong it can be easily reverted.
Failing to do this, and continuing to blindly change hexes without direction will eventually lead the game to a point of no return - where the crash-causing error can no longer be located and the only way to fix it will be re-installing the game and thus loosing the changes made so far. There's no need to reach so far; just keep organized and save yourself a few headaches.
Preparing the ground
Uncompress upk files
Most mods, if not all, edit these two upk files: XComGame.upk and XComStrategyGame.upk. So the first recommendation is to decompress both of them using UPK Decompressor, then make a back-up of both uncompressed files and store them in a safe place (a backups folder is always useful).
Export upk files
This will allow you to search through all the upk's content using Notepad++. It is and incredibly powerful tool so it is worth using. To export the upk files: first open them in UE Explorer; then, for each file, go to the Tools menu >> Exporting >> Export Classes. (Note: there is a second "Tools" menu below the standard Windows Interface)
Browsing upk files with UE Explorer
However, code can't be changed in UE Explorer - it is a decompiler, not a compiler. We need to get its hex representation and edit the upk file with the hex editor. Not only do we need to know the hex representation for the numbers we want to change (that could be deduced without the need to look at the code) but we need to get them "in context". This way, when we are actually editing the upk file we do it with absolute certainty that what we are changing is what we want to change and nothing else.
Getting function hex code
To get the function in hex just right-click on the function name in UE Explorer (4), and select "View Buffer" (5), not Table Buffer. This will open a new window with the hex for the whole function. We'll cover later how to make use of it.
Manipulating hex code
Once we've located the function we want to change and we have its hex code, we'll want that hex code in a place where we can edit it. So while in "View Buffer" in UE Explorer, we click Edit, then Dump Bytes. This copies the hex buffer to the clipboard. Then, open Notepad++ and paste it into a text document. It will show each byte separated by "-", so to make it more readable we can select the whole text (Ctrl+Home, then Shift+Ctrl+End), and make a search and replace (Ctrl+H opens the search-and-replace window). There in "find what" type a hyphen, and in "replace for" enter a blank space. Finally, select replace all and it's done. It may be useful as well to break the code in lines of 16 bytes, to match UE Explorer's buffer view, but beware it may not perform searches as desired because of the line breaks.
Locating a hex value within a function
Now comes the fun part. There are three possible approaches to find a specific value inside a function hex code:
- Cracking down the entire function so we know exactly what is what. This isn't recommended if our aim is just to change a single value, and it will require a deeper knowledge of hex editing, but it's definitely possible.
- Direct search: we'll need to know the hex representation for the value we're looking for. If it's a number we can use Windows' calculator in programmer mode to get it in hex, and try searching for that number preceded by "2C" or "24" (so if we are looking for the number 17 we'll search in the hex for "2C 11" or "24 11" (If these numbers don't make sense to you check again how hexadecimal works). If we are lucky enough we'll find only one incidence or so few that judging from the order in which they appear and how far each is from the beginning we'll be able to tell which one to change. But beware when searching for such short hex strings, there may be other coincidences that in other contexts may mean a different thing, maybe a "2C 11" if preceeded by "07" or "06" may mean a completely different thing. In these cases where the search outputs many results and it's not easy to tell which one is the good one, we'll have to use next method:
- Looking at view buffer table:
- Hovering the mouse over the hex elements: The first three lines can be ignored for now, as they represent the function header (this will be covered in further chapters). Only hex value that are underlined will show display a "pop-up hint" when the mouse is hovered over the hex value. Every few bytes it shows a label giving the decompiled description of the element examined. That is telling you where each element starts, and judging from that you can effectively know how many bytes the element takes. You'll find there are values that take more space than others (this will be covered later), but by now the only thing that matters is locating the value "in it's context".
- Selecting a byte: Still in UE Explorer, View Buffer, if clicking on a hex element the columns on the left will show what it could mean depending on the data type it represents, which depends on context, as we will learn.
At this point there aren't many useful tips to give. In the beginning it may convenient to trace the entire function as a way to get used to how things appear in hex (you'll see it's not the same text translated character by character into a numeric coding - it follows its own rules - but it shouldn't be too difficult to follow the function in hex in the view buffer mode (in UE Explorer) while also having the decompiled function in Notepad++ or the main view in UE Explorer). Once we are certain we've found the value we want to change, copy a longer hex string to perform a search within Notepad++ or break the code in Notepad++ into lines of 16 bytes so we can just count the line number.
Whatever the chosen method we use, our final aim is having a hex string long enough to be unique within the whole upk file. A good way to achieve this is to get a single string covering from the beginning of the function (header included) to the value we want to change, so when we search for it in the hex editor, the last highlighted character is the one to replace.
Editing upk files
At this point it is assumed we already have a unique hex string that will help us locate the value we want to change inside the upk file with no possibility of finding the wrong hex codes.
To edit upk files we'll use a hex editor such as HxD, open the file we want to change, and perform a search (Ctrl+F), searching for that unique hex string. Just remember to select "Hex string" instead of "Text". If everything has been done as described here we should now have found the value we were after. Just for precaution hit the right arrow, so cursor positions itself right after the searched code, and perform the same search again. A message telling that it couldn't be found is the confirmation that the hex string was indeed unique (this check isn't necessary if the hex string included function header, since those are unique, but it doesn't hurt to take some precaution). Getting again to the value to change is just a key combo (Ctrl+Home, then Ctrl+F, then Enter).
Remember to make a backup before changing the file!
To actually edit a byte just highlight it selecting it with the mouse or searching for the text, and simply write over it, or Ctrl+B to paste-over whatever was copied into the clipboard (useful for replacing long strings), or right click on the selected text and select "Fill selection". This will prompt a window where you can input the replacement code. You'll have to close UE Explorer so the hex editor can save the file.
Check the changes
Time now to check the changes we've made back in UE Explorer. It should be easy to tell if the change has resulted in desired effect or not.
If everything is ok the last step is running XSHAPE.bat, which recomputes the checksum for the upk, and writes the new value into the exe file - this lets the game run the newly modified upks. However, see Disabling Hash checks in Recent Discoveries, below.
If the game doesn't crash on start up you may be 50% sure your edit will work :p Now getting serious, when we're sure of the changes we've made and checking UE Explorer shows the code modified as expected it's pretty much 100% the edit will work, unless we're changing more than just one value and got into re-writing pieces of functions - that's coming next.
Hex editing IA: changing blocks of hex code
This is essentially the same as changing single values.
To apply blocks of hex-code: Do a search/replace on the entire string block of code. Step-by-step below.
Tip: Blocks of hex-code (anything more than a couple of bytes) should first be placed into a text file, rather than trying to hex enter them byte-by-byte manually. This is the essence of a mod text file.
The following assumes the use of HxD, Notepad++, and UE Explorer.
Remember to make a backup before changing the file!
- Open Notepad++ with the mod text file containing the blocks of hex-code.
- Triple click on the original hex in your mod file to select the entire block, and copy to the clipboard.
- Switch to HxD, Ctrl-F to find, select hex, search all, paste hex from the clipboard into search box, hit search.
- HxD should find and highlight the hex block, indicating that everything is as it should be
- Switch to Notepad++, triple click on the new hex to select the entire block, and copy to the clipboard.
- Switch to HxD, Ctrl-R to replace, select hex, search all, confirm no.
- Paste hex from the clipboard into the replace box (original hex is auto-populated into find box because of the previous find operation)
- Click on replace button.
- New hex should be colored red indicating it has changed. Ctrl-S to save the changes.
- Switch / Open UE Explorer (depending on version).
- Reload / Load the UPK and verify that the new file decompiles correctly
Hex editing II: re-writing functions
If you've succeeded at changing several hex values, are already confident doing so and want to take it one step beyond and change bits of functions or rewritte them entirely here you'll find the information you need to achieve it.
Please bear in mind this section is still in an early stage of development, and in time it may grow in content and accuracy.
UnrealScript is the Unreal Engine's scripting language. It is a hihg-level, object-oriented, strongly-typed, event-driven programming language very similar to Java and C++. It uses class single inheritance, it does not have object wrappers for primitive types, and it supports operator overloading, but not method overloading, except for optional parameters.
Programing basic concepts
Please refer to this wikipedia articles to get started:
- Primitive types
- Reference types
- Composite types
- Static array
- Dynamic array
- Multi-dimensional arrays
Refer to this document for a description of each of this elements.
Each "element" in a function code (variables, operators, literals and other semantical or syntactical elements, such as sentence-ending tokens, etc) has a hex representation. Some of them, as we'll learn, are represented using one single byte, while some other require additional following bytes to complement them. Those elements, though, always require the same amount of bytes (each element type always has the same lenght) and the additional bytes are always placed after the relevant byte, so the first byte of an element is what allows us to identify it. The remaining bytes, if any, either represent a sort of index (functions and variables most notably) or they represent an offset or an absolute position in the code, which is based on code's Virtual Size (this will be covered later).
Here's a list of hex values.
According to this data there are elements that show different possible hex values. So far it hasn't been found any issue in using any of those.
Most, if not all of the tokens that take several bytes will be explained in detail in this document, anyway here's a reference to most common elements' hex size. Remeber that you can check token's size for yourself with UE Explorer, hoovering the mouse over the hex code in the View Buffer screen, as we'd seen before.
Tokens that take more than one byte:
Rest of the bytes represent an index:
- LocalVariable = 0x00 (+4 bytes)
- InstanceVariable = 0x01 (+?? bytes)
- DefaultVariable = 0x02 (+?? bytes)
Rest of the bytes represent an offset or position in function's virtual size:
- Switch = 0x05 (+?? bytes)
- Jump = 0x06 (+2 bytes)
- JumpIfNot = 0x07 (+2 bytes)
- Case = 0x0A (+2 bytes)
Sentences & Operators
Not every element present in a function necessarily appears in the hex code exactly as it is nor in the same order or position we find it in the function. Sentences though they come one after another and in order.
Let's talk now about how the different elements are arranged in a sentence, and we'll start taking as example a simple sum operator. To sum 4 and 5 we'd normally write it like this:
4 + 5 usig what in mathematical terms is called "infix", since the operator (+) is in the middle, but once compiled the game treats operators differently, and places them at the beginning of the expression, using what is called "prefix", so the same operation as before would be represented as:
+ 4 5. It is important to understand this because elements in hex code will appear in order according to this.
If you want you may think of it as the game sort of considers operators like functions that require exactly 2 parameters. So in hex there wouldn't be a "sum operation" but there would be a "sum function" which would sum next two elements.
The fact that (most) operators "operate" with two elements or values doesn't mean we cannot sum three numbers, we'd just need to use two sum operators to do so; but in no way we could sum three numbers using only 1 sum operator. And this has an important significance when considering the different operations that take place in an expression. In the case of a sum, order doesn't matter, as you well know, but there are other cases where order is of vital importance. If you're already familiar with programming procedures, if using that trick of considering operators like two-parameter functions, you'll find it easy to tell the order you must write elements and operators according to this "prefix" rule. Otherwise it may help you as well to recall that every mathematical operator needs of two values, and one or both of those values could in turn be the result of other operations. If that is the case where the value of an element used in an operation depends in turn of the result of another operation, you may consider as if the game stacks each operation LIFO (Last In First Out) in the order they appear on top of previous pending operations. Once the operation on top of has it's two "parameters" it can complete the operation, so that is removed from the stack and the returned value is passed to the next pending operation that is now on top of our imaginary stack, and thus until all operations are resolved. We'll expand this a little bit later but now we need to talk about another very common element before we can see some real examples.
The EndFunctionParms token (0x16) is used to indicate that all the required arguments have been passed to a function or operator so it can execute now and retrieve whatever result it may return. This is valid either for class functions and for operators like mathematical or logical operators.
A rule of thumb to know wether some element requires an EndFunctionParams token is using that trick of considering every element a function; if it requires 2 "parameters" it will need an EndFunctionParams token after those, if on the other hand it only takes 1 "parameter" it doesn't use EndFunctionParams token. For this exercise it may help to think about the 0x2C IntConstByte item as a function that takes 1 parameter and returns an Integer value; as it only takes 1 param it doesn't use 0x16 EndFunctionParams token unlike a sum. The same is true for 0x07 JumpIfNot token (we'll see this later), etc. There is though an exception to this rule, Rand (0xA7) native function token, which takes 1 parameter and requires EndFunctionParams token 0x16. Need confirmation of the reliability of this method.
While somewhat reliable as a "rule of thumb" the following 'unary' operators all require the 0x16 EndFunctionParams token:
- Increment operator "++"
- Decrement operator "--"
- Negation operator "!"
- Rand operator "Rand"
The following tokens do NOT require a 0x16 EndFunctionParams token:
- Return token 0x04
- Switch token 0x05
- Jump token 0x06
- JumpIfNot token 0x07
- Case token 0x0A
- Let token 0x0F
- Explicit type-cast token 0x38
- Ternary token 0x45
Hex code for an expression with multiple operators
Time now to see some hex code. Let's consider our last example:
4 + 5, which using this "prefix" method becomes + 4 5. Now checking the hex values list we see we can express numbers using hex tokens ByteConst(0x24) or IntConstByte (0x2C) (it isn't truly that easy to guess just looking at the list, but experience have proven those are the items to use). We can also see that we can express the sum operator as 0x92. So the operation in hex would look like:
92 2C 04 2C 05 16.
92 ------> Sum operator. Next two elements (not bytes!) ought to be the numbers to sum
2C ------> Indicates the next byte is an Integer Number
04 ------> Number 4
2C 05 -> Number 5
16 ------> End sum operation, so result is calculated.
Now let's see how we'd write in hex the following expression:
3 * (4 + 5). First we should identify the operations that take place here and the elements involved in each one. In this case there is a sum that involves two elements, which are numbers 4 and 5; and there is another operation, a multiplication, that involves two elements, number 3 and another element which is the result of previous operation. Being aware of this, knowing that operations stack LIFO and that hex code for multiplication is 0x90 we have all we need to write it out in hex, but first let's analyze how'd write it in decimal numbers complying to this "prefix" syntax. It could be written this way:
* 3 + 4 5
Here we first tell the game we want to perform a multiplication, so the game understands the next two elements will be the values to multiply. First value we comply and we give a 3 as the first element in the multiplication, and where the game expected the second number to multiply we give it instead a sum operation, so the game understands the second value that is left to complete the multiplication will have to wait until the new operation (sum) is finished, so it patiently waits. Next, as usual when an sum operation is started, the game expects next two elements to be numbers to sum. In this case we give it two numbers (no more chained operations) so the game performs the sum, and when it gets the result (9) it passes it to the pending operation, so the multiplication finaly gets the second value it was waiting for and can now complete the operation and multiply 3 by 9.
We could also write it as:
* + 4 5 3 which would be expressed as
(4 + 5) * 3 but it is exactly the same although quite less clear in the hex. If you look at it closely it is the same operation, we've just swapped the order of the elements in the multiplication, so first element is the sum of 4 and 5, and second element is number 3.
Ok so now let's take back previous, clearer version and let's write it in hex. It would be:
Infix: 3 * (4 + 5)
Prefix: * 3 + 4 5
Hex: 90 2C 03 92 2C 04 2C 05 16 16
90 -----> Multiplication token
2C 03 -> Number 3
92 -----> Sum token
2C 04 -> Number 4
2C 05 -> Number 5
16 -----> End sum (4 + 5)
16 -----> End multiplication 3 * 9
Let's see again the other example:
Infix: (4 + 5) * 3
Prefix: * + 4 5 3
Hex: 90 92 2C 04 2C 05 16 2C 03 16
90 -----> Multiplication token
92 -----> Sum token
2C 04 -> Number 4
2C 05 -> Number 5
16 -----> End sum (4 + 5)
2C 03 -> Number 3
16 -----> End multiplication 9 * 3
Jump / Goto
Goto statements are quite simple. They are always 3 bytes long. The jump addresses (the objects of those statements) follow 06, 07, 0A, 58, or 2F tokens. (See Hex values XCOM Modding for each token's purpose.)
Syntax consists of a token such as 0x06 (EX_Jump), followed by a two byte value representing the jump offset. The two byte value is stored "little endian" as are all multi-byte values.
For example, a Jump address of 0x4A2 would be represented in hex as the sequence "06 A2 04".
Jump offsets are computed as offsets relative to the beginning of the current function. Since jump offsets are limited to 2 bytes, a jump offset cannot exceed 65535 bytes, or 64KB.
Jump offsets are measure in VIRTUAL bytes (bytes the code occupies when loaded into memory), not FILE bytes (bytes the code occupies in the file). The most straightforward way of determining jump offsets is to use the "View Tokens" view in UE Explorer.
Bertilsson's Jump Repair Tool is an online tool which will validate and repair jump offsets based on token data provided from UE Explorer 1.2.4.
Instructions how to use:
- Get UE Explorer 1.2.4 beta or later (older versions are not compatible).
- Copy modified Hex code and View Tokens data from UE Explorer into the tool.
- Press Validate and Repair code button to begin validation and repair process.
- The tool will now provide you with drop down selectors based on object code and high level numbering for any invalid jump reference which will be part of the repair process.
- When all invalid jump offsets have been corrected you will receive a new set of modified Hex code with recalculated memory jump offsets for 06, 07, 0A, 2F, 58 tokens and the header reference to the end of script.
- Insert new Hex code from the tool into the UPK file using HxD or any other hex editor.
Limitations and how it works
- The tool is basically a data miner that looks at the world as a bunch of view token lines which may or may not contain references to each other.
- When user has manually selected a new target for an invalid one, the same offset difference is automatically also applied to the next following jump reference all the way to the end of function. This chain effect is automatically halted whenever it would result in a new invalid jump reference.
- The tool is intended to completely and intuitively save you the trouble of recalculating the jump offsets by hand and to repair mistakes you may have done when adding new code.
- A bit buggy user interface, currently being improved
For discussion about this tool, see the thread about the now obsolete New tool available ....
If statement / JumpIfNot
Switch case statement
For each loop
Object variables (member token)
There have been a couple of recent (April-May 2013) discoveries that affect the need for or use of some of XCOM Modding tools. They are summarized here for reference.
When using mods, it is necessary to prevent each game from connecting to it's update servers behind your back. However, the DNS entry is clearly for a vendor specific address. This appears to be a vendor verifier (i.e. "Firaxis Verifier", in this case) independent of those patches distributed via Steam. They may not be 'patches' per se, but merely replacements of certain files to ensure consistency. This is informally called 'phoning home' and initially was believed to be intended to be a Steam mechanism to prevent cheating in Multi-Player games. However, it has now been determined to affect single-player games as well.
If you use PatcherGUI, you can skip the rest of this sub-section. It's intended for those who have to deal with this manually.
Those interested in the mechanism involved in this 'phone home' process are referred to the Class: IniLocPatcher - XCOM:EU 2012 article.
Note this should be used in conjunction with disabling 'auto-updates' for your XCOM game in the Steam Library. Be aware, however, that since November of 2013 XCOM patches seem to disregard this Steam 'auto-updates' setting and have been known to apply regardless. Having a backup copy of your complete modded XCOM game tree current and available elsewhere is recommended as well.
At present, the EU 'phone home' process is known to overwrite Armors, Characters, and Weapons arrays of the EXE internal resource cache version of the DefaultGameCore.INI file, and the ...\My Documents\My Games\XCOM - Enemy Unknown\ file XComGameCore.INI file which is a merged copy from the DGC.INI and DLC content.
- My Games\XCOM - Enemy Unknown\XComGame\Logs\EMS\
- XComDLC.ini (XComGame.XComDLCManager)
- XComGame.int (XComGame.XComDLCManager)
- XComGameCore.ini (overwriting Armors, Characters and Weapons arrays)
- XComMPGame.ini (overwriting a lot of MP related arrays)
These may be in My Games (if you have DLCs installed) or the <Steam install path> equivalent path, or both. If you are having problems with mods that alter one of these files not seeming to 'stick', check that your hosts file has the correct servers disabled according to the Launch.log as described below.
To determine where your game attempts to communicate, you want to examine your \My Games\<Steam Game folder>\Logs\Launch.log file. You are looking for lines similar to these:
The entries marked like so are:
- The Server IP address: 126.96.36.199
- The Server DNS Name: prod.xcom.firaxis.com
These are what you will place into the hosts file to block attempts to connect.
- Start Menu > Right click on 'Notepad' (or any text editor), select "Run as Administrator"
- File > Open > %systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc\hosts. The hosts file has no '.' suffix, so make sure you don't add .txt or anything else. Also, %systemroot% on most systems is C:\Windows, but the exact folder name may vary by OS version. The value of the global environmental variable %systemroot% on your system can be determined by entering 'set' on the Windows command line, or as it's shortcut is called, the Command Prompt. But the variable %systemroot% (including the percent "%" signs) can safely be used without knowing it's actual value.
- Add these three lines to the hosts file:
- (The first line is a comment. The next two lines do the actual work, but are specific to XCOM:Enemy Unknown 2012. Other games may have their own DNS names [i.e. prod.xcom.firaxis.com] and IP addresses [i.e. 188.8.131.52]. The '127.0.0.1' IP address is a local loopback address the prevents attempts to connect to either of the other addresses from ever leaving your computer.)
# Prevent XCOM:EU from Phoning Home 127.0.0.1 prod.xcom.firaxis.com 127.0.0.1 184.108.40.206
- Save the file.
NOTE: The "Enemy Within" (EW) expansion to XCOM:EU 2012 uses it's own DNS and IP address entries:
# Prevent XCOM:EW from Phoning Home 127.0.0.1 prod.xcom-ew.firaxis.com 127.0.0.1 220.127.116.11
However, early reports (13 Nov 2013) that disabling these addresses in hosts will prevent EW from launching have been attributed to other factors, such as failing to also disable 'auto-updates'. Save game synching with Cloud Storage still functions correctly, even with these addresses disabled.
The XCOM-EW expansion is proof that other DNS and IP addresses can be utilized by the same or different games. Care should be taken to check the Launch.log file as outlined above for changes with each patch or major release.
Disabling Hash checks
Enabling INI loading
The following is provided for background and those interested in the manual method.
Most likely reason for any failure to load the DGC.INI is that (assuming you have the EW version of the game) you modified the DGC.INI in the wrong folder tree. EU is under "XCom-Enemy-Unknown", while EW is under "XCom-Enemy-Unknown\XEW".
INI Loading Test
Try this to test that the loose DGC.INI file is loading:
- Edit the DGC.INI as follows:
- Replace the Original 'eItem_Shotgun' line 'Properties=eWPAssault' entry with '=eWP_Anyclass' as shown below. You can just copy and paste this SINGLE line with any text editor. (Save your '.BAK' file to restore the original DGC.INI.)
- Load any previous save where you are in the XCOM base (the Strategy game phase) or play a new game to that point, go into the Barracks, View Soldiers, and change the Loadout of a Support class (which couldn't without this change and doesn't have any other class restrictions that might prevent it, as is the case with a Heavy). The 'vanilla' DGC.INI that's in the embedded 'Resource cache' only permits an Assault to equip a Shotgun. With this change, any class can that doesn't have other built-in restrictions.
- Anyone other than an Assault class equipping a Shotgun proves you are loading the DGC from the correct '\config' folder.
INI file size limitations
Increased Load Times
In early Dec 2013, wghost81 discovered it was possible to alter the UPK Package information so the game would utilize an expanded or replacement function of any size. This frees the mod creator from the constraint of keeping their code changes to within the original byte size limitations of the vanilla function, as well as providing the possibility to add new functions exclusive to your own mods. See the Hex editing UPK files article entry Hex editing III: Extending/Replacing Functions for details.
Referred to by this article:
- Modding Tools - XCOM:EU 2012
- Finding the first step
- Programming language
- Object-oriented programming
- IEEE-754 Floating-Point Conversion
- XCOM Reverse enum Lookup tool
- UnrealScript Types
- Hex values XCOM Modding
- XCom Jump offset mod assistant
- New tool available ...
That refer to this article: