Difference between revisions of "Getting started creating mods using GECK"

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There is a lot of unique vocabulary related to creating mods in the following material, such as the distinction between "meshes", the 3D framework of objects (saved as '''Nif''' files); and "textures", the surface "skin" over the "mesh framework" (saved as '''DDS''' files).  [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Main_Page The Elder Scrolls Texture Guide] (TESTG) site has a [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Glossary glossary] and several pages devoted to explaining these to new mod creators and users.  Rather than explaining them here, please reference that site when you need clarification.  (This article does a lot of that: referral to other existing resources.  Why reinvent the wheel?)
+
There is a lot of unique vocabulary related to creating mods in the following material, such as the distinction between "meshes", the 3D framework of objects (saved as '''Nif''' files); and "textures", the surface "skin" over the "mesh framework" (saved as '''DDS''' files).  [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Main_Page The Elder Scrolls Texture Guide] (TESTG) site has a [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Glossary glossary] and several pages devoted to explaining these to new mod creators and users.  Rather than explaining them here, please reference that site when you need clarification.  (This article does a lot of that: referral to other existing resources.  Why reinvent the wheel?)
  
 
== <span id="Programs_and_Tools"></span>Programs and Tools ==
 
== <span id="Programs_and_Tools"></span>Programs and Tools ==
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* There are now two wikis devoted to the '''GECK''': the official one by Bethesda, which is not very well supported and a major pain to update (Five CAPCHAs per post!), and a Modding Community '''GECKWiki''' site with everything from the official one but actively updated by the modding community.  While most links to the '''GECK''' wiki are to the official wiki, be sure to check out the Community one to see the latest info on your topic.  Anything related to "Script Extenders" like '''NVSE''' or '''JIP LN NVSE''' functions will be more current on the Community '''GECKWiki''' site.
 
* There are now two wikis devoted to the '''GECK''': the official one by Bethesda, which is not very well supported and a major pain to update (Five CAPCHAs per post!), and a Modding Community '''GECKWiki''' site with everything from the official one but actively updated by the modding community.  While most links to the '''GECK''' wiki are to the official wiki, be sure to check out the Community one to see the latest info on your topic.  Anything related to "Script Extenders" like '''NVSE''' or '''JIP LN NVSE''' functions will be more current on the Community '''GECKWiki''' site.
:* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Main_Page Community GECKWiki]
+
:* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Community GECKWiki]
 
::* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Tutorials GECK: Tutorials]
 
::* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Tutorials GECK: Tutorials]
::* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Getting_Started#My_First_Vault_Tutorial_Series GECK: 'My first vault' tutorial series] Bethesda's intro to mod creation.
+
::* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Getting_Started#My_First_Vault_Tutorial_Series GECK: 'My first vault' tutorial series] Bethesda's intro to mod creation.
::* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:FAQ GECK: FAQ] Simple questions with answers.
+
::* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:FAQ GECK: FAQ] Simple questions with answers.
::* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Advanced_Modding_Techniques GECK: Advanced Modding Techniques] Questions with tricky answers.
+
::* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Advanced_Modding_Techniques GECK: Advanced Modding Techniques] Questions with tricky answers.
 
:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Official Bethesda GECK Wiki]
 
:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Official Bethesda GECK Wiki]
 
:* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Category:Solutions TES4 Construction Set Wiki] Older, more fundamental questions and answers.
 
:* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Category:Solutions TES4 Construction Set Wiki] Older, more fundamental questions and answers.
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:: "Noob to Pro" PDF tutorial.
 
:: "Noob to Pro" PDF tutorial.
 
:: Check out the "Optional" files section for some additional functionality.  Recommended for FO3/FNV.
 
:: Check out the "Optional" files section for some additional functionality.  Recommended for FO3/FNV.
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/42755 Blender v2.49b Portable] by '''Room207''' is also a "complete" package that is preferred by some for it's convenience.  Includes:
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/42755 Blender v2.49b Portable] by '''Room207''' is also a "complete" package that is preferred by some for it's convenience and because it is patched so that vertex normals won't be regenerated when going into ''edit'' mode, which is one of the reasons why a neck seam is produced.  Includes:
 
::: Python 2.6.6
 
::: Python 2.6.6
 
::: Pyffi 2.1.11
 
::: Pyffi 2.1.11
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::: [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/45019/? Blender TRI file scripts and Tutorial] by '''Kapaer and Deedes'''
 
::: [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/45019/? Blender TRI file scripts and Tutorial] by '''Kapaer and Deedes'''
 
:* [[Installation_of_Blender|Installation of Blender]] (Wiki article.)
 
:* [[Installation_of_Blender|Installation of Blender]] (Wiki article.)
* [http://www.mwgfx.co.uk/programs/dxtbmp.htm DXTBmp Texture Tool] (freeware.) Images can be passed to any Paint program for editing in 24 bit and then re-imported and saved in any of the 16/24/32 bit formats.  Transparency (Alpha) channel of textures can be viewed and edited separately from the main image.
+
:* [https://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/69527 Blender 249b Nif Plugin Tutorial] by '''ACBRadio''' (Mod Description is tutorial with images).
 +
* [http://www.mwgfx.co.uk/programs/dxtbmp.htm DXTBmp Texture Tool] (freeware).  Images can be passed to any Paint program for editing in 24 bit and then re-imported and saved in any of the 16/24/32 bit formats.  Transparency (Alpha) channel of textures can be viewed and edited separately from the main image.
 
* [http://www.gimp.org/ GIMP: GNU Image Manipulation Program] (freeware.) A cross-platform image (texture) editor available for GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows and more operating systems.  Provides extensions through integration with many programming languages including '''Scheme, Python, Perl,''' and more.  The result is a high level of customization as demonstrated by the large number of scripts and plug-ins created by the community.  
 
* [http://www.gimp.org/ GIMP: GNU Image Manipulation Program] (freeware.) A cross-platform image (texture) editor available for GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows and more operating systems.  Provides extensions through integration with many programming languages including '''Scheme, Python, Perl,''' and more.  The result is a high level of customization as demonstrated by the large number of scripts and plug-ins created by the community.  
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] (Mod.) Extracts all the hair / eyes / races records from every plugin loaded in your load order - then, it rewrites the list of eyes and hairs for every race found. So, if you untick / unflag a hair mod from your load order, these records won't be loaded by the game itself and consequently won't be found by this mod because they don't exist.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] (Mod.) Extracts all the hair / eyes / races records from every plugin loaded in your load order - then, it rewrites the list of eyes and hairs for every race found. So, if you untick / unflag a hair mod from your load order, these records won't be loaded by the game itself and consequently won't be found by this mod because they don't exist.
* [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB LOD/VWD Overview] TESTG site wiki.
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* [http://inkscape.org/ Inkscape Vector Graphics Editor] (freeware).  Open source flexible drawing tools, with broad file format compatibility, powerful text tool, and bezier and spiro curves.
 +
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB LOD/VWD Overview] TESTG site wiki.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562 FNVLODGen] "View While Distant (VWD)"/"Level Of Detail (LOD)" landscape ''object'' generation tool.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562 FNVLODGen] "View While Distant (VWD)"/"Level Of Detail (LOD)" landscape ''object'' generation tool.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61035/? Ultimate resolution landscape LODs and generator TES4LL] landscape ''mesh'' and ''texture'' LOD generation tool.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61035/? Ultimate resolution landscape LODs and generator TES4LL] landscape ''mesh'' and ''texture'' LOD generation tool.
 
* [http://www.autodesk.com/products/maya/overview Maya] (1 month free trial, $185/month or $1470/year subscriptions, 3 yr student/educator license.)  Animation, modeling, simulation, and rendering software by '''AutoDesk'''.
 
* [http://www.autodesk.com/products/maya/overview Maya] (1 month free trial, $185/month or $1470/year subscriptions, 3 yr student/educator license.)  Animation, modeling, simulation, and rendering software by '''AutoDesk'''.
 
* [http://store.steampowered.com/app/441770/MindTex_2/ MindTex2] ($20) by '''Frozen Flame'''.  MindTex is a '''normal map''' generation utility for game developers and 3d professionals. Built to rival the competition in quality without the steep price, whether you want to generate a ''normal'', ''height'', ''specular'', ''gloss'', ''self-illumination'', ''occlusion'', or ''reflection map'', you can easily do it in seconds flat from a single source texture with MindTex.
 
* [http://store.steampowered.com/app/441770/MindTex_2/ MindTex2] ($20) by '''Frozen Flame'''.  MindTex is a '''normal map''' generation utility for game developers and 3d professionals. Built to rival the competition in quality without the steep price, whether you want to generate a ''normal'', ''height'', ''specular'', ''gloss'', ''self-illumination'', ''occlusion'', or ''reflection map'', you can easily do it in seconds flat from a single source texture with MindTex.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/66826 Mod Kit - Resource for Modders] by '''pixelhate'''.  Some nif & textures used as references in various Modding situations, including the "invisible activator".
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64746 NIF tangents and binormals updater] (freeware) by '''zilav'''.  A command line tool to batch update tangents/binormals in Oblivion, Fallout 3, New Vegas, Skyrim, Skyrim Special Edition and Fallout 4 format NIF meshes.  The one in '''NifSkope''' doesn't handle degenerate normals, such as if your NIF has a lot of texture tiling. It also gives all around better results especially for people who use '''Blender''' and cannot reset the normals and smooth them because it lacks the features to do so.  
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64746 NIF tangents and binormals updater] (freeware) by '''zilav'''.  A command line tool to batch update tangents/binormals in Oblivion, Fallout 3, New Vegas, Skyrim, Skyrim Special Edition and Fallout 4 format NIF meshes.  The one in '''NifSkope''' doesn't handle degenerate normals, such as if your NIF has a lot of texture tiling. It also gives all around better results especially for people who use '''Blender''' and cannot reset the normals and smooth them because it lacks the features to do so.  
 
* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifSkope NifSkope] (freeware.) A graphical program that allows you to open NIF files, view their contents, edit them, and write them back out again. You can use it to quickly make changes to specific properties of a NIF file such as changing the texture, adding translucency, and more. A 3D view of the contents of the NIF file allows you to preview your changes instantly. You can even create texture templates, and import & export OBJ files. (Note: This link is the latest release and may not be the best choice for FO3/FNV.  A fully compatible version of this tool (v1.0.22) is already included in the '''Blender v2.49b package''' linked here.)  
 
* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifSkope NifSkope] (freeware.) A graphical program that allows you to open NIF files, view their contents, edit them, and write them back out again. You can use it to quickly make changes to specific properties of a NIF file such as changing the texture, adding translucency, and more. A 3D view of the contents of the NIF file allows you to preview your changes instantly. You can even create texture templates, and import & export OBJ files. (Note: This link is the latest release and may not be the best choice for FO3/FNV.  A fully compatible version of this tool (v1.0.22) is already included in the '''Blender v2.49b package''' linked here.)  
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/6843/? Paint: The Normal Map Tools] by '''Goujosamma''' for Paint.NET.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/6843/? Paint: The Normal Map Tools] by '''Goujosamma''' for Paint.NET.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/57245/? Ptolemy Maps for New Vegas] by '''Rocketeer''' and '''Alan Broad''' is a robust suite of tools for creating and organizing 'world map' locations based on their type, faction, importance, etc.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/57245/? Ptolemy Maps for New Vegas] by '''Rocketeer''' and '''Alan Broad''' is a robust suite of tools for creating and organizing 'world map' locations based on their type, faction, importance, etc.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/67829 Sniff: S'Lanter's NIF Helper Tool] by '''zilav'''.  A batch NIF processing tool intended for intelligent S'Lanters.
 +
:* Available operations (initial release):
 +
::* Update tangents and binormals - recalculate tangents, binormals and optionally normal vectors in shapes using modified Unity's code.
 +
::* Search and replace assets - perform search and replace on assets paths (textures and other referenced files) in meshes
 +
::* Convert strips to shapes - the same as Triangulation spell in NifSkope
 +
::* Attach parent NiNode - the same as Attach Parent in NifSkope applied to NiNode or it's descendants with defined name
 +
::* Jamilla's anim thing - no idea, made by request
 +
::* Weijiesen's blow up thing - no idea, made by request
 +
::* Copy anim controlled blocks - copy missing controlled blocks between *.kf animation files
 +
::* Update parallax settings - change parallax values in shaders
 +
::* Update MOPP code - update MOPP collision code with the proper working one
 
* [http://www.buckarooshangar.com/flightgear/tut_dds.html Working with DDS/DXT Files] (HTML article) by '''Gary "Buckaroo" Neely'''.
 
* [http://www.buckarooshangar.com/flightgear/tut_dds.html Working with DDS/DXT Files] (HTML article) by '''Gary "Buckaroo" Neely'''.
  
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:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(JIP) GECK: JIP Functions] (Wiki.)
 
:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(JIP) GECK: JIP Functions] (Wiki.)
 
:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(Lutana) GECK: Lutana (LN) Functions] (Wiki.)
 
:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(Lutana) GECK: Lutana (LN) Functions] (Wiki.)
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/39434/? NMM Installer Tutorial - FOMOD - FOMM] by XunAmarox
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/39434/? NMM Installer Tutorial - FOMOD - FOMM] by '''XunAmarox'''.
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/41440/? NMM ModuleConfig Creator] by Twilightassassin
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/41440/? NMM ModuleConfig Creator] by '''Twilightassassin'''.
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/33797/? NMM Tracelog Help] by Thorne67
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/33797/? NMM Tracelog Help] by '''Thorne67'''.
 
* [http://notepad-plus-plus.org/ Notepad++] (freeware.) Source code editor.
 
* [http://notepad-plus-plus.org/ Notepad++] (freeware.) Source code editor.
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/33271/? BAIN User Defined Language for Notepad++] by The_Catman
+
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/33271/? BAIN User Defined Language for Notepad++] by '''The_Catman'''.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62793/? Notepad++ Syntax Highlighter] (freeware) by '''DoctaSax'''. "Language" Plugin for GECK editor syntax.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62793/? Notepad++ Syntax Highlighter] (freeware) by '''DoctaSax'''. "Language" Plugin for GECK editor syntax.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/67395 RuntimeScriptProfiler] by '''lStewieAl - shadeMe'''.  An NVSE plugin to profile script execution. Ported from '''shadeMe''''s '''Oblivion''' plugin.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62777 Unlocked MCM - Advanced MCM script templates] by '''DoctaSax'''.  Script templates for complex but lean [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/42507 Mod Configuration Manager (MCM)] menus using array maps. Switches MCM scripting from a static to a dynamic system that can be altered at any time in-game. Minimizes script size and overhead.
  
 
=== <span id="Sound_and_Voice_Tools"></span>Sound and Voice Tools ===
 
=== <span id="Sound_and_Voice_Tools"></span>Sound and Voice Tools ===
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=== <span id="Misc_Other_Tools"></span>Misc Other Tools ===
 
=== <span id="Misc_Other_Tools"></span>Misc Other Tools ===
 +
* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Category:Oblivion_XML Category:Oblivion XML] Basic Bethesda XML documentation.
 +
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/67470 The HUD Editor] Mod by '''IntenseMute'''.
 
* [http://darnified.net/forums/community/ DarNified Forum Community] site.  Articles and questions on XML for the User Interface (UI) and Menus, primarily about the Oblivion version of DarNUI but there is a section for FO3.
 
* [http://darnified.net/forums/community/ DarNified Forum Community] site.  Articles and questions on XML for the User Interface (UI) and Menus, primarily about the Oblivion version of DarNUI but there is a section for FO3.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62796/? Gamesettings profiler] Mod.  Adds intuitive, app-like, modding tool for debugging, testing, profiling, and dumping\printing to file any numeric GMST (gamesettings) records.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62796/? Gamesettings profiler] Mod.  Adds intuitive, app-like, modding tool for debugging, testing, profiling, and dumping\printing to file any numeric GMST (gamesettings) records.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/60733/? Tree LOD billboard creator for xLODGen] by zilav
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/60733/? Tree LOD billboard creator for xLODGen] by zilav
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34703/? xEdit/FNVEdit] (freeware.) A generic tool called '''xEdit''' which is renamed for working with specific games.  The latest "stable" release is on the Nexus, generally under the game name version or as "TES5Edit".
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34703/? xEdit/FNVEdit] (freeware.) A generic tool called '''xEdit''' which is renamed for working with specific games.  The latest "stable" release is on the Nexus, generally under the game name version or as "TES5Edit".
:* [http://afkmods.iguanadons.net/index.php?/topic/3750-wipz-tes5edit/& xEdit discussion page] contains links to latest '''''UPDATES''''' "development/test" and '''''DOWNLOAD''''' "experimental (bleeding edge)" versions.
+
:* [https://www.afkmods.com/index.php?/topic/3750-wipz-tes5edit/& xEdit discussion page] contains links to latest '''''UPDATES''''' "development/test" and '''''DOWNLOAD''''' "experimental (bleeding edge)" versions.
 
:* [http://tes5edit.github.io/docs/index.html Tome of xEdit] Current Online manual for all games.
 
:* [http://tes5edit.github.io/docs/index.html Tome of xEdit] Current Online manual for all games.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? xEdit/FNVEdit Training Manual] (PDF.) Older docs that generally apply to all '''xEdit''' versions for other games.
 
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? xEdit/FNVEdit Training Manual] (PDF.) Older docs that generally apply to all '''xEdit''' versions for other games.
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* [http://tesalliance.org/forums/index.php?/forum/81-the-enclave/ TESAlliance: The Enclave] for tutorials covering most subjects and tools that apply still to the Fallout series.
 
* [http://tesalliance.org/forums/index.php?/forum/81-the-enclave/ TESAlliance: The Enclave] for tutorials covering most subjects and tools that apply still to the Fallout series.
 
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Garden of Eden Construction Kit (GECK)] for Fallout 3 (2008) and Fallout: New Vegas} (2010).
 
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Garden of Eden Construction Kit (GECK)] for Fallout 3 (2008) and Fallout: New Vegas} (2010).
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Main_Page Community GECK Wiki] for Fallout 3 (2008) and Fallout: New Vegas} (2010).
+
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Community GECK Wiki] for Fallout 3 (2008) and Fallout: New Vegas} (2010).
  
 
(TES5: Skyrim came after all of those (2011) and uses a different variation of the game and script engine.)  So, don't neglect those older wikis as resources.  Where there appears to be a conflict, assume the later wiki or the one specific to your game is correct.
 
(TES5: Skyrim came after all of those (2011) and uses a different variation of the game and script engine.)  So, don't neglect those older wikis as resources.  Where there appears to be a conflict, assume the later wiki or the one specific to your game is correct.
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background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">Note that there is a 16 MB limit (that no one ever tells you about) for references (i.e. "objects") in mods. If your mod gets larger than 16 MB and you add an object or an NPC, your mod will be permanently broken. It will crash the game and will crash the GECK if you try to load it.
+
">Note that there is a 16 MB limit (that no one ever tells you about) for references (i.e. "objects") in mods. If your mod gets larger than 16 MB and you add an object or an NPC, your mod will be permanently broken. It will crash the game and will crash the '''GECK''' if you try to load it.
  
 
Here's why: Ever notice that all objects in the game have a ref ID that is two digits to refer to the mod number (called the "mod index"), followed by six digits for the actual ref ID? In other words, the ref ID for water is "000151a3", where "00" is the mod index indicating it is from '''Fallout.ESM''' and "0151a3" is apparently the '''''offset''''' into the file. The largest six digit hex number you can have is FFFFFF, which is 16 MB (minus 1). That's where the 16 MB limit comes from.  
 
Here's why: Ever notice that all objects in the game have a ref ID that is two digits to refer to the mod number (called the "mod index"), followed by six digits for the actual ref ID? In other words, the ref ID for water is "000151a3", where "00" is the mod index indicating it is from '''Fallout.ESM''' and "0151a3" is apparently the '''''offset''''' into the file. The largest six digit hex number you can have is FFFFFF, which is 16 MB (minus 1). That's where the 16 MB limit comes from.  
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The two digit "mod index" at the front means that you can theoretically have 256 mods, though this game breaks once you get to about 130-140 or so.  The "FF" mod index is reserved for "dynamically placed" objects in the game and these are preserved in the "save game" files.  You (as a "mod creator") cannot directly address these "FF" references as they only exist in game memory at run time.
 
The two digit "mod index" at the front means that you can theoretically have 256 mods, though this game breaks once you get to about 130-140 or so.  The "FF" mod index is reserved for "dynamically placed" objects in the game and these are preserved in the "save game" files.  You (as a "mod creator") cannot directly address these "FF" references as they only exist in game memory at run time.
  
Anything with a base/ref ID has to be under that 16 MB reference limit or it breaks. Things that don't have a ref ID (navmeshes, landscape textures, etc.) can be placed without regard to the 16 MB limit. Since your ambitious "overhaul" is likely going to be a fairly large mod, you might want to make all of your object/NPC changes first, then add dialog, navmesh, and similar non-reference changes last.
+
Anything with a base/ref ID has to be under that 16 MB reference limit or it breaks. Things that don't have a ref ID (''navmeshes, landscape textures'', etc.) can be placed without regard to the 16 MB limit. Since your ambitious "overhaul" is likely going to be a fairly large mod, you might want to make all of your object/NPC changes first, then add ''dialog'', ''navmesh'', and similar ''non-reference changes'' last.
 +
 
 +
So the big question then becomes how are you creating your ESM? If you are creating an ESP and then are using '''FNVEdit''' to convert it to an ESM, the '''GECK''' will add things to your ESP in the order that you create them. If you are creating ''worldspaces'', the data for a worldspace landscape can easily be more than 10 MB. Add in your ''navmesh'' and other things and you can easily get over 16 MB. Add anything with an ID after that, and your mod breaks completely, with no warning whatsoever from the '''GECK'''. The '''GECK''' will happily save it without warning, but then if you try to load it in the game, it crashes the game. Go back to the '''GECK''' to fix it, and it crashes the '''GECK'''. Better hope you have an older version of your mod to go back to at that point. Otherwise, you're hosed.
 +
 
 +
Things that don't have an ID number (''conversation topics, landscape data, navmesh data'', etc) can all be placed above the 16 MB boundary. Just keep in mind that if you add anything with an ID number once your mod exceeds 16 MB, the '''GECK''' puts it at the end of your file and you permanently break your mod.
 +
 
 +
If you are using the '''GECK''' in ''networked developer mode'' (see [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Version_Control Version Control]) instead of in ''single user mode'' the way that most people use it, and you use ''version control'' to check in your changes, then it automatically puts new things with ID numbers down well below the 16 MB boundary when you check in your changes to the ESM.  The ESP that you are merging in to create or add to your ESM can't have anything with an ID above its 16 MB boundary, but the '''GECK''' will put those IDs in the lower 16 MB of your ESM during check in, so that tends to only be an issue with the ESP that you are merging in, and not an issue with the resultant ESM.
 +
 
 +
16 MB worth of stuff with ID numbers is a HUGE amount of stuff. Experienced modders have never come anywhere close to any limits with it.
 +
 
 +
Aside from the 16 MB limit, we are not aware of any other limit with respect to things like recipes and lists; never having managed to create one that's big enough for it to be an issue. There's a ''formlist'' called "everything" which has over 1500 entries in it, so the limit for ''formlist'' entries is definitely higher than 1500.  Suspect that you'll break things long before you reach the 16 MB limit, though.  Things tend to break on powers of 2, especially at character and short integer size boundaries (255 and 65535), or at exactly half of that due to one bit being used for a sign bit (128 or 32767).
 +
 
 +
Scripts are limited to 32k characters. Comments and whitespace are counted in that size limit.
 +
 
 +
Exterior ''worldspace'' cells are limited to something like 128x64 or maybe 128x128 (don't recall which) or the game engine goes wonky. Again, the '''GECK''' will happily create a ''worldspace'' with more cells than this, and doesn't warn you that things will break. But the game's physics engine will totally fail if anything is placed outside of those limits.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Line 263: Line 295:
  
 
"Base ID is the number assigned to a template for an object that is used to create many instances of that object. For example all bottle caps in the game have exactly the same Base ID. This ID is used in scripts or the console with commands that create new instances of an object, like ''additem'' or ''placeatme''." - [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Form_ID Form-ID on The Vault wiki].  You could think of it as the "parent" of each "child reference".  Any change made to a Base-ID affects '''''every''''' reference back to that Base-ID.  Which is why you need to make a "copy" of a Base-ID and change it's Editor-ID (which forces a change to the Form-ID) when you need to make a variation of an object.  Otherwise you are changing ALL instances of that object in the game.  (Don't try to change a Form-ID directly yourself.  Let the GECK handle it.)
 
"Base ID is the number assigned to a template for an object that is used to create many instances of that object. For example all bottle caps in the game have exactly the same Base ID. This ID is used in scripts or the console with commands that create new instances of an object, like ''additem'' or ''placeatme''." - [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Form_ID Form-ID on The Vault wiki].  You could think of it as the "parent" of each "child reference".  Any change made to a Base-ID affects '''''every''''' reference back to that Base-ID.  Which is why you need to make a "copy" of a Base-ID and change it's Editor-ID (which forces a change to the Form-ID) when you need to make a variation of an object.  Otherwise you are changing ALL instances of that object in the game.  (Don't try to change a Form-ID directly yourself.  Let the GECK handle it.)
 +
 +
''Base forms'' (another way of referring collectively to "Base-IDs") are fine to use in scripts, by the way.  They're just used in different situations by various functions.  For example: The ''StopQuest'' function will always operate on the ''base form'' of the quest.  The same with anything involving [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Form_List Form Lists].  But you wouldn't want to use a ''base form'' when you only want to affect a specific instance ("reference") of an object.  AGAIN: Actions on a ''base form'' affect ALL instances of that form.
  
 
"A Reference ID is a FormID assigned automatically to a Reference [instance] by the GECK when an object is placed in the Render Window [in the right pane of the GECK].  Reference IDs are required to uniquely identify each instance of an object in-game. The Form ID column of the Cell View window lists Reference IDs" - GECK Glossary.
 
"A Reference ID is a FormID assigned automatically to a Reference [instance] by the GECK when an object is placed in the Render Window [in the right pane of the GECK].  Reference IDs are required to uniquely identify each instance of an object in-game. The Form ID column of the Cell View window lists Reference IDs" - GECK Glossary.
Line 273: Line 307:
  
 
Note it is the ''persistent flag'' on the Reference that is mandatory in order for a RefID to become included in the search list for scripts/targets/whatever.  (See [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Creating_a_New_Persistent_Reference GECK: Creating New Persistent Reference].)  Otherwise the list of refs to search through would be way too huge and cause engine lag.
 
Note it is the ''persistent flag'' on the Reference that is mandatory in order for a RefID to become included in the search list for scripts/targets/whatever.  (See [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Creating_a_New_Persistent_Reference GECK: Creating New Persistent Reference].)  Otherwise the list of refs to search through would be way too huge and cause engine lag.
 +
 +
<span id="MapIsNotTerrain"></span>
 +
====The Map is not the Terrain and the ID is not the Record Number====
 +
 +
It is common to refer to the text form of the "IDs" for records ("Editor-ID", "Rec-ID", "Form-ID", and "Base-ID") as if they were the record identifiers used by the engine.  These are "labels" given (or not) by each mod author when they create the record solely for the benefit of us "numerically challenged humans".  For this reason, it is assumed they must be unique between plugins.  While this is a good practice, and something to be encouraged for the benefit of those searching out records by those references in tools such as '''GECK''' or '''xEdit''', it is important to understand that, like a "map", the text labels for those records are not the actual "terrain"; nor the "record number" actually used by the game engine.  It can't afford to leave something that critical up to fallible humans.  The '''GECK''' automatically assigns "record numbers" sequentially when you create a new record, and the "mod index" hexadecimal pair at the beginning of that record, consisting of the "current load order index" of the plugin makes it unique between plugins.  (See [http://fallout.wikia.com/wiki/Help:Form_IDs Help:Form IDs] for an explanation of how to interpret the "mod index" from a Form-ID or record number.)
 +
 +
Think about that for a minute.  The '''GECK''' only knows about plugin files you chose to load for that editting session.  Typically that will consist of the "FalloutNV" EXE and ESM, possibly some DLC if your plugin requires assets from it, and the plugin you are working on.  How is it going to know what other plugin "ID" text labels there are to determine yours are unique?  From one session to another you might load a different series of plugins.  It can't predict that "load order" for certain, and the '''GECK''' itself doesn't care.  Which is why the "mod index" couplet at the beginning of the record number is so clever and crucial to ensure uniqueness between plugins. 
 +
 +
This is proven out by examining any record in '''xEdit''': the "ID" label is a text data field within the record, just like any other "value".  (For example: the "Script" record variable "SLSD - Local Variable Data" identifies each "variable name" based upon it's "index value" within an array of variables specific to that script with the "text name" stored as "SCVR - Name" data.  You have to identify the "record number" before you can determine the "text name"; and not the other way around.)  A test was conducted to confirm that the text "Ref-ID" label did not have to actually be "unique" between plugins.  The same "Ref-ID" label was given to the same object in two different plugins, and the game had no problems differentiating between the two.  Not even when one plugin removed the "persistent object" by the "Ref-ID" they had in common, the same object from the other plugin was unaffected.  It did not matter if one plugin was made dependent upon the other.  Because they were records from different plugins, the engine could tell them apart.
 +
 +
Consequently, always bear in mind that when someone is speaking in terms of one of the forms of "ID", they are often meaning "as a way of identifying the specific record number".
 +
  
 
<span id="Tip-refVar"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-refVar"></span>
 +
 
====TIP Reference Variables explained====
 
====TIP Reference Variables explained====
 
: Thanks to '''vforvic''' of the Nexus "Fallout 3 Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''vforvic''' of the Nexus "Fallout 3 Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 360: Line 407:
  
 
"According to the layout of this system, the maximum number of additional modules that can be loaded by the game is 254 (256 load order ranges, - 1 for the Savegame FF range, - 1 for the always-mandatory Fallout3.esm/FalloutNV.esm)." - [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Form_ID Form-ID on The Vault wiki]
 
"According to the layout of this system, the maximum number of additional modules that can be loaded by the game is 254 (256 load order ranges, - 1 for the Savegame FF range, - 1 for the always-mandatory Fallout3.esm/FalloutNV.esm)." - [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Form_ID Form-ID on The Vault wiki]
 +
 +
: '''FiftyTifty''' added the following advice:
 +
Let's suppose you have a number of Actors you don't want active until your quest reaches a certain "stage".  Then you want a script for them to [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=OnLoad Begin OnLoad].  But "OnLoad" will not run on anything "disabled".  (See the "Notes" on that page and also [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Running_an_OnLoad_block_on_a_disabled_item Running an OnLoad block on a disabled item].)  You need some sort of "switch" to enable them.
 +
 +
Rather than enabling each actor individually, set the placed ''actor references'' to have the same ''parent reference'': a dummy trigger object you place in the cell. Then when you want the actors to be enabled, just enable the ''parent reference'' object in your script (as in:
 +
<pre>
 +
actorrefParent.Enable()
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
See the GECKWiki page [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Reference#Enable_Parent Enable Parent] entry.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-GlobVar"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-GlobVar"></span>
 +
 
==== TIP Global ref variables '''Player''' and '''PlayerREF''' ====
 
==== TIP Global ref variables '''Player''' and '''PlayerREF''' ====
 
: Thanks to '''DoctaSax''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''DoctaSax''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 373: Line 431:
 
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">According to the Community GECK site, "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Player Player] is used to describe several things, sometimes simultaneously."  Among them is: "A scripting keyword that is effectively a global [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Reference_variables reference variable] that resolves to the Actor reference described above."
+
">According to the Community GECK site, "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Player Player] is used to describe several things, sometimes simultaneously."  Among them is: "A scripting keyword that is effectively a global [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Reference_variables reference variable] that resolves to the Actor reference described above."
  
The [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Ref_Variable Ref Variable] page only uses "'''PlayerREF'''" for checking that a locally defined ref variable is that specific Actor "formid" reference.  It cautions regarding using a base form reference: "Beware that this is still a base form and may not be used as the [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Calling_reference calling reference] to functions that allows this syntax, although it may be passed as the target if the function permits this.
+
The [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Ref_Variable Ref Variable] page only uses "'''PlayerREF'''" for checking that a locally defined ref variable is that specific Actor "formid" reference.  It cautions regarding using a base form reference: "Beware that this is still a base form and may not be used as the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Calling_reference calling reference] to functions that allows this syntax, although it may be passed as the target if the function permits this.
  
 
The combination of those statements suggest that it is a poor practice to assume the variable "'''Player'''" refers to the PC Actor formid at any given moment without checking first.  And "[PlayerRef].< function >" syntax implies that "[PlayerRef]" is an abstraction of a locally initialized (e.g. "set myPlayerRef = '''PlayerREF'''") variable.  The following hopefully clears this up.
 
The combination of those statements suggest that it is a poor practice to assume the variable "'''Player'''" refers to the PC Actor formid at any given moment without checking first.  And "[PlayerRef].< function >" syntax implies that "[PlayerRef]" is an abstraction of a locally initialized (e.g. "set myPlayerRef = '''PlayerREF'''") variable.  The following hopefully clears this up.
Line 495: Line 553:
 
:*Set "Max Linear Velocity" to "1068".  
 
:*Set "Max Linear Velocity" to "1068".  
 
:*Set "Max Angular Velocity" to "31.5700".   
 
:*Set "Max Angular Velocity" to "31.5700".   
:Now the weapon should drop to the ground.  
+
:The weapon should now drop to the ground. NOTE: If you don't see these options either you are looking under the wrong '''node''' or are using a version of '''NifSkope''' other than the one recommended up under the [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]] section.
 +
:''Mopp shapes'' are used for '''static collisions''' (i.e. anything that doesn't move: like fences, walls, etc.). They can be used for movable objects, but are far more performance intensive (depends on the collision poly count) than '''convex''' or '''box''' shapes.
 +
 
 +
:The ''BSXFlags'' entry is crucial to this behavior.  It must be found / placed under the '''BSFadeNode''' in '''NifSkope'''.  You need to have the '''Use BSFadeNode Root''' option checked in your "paint" type program when exporting the NIF. (It's on the upper right area of the '''NIF Export''' options of '''Blender'''.)
  
:For other object types, look in NIF.XML located in the '''Blender foundation\blender\.blender\scripts\bpymodules\pyffi\formats\nif\''' folder or the '''NifSkope''' documentation files in the "Doc" folder of it's installation folder. Search for ''bhkRigidBody''. It has a good listing and some simple explanations of the options.  
+
:For other object types, look in NIF.XML located in the '''Blender foundation\blender\.blender\scripts\bpymodules\pyffi\formats\nif\''' folder or the '''NifSkope''' documentation files in the "Doc" folder of it's installation folder. Search for ''bhkRigidBody''. It has a good listing and some simple explanations of the options.
 
</div>  
 
</div>  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
  
 
<span id="Tip-HeadPartsRotated"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-HeadPartsRotated"></span>
 +
 
==== TIP Head Parts Rotated ====
 
==== TIP Head Parts Rotated ====
 
It's not known why head parts changed between FO3 and FNV, considering that so much else in the game engine is identical, but they did. If you port a head part (hat, glasses, facemask, etc) from FO3 to FNV or from FNV to FO3, or make a new open helmet/hat/head accessory that uses a existing mesh, whether it's a simply a clone or a retexture, it tends to equip sideways (rotated by 90 degrees).
 
It's not known why head parts changed between FO3 and FNV, considering that so much else in the game engine is identical, but they did. If you port a head part (hat, glasses, facemask, etc) from FO3 to FNV or from FNV to FO3, or make a new open helmet/hat/head accessory that uses a existing mesh, whether it's a simply a clone or a retexture, it tends to equip sideways (rotated by 90 degrees).
Line 555: Line 617:
 
<span id="MashingMeshes"></span>
 
<span id="MashingMeshes"></span>
 
==== TIP Mashing Meshes ====
 
==== TIP Mashing Meshes ====
:Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''M48A5''', and 'RoyBatterian'''of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Troubleshooters" forum for the basis of the following:'''  
+
:Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''M48A5''', and '''RoyBatterian''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Troubleshooters" forum for the basis of the following:'''  
 
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">Suppose for example you want to place the model of a particular pistol into a holster for display purposes. (This "pistol" will not be usable. It's for aesthetic purposes only.) Some call this process "mashing" two meshes together (e.g. mashing the pistol into the holster). The process is similar for other sorts of "mashing".  
 
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">Suppose for example you want to place the model of a particular pistol into a holster for display purposes. (This "pistol" will not be usable. It's for aesthetic purposes only.) Some call this process "mashing" two meshes together (e.g. mashing the pistol into the holster). The process is similar for other sorts of "mashing".  
 
The basic procedure is first go into '''NifSkope''' and remove all of the unneeded "animations" and "collision" and such so that you are left with just the (in this instance: "weapon") source mesh. Save that to some new nif (you can delete this temporary nif later).
 
The basic procedure is first go into '''NifSkope''' and remove all of the unneeded "animations" and "collision" and such so that you are left with just the (in this instance: "weapon") source mesh. Save that to some new nif (you can delete this temporary nif later).
Line 572: Line 634:
  
 
(You can do the same basic thing to make a wearable rifle slung over your back. Just edit the rifle's mesh so that it is located on the back where you want it, and weight it 100 percent to the spine bone. If I recall correctly, the spine bone you want is just the one called spine, not spine1 or spine2.)
 
(You can do the same basic thing to make a wearable rifle slung over your back. Just edit the rifle's mesh so that it is located on the back where you want it, and weight it 100 percent to the spine bone. If I recall correctly, the spine bone you want is just the one called spine, not spine1 or spine2.)
 +
 +
'''aghjax''' adds:
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#666666;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">
 +
When your '''NifSkoped''' mashup CTDs: "You very likely broke some branch dependencies. You have to compare them to a working NIF preferably from the [sources] you used to see what is out of place. And make sure you don't have duplicate ''Scene Roots''."
 +
</div>
 
</div>  
 
</div>  
 
&nbsp;
 
&nbsp;
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-MultiSceneRoots"></span>
 +
==== TIP Mashing Meshes - Fix multiple SceneRoots ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''M48A5''', and '''AusAllerWelt''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
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 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When attempting to "mashup" a custom mesh such as armor from parts of other different meshes, sometimes it looks just fine in '''NifSkope''', but all "stretchy" and "weird" in the '''GECK'''.
 +
 +
This is usually an indication that the "bone weights" of the "mesh rigging" to the "armature" (AKA "skeleton") are off.  This is primarily avoided by ensuring the outfits you are copying bits from all use the same armature/skeleton.
 +
 +
However, you might end up with multiple ''Scene_Root'' nodes (visible in '''NifSkope''') as the result of combining parts from different mesh NIF files in '''Blender''' (or your mesh editor of choice).  This can happen when you copy not just the specific ''blocks'' but the entire ''NiNode'' between meshes.  There should only be one ''Scene_Root'' node and it should be at the top of the NIF in '''NifScope'''.  Make sure you copy ''branches'' (''NiTriShape''s) from one NIF to the other. You should end up with a single ''Scene_Root'' and all of the various bones and mesh bits under that.
 +
 +
You can correct this problem by ensuring you remove all the armatures in the end ("Remove Branch" in '''NifScope''', or similar command in your mesh editor), and import the desired skeleton again so you only have one ''Scene_Root''/armature. If the mesh still has two after the export to a NIF you can just select the ''NiNode'' (in '''NifSkope''') that contains all parts of the mesh and use "Crop to Branch" and then rename it to ''Scene_Root''.
 +
 +
It's generally better to work on your new meshes in your mesh editor of choice, because you have more control over what you want to do and can also fix weighting issues that may arise by mashing parts of different outfits together. If you plan on making more "mashups", it's best to consider learning how to work with your mesh editor.  It's always better to use the correct tool designed for the task instead of trying to force a different one to do something not intended (like driving screws with a hammer: it will ''probably'' work; just not as well).
 +
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-MovableObjects"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-MovableObjects"></span>
 +
 
==== TIP Movable or Static custom objects in cell ====
 
==== TIP Movable or Static custom objects in cell ====
 
:Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''davidlallen''', and '''Tefnacht''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:  
 
:Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''davidlallen''', and '''Tefnacht''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:  
Line 706: Line 792:
  
 
Assuming you want to make your own landscape from scratch, the first step is just creating the world space. Click on "World | World Spaces" in the GECK, and when that form comes up, just click "New" on the left hand side to give your new region a name, and fill in the blanks. Exit out of that, and save your mod, because the next step will usually crash the GECK.
 
Assuming you want to make your own landscape from scratch, the first step is just creating the world space. Click on "World | World Spaces" in the GECK, and when that form comes up, just click "New" on the left hand side to give your new region a name, and fill in the blanks. Exit out of that, and save your mod, because the next step will usually crash the GECK.
+
 
<span id="Tip-CenterOn"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-WorldspaceHiLites"></span>
====TIP Center_On_Cell '''COC''' Markers====
+
==== Highlights of the Worldspace ====
: Thanks to '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:  
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
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">Keep in mind when navigating:
+
">This is a summary of various points raised elsewhere in this section for quick reference.  Some details may vary.  Be conservative.
* '''COC <InteriorCellName>''' (Center on Cell) is a Console command that will bring you ("Player") inside a ''Interior'' cell at the spot where the '''CocMarkerHeading''' (a GECK [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Markers Markers] reference) is placed.<br>
+
 
 +
* In FNV, the worldspace size is 128x128 cells with a heightmap for -63 to +63 in both the X and Y directions.  Weird things start to happen if you go over that size.
 +
:* The GECK's heightmap editor only displays +/- 32 in each direction, so it only shows a 64x64 heightmap. The rest of it is blacked out even though you can go to cells beyond that in the render window and see that the cells are both heightmapped and textured (just a uniform brown dirt texture).
 +
:: My GECK tends to want to crash if I get close to the edges of the map, centered on +/- 63 in either the X or Y direction.
 +
 
 +
* Keep all land height above 14,000 or you can have LOD issues.
 +
 
 +
* If you are using the landscape editor, be gentle. If you try to shape the landscape too quickly, you tend to create landscape tears.
 +
 
 +
* If you have water, don't forget to add a water texture in your worldspace. "Data\Textures\Water\wastelandwaterpotomac.dds" tends to work well for many different water types (river, lake, etc). I've never tried to make ocean water with it though.
 +
 
 +
* Don't ever place water objects in an exterior cell. You can, but that tends to break things.
 +
:* Placed water only sticks to certain Z-axis levels which are the same for every water object in that cell no matter what you do; and there's no way to have water in all 3 levels of the fountain from Dead Money, for example.
 +
:* When you add or adjust the height of a placed water object it changes the height of the water level in that cell. So just '''edit cell''' on the cell in question, reset the water level height to 0 and you're (hopefully) sorted.
 +
::* The way that you adjust water height for a cell is to view that cell in your render window, click on that cell to make sure you have it selected, then click on '''World -> Cells'''...
 +
::* If you selected the cell you want to modify, then that cell will automatically come up selected in the Cell window. From there you can change the water height and the water type.
 +
 
 +
* If you ever get an error where it says that part of the landscape height is out of bounds, the '''GECK''' will helpfully tell you that it can fix it. It can't. Your landscape is totally hosed at that point. Hopefully you saved an earlier version of your mod to go back to.
 +
 
 +
* If you make an ESP larger than 16 MB and you add something with a reference ID number of some sort to it, you will break your mod. The '''GECK''' will NOT give you any error whatsoever when you do so. When you try to load your mod, you'll crash the game. When you try to load the mod in the '''GECK''' to fix it, you'll crash the '''GECK'''. Hope you saved an earlier version of your mod somewhere that you can go back to.
 +
 
 +
* There are several ways to avoid the 16 MB bug.
 +
 
 +
:* The first is to create your landscape first, then place all objects into the worldspace, create all interiors, etc. After all that is done, then paint your landscape, add navmeshes, conversations/quests, etc. Landscape, navmeshes, and quest things can all be safely added above the 16 MB boundary. This works well enough for fairly simple mods.
 +
:* The second way involves setting your '''GECK''' up in networked developer mode, which is not how most people set it up.  This has instructions for setting your '''GECK''' up in networked mode. There are some errors in these instructions, but as far as I am aware, they are the best instructions you'll find anywhere on the net:
 +
:* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Version_Control Version Control].
 +
::* In networked mode, the 16 MB bug still applies. So create your worldspace, check that in to version control, then add stuff, and check those changes in. When you do this, the '''GECK''' will automatically place ID values below the 16 MB boundary. I'm sure there are still size limits in there somewhere, but I have yet to hit them using this method, even in mods that contain multiple worldspaces.
 +
::* The '''GECK''' tends to crash when working with larger mods anyway, so keeping the bulk of your mod checked in to version control and only working on small bits of it helps fairly dramatically in preventing '''GECK''' crashes.
 +
 
 +
* In the regions section of the '''GECK''', there is an option to automatically navmesh the entire region. You may find this tempting, but DO NOT EVER USE THIS FEATURE. It is the most broken thing in the '''GECK''' that I have found yet to date. I did actually get it to correctly navmesh a region once. And only once. It was a fairly simple landscape and there wasn't much on it yet. SCOLS make the navmesher crash. Sometimes it will navmesh inside the region boundaries, sometimes, for no reason whatsoever, it will navmesh OUTSIDE your region boundaries instead of inside. Either way, if it screws up, it completely borks your entire navmesh for the entire worldspace. It also tends to crash in an endless loop constantly popping up a box with the error message "Get Jean!" over and over until you kill the '''GECK''' in the task manager.
 +
 
 +
* Instead, the best you can do with navmeshing is to use the automatic navmesher for a single cell. When you click on the navmesh toolbar to bring it up, the cell auto navmesher is the first question mark from the left, just to the right of the finalize checkmark button. In the navmesh dialog, click the check box to enable height map generation mode, uncheck remove overlapping and remove thin areas, and you'll get about the best performance that you can out of it. A 64x64 worldspace is 4,096 cells. If you can use the auto navmesher to do 4 cells per minute, that's 1,024 minutes, or a bit over 17 hours just clicking on the navmesh button over and over and over and over. If you don't use heightmap generation mode, the navmesher has a tendency to fail to navmesh across bumpy roads and easily walkable surfaces.  (If you set the auto navmesher to '''Height Map Only''' mode, it works a lot faster and a lot better, and will usually navmesh across roads just fine. It will still navmesh across fences though.)
 +
 
 +
* The '''GECK''' will not render your worldspace unless there is something in it. But it's really hard to put something in it if you can't see anything. It's kind of a catch 22. I usually drop the little airplane into it, which I delete later. After that, go to an interior cell so you can get the render window to work properly again, then go to your little plane, and now finally you can see your new landscape. When editing your new landscape, always go to a part of your worldspace that has something in it first. If the first thing the '''GECK''' has to render is a section of worldspace with no objects in it, it goes right back to the render bug where you don't see anything except a gray blob (I think it's actually rendering water everywhere, stupid '''GECK'''...).
 +
 
 +
* If you paint your landscape or use the raise/lower tool in the render window (not the worldspace height editor), you can end up with black squares just outside of the area you were editing. Those black squares will be persistent, in that you can move away from them and they'll still be there when you come back, but they aren't really there. It's just yet another '''GECK''' bug.
 +
 
 +
Welcome to the buggiest parts of the '''GECK'''. Save often. Keep backups.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-CenterOn"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Center_On_Cell '''COC''' Markers====
 +
: Thanks to '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Keep in mind when navigating:
 +
* '''COC <InteriorCellName>''' (Center on Cell) is a Console command that will bring you ("Player") inside a ''Interior'' cell at the spot where the '''CocMarkerHeading''' (a GECK [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Markers Markers] reference) is placed.<br>
 
* '''COCMarkerHeading''' defines the placement and direction when the player COCs to the cell. You can only place one '''COCMarkerHeading''' per cell. If one is already in the cell, you won't be able to place another one.
 
* '''COCMarkerHeading''' defines the placement and direction when the player COCs to the cell. You can only place one '''COCMarkerHeading''' per cell. If one is already in the cell, you won't be able to place another one.
 
* '''COW <WorldspaceName> <X, Y coordinates>''' (Center On World) is a Console command that will place you in the named ''WorldSpace'' at the coordinates specified.  It doesn't use any GECK '''Marker''' references.
 
* '''COW <WorldspaceName> <X, Y coordinates>''' (Center On World) is a Console command that will place you in the named ''WorldSpace'' at the coordinates specified.  It doesn't use any GECK '''Marker''' references.
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background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">When either creating or editing a worldspace, you need to generate LOD ("Level of Detail") mesh and textures to reflect those changes.  But first you need to be sure you understand the difference between VWD (View While Distant) and LOD (Level of Detail).  See the [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB LOD/VWD Overview] page on "The Elder Scrolls Texture Guide (TESTG)" site.  (The "FNV" version of "TES4LODGen" mentioned there is [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562 FNVLODGen], and along with [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61035/? Ultimate resolution landscape LODs and generator TES4LL] can be used as an alternative to creating LODs in the '''GECK'''.  The "LOD/VWD Overview" page provides a TES4LL process sequence.)
+
">When either creating or editing a worldspace, you need to generate LOD ("Level of Detail") mesh and textures to reflect those changes.  But first you need to be sure you understand the difference between VWD (View While Distant) and LOD (Level of Detail).  See the [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB LOD/VWD Overview] page on "The Elder Scrolls Texture Guide (TESTG)" site.  (The "FNV" version of "TES4LODGen" mentioned there is [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562 FNVLODGen], and along with [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61035/? Ultimate resolution landscape LODs and generator TES4LL] can be used as an alternative to creating LODs in the '''GECK'''.  The "LOD/VWD Overview" page provides a TES4LL process sequence.)
  
 
The following articles provide guidance on using the '''GECK''' to generate LOD files:  
 
The following articles provide guidance on using the '''GECK''' to generate LOD files:  
Line 771: Line 906:
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/World_LOD World LOD] GECKWiki page.
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/World_LOD World LOD] GECKWiki page.
 
* [http://www.truancyfactory.com/tutorials/fallout3/fallout_lod.html Generating LOD Data for Custom Worldspaces in Fallout 3]
 
* [http://www.truancyfactory.com/tutorials/fallout3/fallout_lod.html Generating LOD Data for Custom Worldspaces in Fallout 3]
 +
 +
Make sure your "ground level" is above the "water heightmap" or your LODs will be "gray blobs".  (See [[#TIP_Static_Water_goes_into_Interior_cells_only|TIP Static Water goes into Interior cells only]].)
  
 
The folders used for LOD output files are laid out on the description page of "FNVLODGen".  The key to finding those for yours would be looking for subfolders with the name of "''yourworldspace''".
 
The folders used for LOD output files are laid out on the description page of "FNVLODGen".  The key to finding those for yours would be looking for subfolders with the name of "''yourworldspace''".
Line 790: Line 927:
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Some folks use things like "geological survey data" to generate their heightmaps. See the last couple of threads in the list of tutorials below or poke around on the net.
+
Some folks use things like "geological survey data" to generate their heightmaps. See the last couple of threads in the list of tutorials below (under the [[#Heightmaps|Heightmaps]] section) or poke around on the net.
  
 
If all is well so far, save your heightmap and save your mod. If you didn't restart the GECK earlier, chances are that right here is where the GECK will crash. The second time through this it usually works.
 
If all is well so far, save your heightmap and save your mod. If you didn't restart the GECK earlier, chances are that right here is where the GECK will crash. The second time through this it usually works.
Line 805: Line 942:
  
 
<span id="Tip-TerrainEditor"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-TerrainEditor"></span>
 +
 
==== TIP Terrain Editor missing texture ====
 
==== TIP Terrain Editor missing texture ====
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 829: Line 967:
 
You can use either FNVEdit or GECK to duplicate interior cells, but this is how to use the GECK. In the GECK, load up the ESP with the cell you want but don't make it "active", while loading the ESP that you want the cell to end up in (i.e. your new ESP) as the "active file". Then just right click on the desired cell in the "source" plugin and select "Duplicate Cell". It will give the duplicate a name of whatever the cell name is plus COPY (or something like that). '''If there are any objects in the source cell that are unique to the mod you are copying it from or come from one of its masters that you don't want to include, delete those out of the copied cell.''' Then save your "active file" ESP. Do not add items to the cell or do anything else other than duplicate it or the GECK can sometimes get confused and it will mess everything up. Just duplicate the cell, remove anything you don't want in your "active file" ESP, and save. That's it. Exit and reload, and maybe rename the cell so that it doesn't have the word COPY in it, and then edit it to your heart's desire.
 
You can use either FNVEdit or GECK to duplicate interior cells, but this is how to use the GECK. In the GECK, load up the ESP with the cell you want but don't make it "active", while loading the ESP that you want the cell to end up in (i.e. your new ESP) as the "active file". Then just right click on the desired cell in the "source" plugin and select "Duplicate Cell". It will give the duplicate a name of whatever the cell name is plus COPY (or something like that). '''If there are any objects in the source cell that are unique to the mod you are copying it from or come from one of its masters that you don't want to include, delete those out of the copied cell.''' Then save your "active file" ESP. Do not add items to the cell or do anything else other than duplicate it or the GECK can sometimes get confused and it will mess everything up. Just duplicate the cell, remove anything you don't want in your "active file" ESP, and save. That's it. Exit and reload, and maybe rename the cell so that it doesn't have the word COPY in it, and then edit it to your heart's desire.
  
The GECK only includes a file as a resource if it's a "master file". If you load an ESP, the GECK won't treat it as a master (unless you have configured the GECK PowerUp to allow ESPs to be "masters"). The GECK will automatically add any master files that the other ESP loaded since those will all be loaded into your new editing session when you load both ESP files.
+
The GECK only includes a file as a resource if it's a "master file". If you load an ESP, the GECK won't treat it as a master (unless you have configured the '''GECK PowerUp''' plugin to allow ESPs to be "masters".  The '''GECK Extender''' allows this as well without configuring). The GECK will automatically add any master files that the other ESP loaded since those will all be loaded into your new editing session when you load both ESP files.
  
 
This will end up including "master files" from the "original ESP" in your "new ESP", so if you don't want them: just delete them from the GECK data screen when you select your mod for loading. However, if you accidentally left in something dependent upon one of those masters in your copied cell, deleting the master will screw up your mod.   
 
This will end up including "master files" from the "original ESP" in your "new ESP", so if you don't want them: just delete them from the GECK data screen when you select your mod for loading. However, if you accidentally left in something dependent upon one of those masters in your copied cell, deleting the master will screw up your mod.   
Line 927: Line 1,065:
  
 
You should not generally attempt to change anything about a faction's relationship with another faction.  Instead create a new faction, decide which actors or other factions you want to be members of your new faction, and then establish their relationships with other factions.  If you haven't fully mapped out those inter-faction relationships, things get "surprising".
 
You should not generally attempt to change anything about a faction's relationship with another faction.  Instead create a new faction, decide which actors or other factions you want to be members of your new faction, and then establish their relationships with other factions.  If you haven't fully mapped out those inter-faction relationships, things get "surprising".
 +
 +
If a faction follower is not behaving towards others as expected, consider having it ally with itself.  For example, the game vanilla "follower faction" has got the "player faction" and itself as allies.  This appears to override all previous relationships of that follower and replace them with those of the player.
  
 
[http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Fallout:_New_Vegas_reputations Reputation] is about how members of various factions (including your own "Player" faction) feel about your character.  While related, they are separate issues.  Note you can have both positive and negative reputation (fame/infamy) with a given faction at the same time.  The "fame label" attached to your character is the result of a matrix of that positive/negative range, given in the referenced wiki article.  "Reputation" changes only apply to the Player; not to other Actors.
 
[http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Fallout:_New_Vegas_reputations Reputation] is about how members of various factions (including your own "Player" faction) feel about your character.  While related, they are separate issues.  Note you can have both positive and negative reputation (fame/infamy) with a given faction at the same time.  The "fame label" attached to your character is the result of a matrix of that positive/negative range, given in the referenced wiki article.  "Reputation" changes only apply to the Player; not to other Actors.
Line 1,003: Line 1,143:
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
">Scn    DisguiseFactionPulseScript
 
">Scn    DisguiseFactionPulseScript
This script belongs to a spell effect [''DisguiseFactionPulseActorEffect''] that removes Faction Sniffers from the "magic" armor faction donned when players use faction disguises.  The spell is set off intermittently, through a pulse, that filters the appropriate references within its radius. This radius is set to 25 (spell units), currently, and it's planned to reach at least 50 units. The pulse is placed on the player every two seconds, timed through a quest script that kicks off/on when players equip a faction disguise. - Jorge
+
This script belongs to a spell effect [''DisguiseFactionPulseActorEffect''] that removes Faction Sniffers from the "magic" armor faction donned when players use faction disguises.  The spell is set off intermittently, through a pulse, that filters the appropriate references within its radius. This radius is set to 25 ([[Fallout 3/NV Game Units|game units]]), currently, and it's planned to reach at least 50 units. The pulse is placed on the player every two seconds, timed through a quest script that kicks off/on when players equip a faction disguise. - Jorge
  
 
Also, the script only addresses NCR relations. It'll eventually consider any faction that has faction disguises. [Editor - It now does, but only for those with "armor"; i.e. "not the WhiteGloveSociety".]
 
Also, the script only addresses NCR relations. It'll eventually consider any faction that has faction disguises. [Editor - It now does, but only for those with "armor"; i.e. "not the WhiteGloveSociety".]
Line 1,034: Line 1,174:
  
 
=== Bethsoft Basic Tutorials ===
 
=== Bethsoft Basic Tutorials ===
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php?search=tutorial&title=Special%3ASearch&go=Go Bethsoft Basic GECK Tutorials]
+
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?search=tutorial&title=Special%3ASearch&go=Go Bethsoft Basic GECK Tutorials]
 
* [http://en.uesp.net/w/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=tutorials&button= Basic Oblivion & Skyrim Tutorials]
 
* [http://en.uesp.net/w/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=tutorials&button= Basic Oblivion & Skyrim Tutorials]
  
 
=== Animation ===
 
=== Animation ===
 
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/21983/? ACCESS: Animated Computers Consoles Electronics and Security Systems Resource] Resource Mod.
 
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/28326/? Adult Animation Tutorial For Noobs] by '''Coronerra'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/28326/? Adult Animation Tutorial For Noobs] by '''Coronerra'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/21983/? Animated Computers Consoles Electronics and Security Systems (ACCESS)] FO3 Resource and PDF Tutorial.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/9700/? Artorp Object Animation Tutorial] Video and Blender KF files.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/9700/? Artorp Object Animation Tutorial] Video and Blender KF files.
 
* [[Avoiding_Blender_animation_pitfalls|Avoiding Blender animation pitfalls]] Nexus Wiki article.
 
* [[Avoiding_Blender_animation_pitfalls|Avoiding Blender animation pitfalls]] Nexus Wiki article.
Line 1,050: Line 1,190:
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56203/? Material and Texture Animations in NifSkope - Tutorial] PDF/DOC download.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56203/? Material and Texture Animations in NifSkope - Tutorial] PDF/DOC download.
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/984792-tutorial-working-with-the-nicontrollermanager/ NifSkope: Working with the NiControllerManager] Forum Thread.  Alternate images available [http://www.mediafire.com/file/p0srsyrfuaszevp/Tutorial.zip here].
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/984792-tutorial-working-with-the-nicontrollermanager/ NifSkope: Working with the NiControllerManager] Forum Thread.  Alternate images available [http://www.mediafire.com/file/p0srsyrfuaszevp/Tutorial.zip here].
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63770/? Nifskope Testing Skeleton] by clanky4. Mod for testing animations in NifSkope only.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zijo8ly6pyI One minute tutorial on Shape Keys] Video.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zijo8ly6pyI One minute tutorial on Shape Keys] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU9BAXkn_Bs Tutorial For Making Reload Animations work in FNV] Video by '''The Shiny Haxorus'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/66968 Weapon Animation Patching Tutorial] PDF with separate "screenshots" file by '''benja'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/48521/? Weapon Animation Tutorial] PDF by '''Toasty Fresh'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/48521/? Weapon Animation Tutorial] PDF by '''Toasty Fresh'''.
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63770/? Nifskope Testing Skeleton] by clanky4. Mod for testing animations in NifSkope only.
+
 
 +
<span id="TIP-AnimationSounds "></span>
 +
====TIP Animation Sounds====
 +
: Thanks to '''Ashtonlp101''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Animations which play "sounds" have to be set under the "Special Idle" category in order for those respective sounds to get played.  Otherwise the animation will be silent.
 +
 
 +
You can just replace the sounds in an existing animation easily using '''NifSkope''':
 +
<div style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;">
 +
: Thanks to '''theswagnoob4''' for the comment on the Nexus "[https://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/69773?tab=posts Weapons of The New Millenia and Asurah Reanimation Pack Compatibility Patch]" mod forming the basis of the following:
 +
#  Open '''NifSkope'''.
 +
# Open the ".kf" animation file.
 +
# Navigate to the '''NiTextKeyExtraData''' node.
 +
# Open it by clicking on the arrow on the left.
 +
# Open "Text Keys".
 +
#: In each "Text Key" is a piece of text that defines the reload animation. In at least one "Text Key" is a piece of text that says something like "Sound: WPN357RevolverCock".
 +
# Rename the "Text Key" to say something like "Sound: WPNPistol10mmReloadOut" (or whatever your replacement sound file is named).
 +
#: This example changes it from the sound of the .357 Revolvers cock sound to the 10mm pistol's "magazine out" noise.  Replace "WPN357RevolverCock" with whatever sound you want.</div>
 +
 
 +
If you are adding your own sound files, ensure they conform to the expected format as described under the [[#Music and Sounds|Music_and_Sounds]] section.
 +
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-AnimationSummary"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-AnimationSummary"></span>
 +
 
====TIP Animation Summary====
 
====TIP Animation Summary====
 
: Thanks to '''pluramon''' and '''RoyBatterian''' on the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following summary:
 
: Thanks to '''pluramon''' and '''RoyBatterian''' on the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following summary:
Line 1,156: Line 1,323:
 
endif
 
endif
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
Note that in the GECK, a ref variable may store either a ''reference'' or a ''base form''.  ''Base forms'' may not be used as the [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Calling_reference calling reference] to functions that allow this syntax, although it may be passed as the target if the function permits this.  Hence the "IsActor" check in the example, while not necessary for "PlayerRef" (which is always a ''reference''), is a good practice.
+
Note that in the GECK, a ref variable may store either a ''reference'' or a ''base form''.  ''Base forms'' may not be used as the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Calling_reference calling reference] to functions that allow this syntax, although it may be passed as the target if the function permits this.  Hence the "IsActor" check in the example, while not necessary for "PlayerRef" (which is always a ''reference''), is a good practice.
  
 
If you want to use the ''console'' to force a particular "idle" (such as when "posing" the Actor), you must be in "3rd Person View", go into "Toggle Free Camera" (TFC) mode, select or reference the target Actor, and then issue the "PlayIdle" command.  Note that the skeleton (armature) in use must be compatible with that required by the animation or it won't work correctly.
 
If you want to use the ''console'' to force a particular "idle" (such as when "posing" the Actor), you must be in "3rd Person View", go into "Toggle Free Camera" (TFC) mode, select or reference the target Actor, and then issue the "PlayIdle" command.  Note that the skeleton (armature) in use must be compatible with that required by the animation or it won't work correctly.
Line 1,178: Line 1,345:
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOTVt-y_2Ws Photoshop Rusted Metal Texture] Video.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOTVt-y_2Ws Photoshop Rusted Metal Texture] Video.
 
* [http://gomedia.com/zine/tutorials/tutorial-using-metal-and-rust-textures-to-destroy-a-design/ Using Metal and Rust textures to destroy a design] HTML.
 
* [http://gomedia.com/zine/tutorials/tutorial-using-metal-and-rust-textures-to-destroy-a-design/ Using Metal and Rust textures to destroy a design] HTML.
 +
 +
<span id="TIP-ArmorSkin"></span>
 +
==== TIP Armor Skin Tones ====
 +
: Thanks to '''AusAllerWelt''' of the Nexus "New Vegas Mod Troubleshooting" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Say you wanted some leather armor variations to have the right sleeve cut off exposing the skin of the arm. Suppose you are using a body replacer such as '''Breeze's Males''': so you edited the meshes to get a right arm piece for them and it worked, but now you're having a different skin tone on that armor itself from the rest of the body.
 +
 +
Most likely you didn't set the correct shaders for skin on the arm.
 +
It has to look like this:<br>
 +
{{filepath:NifSkope Armor Skin Shader settings.png}}
 +
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-BoneWeighting"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-BoneWeighting"></span>
Line 1,233: Line 1,414:
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-NoobBlender"></span>
+
<span id="TIP: BlenderExport"></span>
====TIP New to Blender====
+
====TIP Blender Export Settings====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following.
+
: Thanks to '''AusAllerWelt''' and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout New Vegas "GECK and Modders" Forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
+
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">The '''Blender Noob to Pro''' tutorial included in the Blender v2.49b package under the [[#Programs and Tools|Programs and Tools]] section is a good resource.
+
">For "Fallout New Vegas" (and "Fallout 3") you want to set the default "export" settings for Blender as follows (assuming you are primarily working on '''Armor''' meshes), and then make adjustments as circumstances require.
Some tips that maybe aren't obvious when you are starting:
+
 
* Make sure you select all before exporting. Blender only exports what you have selected. Also, make sure you have the export options set properly for what you are doing. If you are making a static, click on the static button (at the top near the middle) and then below that click on the button for the closest material type (wood, metal, etc). If you are making armor, click on "creature", because armor and human skins and creature skins are all basically the same thing.
+
[[File:BlenderExport_Fig.png|frameless|800px|BlenderExport Figure]] <br clear=all>
* Statics and clutter items need a collision mesh. Armor, clothing, and human and creature skins don't need a collision mesh, but they do need to be parented to an armature (aka "a skeleton").
+
If you start with the default settings (click the "Restore Default Settings for Selected Game" button on the lower left), click on ''Creature'' under '''Collision Options''' (top middle right), then click on either the ''Cloth'' or ''Skin'' setting just below that. Then make sure that the ''Use BSFadeNodeRoot'' setting under '''Shader Options''' (top right) is '''unchecked''' (not selected).  
* Blender tends to export statics and clutter objects fine, but the version recommended as most compatible for FNV (v2.49b) doesn't seem to export the shader flags correctly for skins (armor, clothing, etc.).  If you don't go into NifSkope and fix the shader flags, your skin thing (armor, clothing, creature, etc) will end up invisible in-game.
+
 
* There are two different approaches used for UV mapping. One is to start with the texture and fiddle with the mesh to fit it, and the other is to start with the mesh and let Blender give it a UV map (unwrap using "smart projection") and then fiddle with the texture instead. Either way works, and which is easier depends on what you are making.
+
You can select the ''Shadow Map'' setting under '''Shader Options''' (top right) if you'd like, but you need to go into '''NifSkope''' afterwards anyway so you can set the ''Shadow Map'' '''Shader Option''' setting there, because this version of Blender always gets the following in particular "wrong". Either way works. (Using later versions of Blender brings their own problems.)<br>
* Start by making simple modifications to things. Here's an easy one to start with. There's a coffee table mesh ("SubCoffeeTableDirty01" in the GECK) that has an upper part and a lower part to it. Edit the mesh to get rid of the upper part, and edit the collision mesh to match, then export it and put it in a mod somewhere.
 
  
There are plenty of good tutorials out there.  Blender is a full-function 3-D editing tool that can be used to make everything from cartoon movies to games, so it's got a lot of stuff in there with lots of examples and tips scattered around the internet. The Nexus Mods site has a wiki "category" devoted to [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/Category:Blender Blender] articles.  Admittedly, there's a bit of a learning curve involved. But as long as you keep plugging away at it, you'll figure it out. It will seem easy once you get used to it.</div>
+
After you export your model, go into '''NifSkope''' to fix the '''Shader''' settings.
 +
* For any '''armor parts''' (i.e. "not human skin"), the '''Shader Type''' needs to be set to ''SHADER_DEFAULT'' and ensure ''SF_SHADOW_MAP'' and ''SF_REMAPABLE_TEXTURES'' are both '''checked''' (selected).
 +
* For any '''visible human skin''' body parts (arms, legs, etc,) the '''Shader Type''' needs to be set to ''SHADER_SKIN'' and ensure ''SF_SHADOW_MAP'' and ''SF_FACEGEN'' are both "checked" (selected). Blender will usually set the rest of the flags correctly.
 +
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-BlenderExport"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-ImportAnimation"></span>
====TIP Blender version NIF export====
+
==== TIP Blender Import Animations ====
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">When attempting to export a model from Blender as a NIF file, you get the "traceback (most recent call last):" error message box (after reporting one or more file lines) saying:
+
">To create your own, start with the wiki article [[Creating_character_animations|Creating Character Animations]].
<pre>"io_scene_nif.utility.nif_utils.NiError: non-uniform scaling not supported.  Workaround: apply size and rotations (CTRL-A) on '<object>'".</pre>
+
 
Most probably the issue lies in using a newer version of Blender.  These are only minimally compatible with modding the older "Gamebryo engine" games.
+
A couple of things that aren't documented on that page:
:* You want to save your model from the newer version of Blender using ("'''Save As''' | '''Legacy Mesh Format'''") which outputs a legacy ".blend" file, and then open it in a '''v2.49b''' version of the tool.  (See [[#Image_Tools|Image Tools]] above under the "Programs and Tools" section.)  However, some things don't seem to export properly when you do it this way. The next bullet point is a possible way around such problems, but more likely you will just have to edit it. For this reason, many people prefer to create new meshes using '''Blender v2.49b''' since everything there just works (except hairs).
+
 
:* If you try to import a mesh from a different format (example: '''fbx''') '''Blender v2.49b''' won't import it properly. (See [[#Tip-BlenderImport|TIP: Blender Import other Model Formats.]])  Instead import it into a newer version of '''Blender''' and then export as an "OBJ" format file. At that point you can (in the same newer version of '''Blender''') just "'''Save As''' | '''Legacy Mesh Format'''" which outputs a legacy ".blend" file, as the mesh probably doesn't contain anything fancy that wouldn't export back to a ''legacy blend''.
+
* The article makes it seem like it's always best to import an existing animation and then modify that. That has been found to be completely unnecessary if you are creating a new animation. If you just want to load up a model and a skeleton and start animating, that works just fine.
: Most have a lot of success in general when importing "OBJ" files so they tend to use that as an intermediary format.  But it isn't required when modding images from Gambryo games such as FNV and earlier. Note that an "OBJ" file is a lot like a "text" or "CSV" file and does '''not''' include a ''UV Map''. You will need to generate a new one after importing before you can apply a texture. (See  4th bullet point in [[#Tip-NoobBlender|TIP: New to Blender.]])
+
 
: You should generally <Ctrl+A> (apply size and rotations) to everything before moving from '''Blender''''s default to another format, or rigging, or any big changesIt doesn't always matter, but it's a good practice. <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
+
* The '''GECK''' seems to have some hidden settings when you define an animation. For example, if you are creating a looping animation and you accidentally use '''Blender''''s default tags for looping instead of changing them, the '''GECK''' doesn't recognize these tags and the animation will jerk when it loops. If you fix the animation, the game will still have problems. You have to rename the animation, reassign it in the '''GECK''' so that whatever hidden variables it keeps get set properly, and then it will work. Because of this, always give your animations placeholder names like ''test1.kf'', ''test2.kf'', etc. and only give them their final names once you have them working properly.
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
+
 
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* Also found that the '''NIF Tools''' for '''Blender''' tend to rotate things by 90 degrees. Before starting any animation design, put the skeleton into the position that you want them to start in and either play that for 15 seconds or loop it. Then you can adjust things like the height and rotation before doing anything else.
">This needs to be done BEFORE creating "collision" or the scaling and rotation will cause the collision to not export properly.</span>  You can avoid that type of ''scaling'' in the first place by ''scaling'' in '''edit mode''' rather than '''object mode'''.</div>
+
 
 +
* Combat animations are tricky. You can replace existing animations easily enough, but creating custom animations that only the player character will use is definitely not straightforwardBut if you just want to play an animation on command, that's simple.
 +
 
 +
* While most animations seem to import easily into Blender, have had some animations that either went into an infinite loop of some sort and locked Blender up while importing, and had other animations that did not work correctly after importing. Most will import ok though.
 +
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-BlenderImport"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-ImportMesh"></span>
====TIP Blender Import other Model Formats====
+
==== TIP Blender Import Mesh ====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''user826''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''AusAllerWelt''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">The import options for other formats (example: '''fbx''') or even newer version ".blend" format files into the FNV recommended version of '''Blender (v2.49b)''' are more limited in terms of results than with later versions of '''Blender'''. It is solvable with an annoying two-step process, but by using a later version of '''Blender''' that has an import option for the model format in question you can export it from that version as an "OBJ" file, then read the "OBJ" into '''v2.49b''', which can then export it as a "NIF" file. However, it is worth noting that the NIF tools will fail in all kinds of ways if the model is too complex, so that may be an issue no matter how you do it.
+
">See the thread [https://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/8825198-new-meshes-in-new-vegas/ new meshes in new vegas] for full details.  This is merely a summary.
 +
 
 +
Assume you have a basic mesh ".blend" file posed for the skeleton you want to make into a female armor.
 +
 
 +
* First of all, your mesh needs to be UV mapped. Don't use materials for this purpose. FNV requires UV mapping for textures.
 +
 
 +
* Second, make sure that you are using '''Blender''' 2.49b. If you are using a newer version of '''Blender''', you can probably make statics with it, but anything requiring rigging isn't going to work very well. If you want things to actually work with FNV, you need to use '''Blender''' 2.49b.
 +
*: You can find the correct version of '''Blender''' here (under [[#Image_Tools|Image Tools]]). It has all of the NIF tools that you'll need.
 +
*: If you used a newer version of '''Blender''' and haven't rigged the mesh yet, advice is to export your mesh as an ".obj" file and then import it into 2.49b as an ".obj". Exporting it from a newer version of '''Blender''' as a ".blend" doesn't work.
 +
 
 +
Ok, so at this point let's assume that you have your mesh in '''Blender''' 2.49b and that all you have is the armor mesh. The way that armor typically works in FNV is that it includes the human body parts underneath. If you have something that completely covers the human body like power armor, then you don't need the human body underneath. If parts of the body are visible, then you need to include the human body underneath with your mesh. Let's take the extreme example of the typical fantasy bikini chain mail armor. Most of what you see is human skin, not the armor, so basically the entire human body needs to be in the mesh. If you have something in between, like say an armored chest piece that covers the chest and back and includes a skirt of some sort, then you only need the human arms and legs. You can include the entire human body mesh, but most outfits don't since it wastes some time in the game engine drawing polygons that all get covered up by the armor mesh anyway, and if the armor mesh fits too tightly then sometimes you can end up with the human body parts clipping through, which looks bad.
 +
 
 +
* So the first step is to import the female upper body mesh, as this includes both the skeleton and the human body parts.
 +
* Once that is done, remove any human body parts that aren't visible. Again, if it's something like power armor that completely covers the body, then you can remove the entire human body mesh. If it's bikini chain mail or something similarly revealing, you may want to leave the entire body there.
 +
*: If you created the armor separately and didn't have a body to mold it around, you may want to adjust your mesh now so that it fits better over the human body.
 +
*: You also need to add "materials" to your armor, otherwise they won't show up in game because they will lack a shader.
 +
* Now, "parent" your armor mesh to the human skeleton (armature). You have a few different options for the bone weights. You can have '''Blender''' create the bone weights when you parent the mesh, which works reasonably well, but '''Blender''' tends to screw up a few things. Once you get some experience with it you'll be able to predict what parts will get screwed up and you'll have to manually fix them afterwards. Another option is to copy the bone weights from the human body mesh. In my experience this works pretty well for tight-fitting armor and clothing, but fails miserably when the armor or clothing isn't so tight-fitting. The third option is to paint all of the weights manually, which works better for solid armor pieces like a chest plate but doesn't work so well for fabrics and such that are supposed to move and deform with the body.
 +
* Once you have the bone weights done, save your blend so that you can always get back to this point. Then export your NIF file, making sure to use the proper settings. You can get the proper settings by clicking "Restore Default Settings for Selected Game" on the "nif export" screen, then go up to the top and click on "Creature" and then "Skin" under "Collision Options", then make sure "Use BSFadeNodeRoot" is ''de-selected''.
 +
* At this point you now have a mesh that is completely invisible in-game. This is due to '''Blender''' never setting the shader flags correctly. You fix these with [[# NifSkope_Mesh_Editor|Nifskope]].
 +
** For regular armor parts, the type needs to be set to SHADER_DEFAULT, and make sure SF_SHADOW_MAP and SF_REMAPABLE_TEXTURES are both checked.
 +
** For the any visible human skin body parts (arms, legs, etc, or the entire body mesh if you included it) the type needs to be set to SHADER_SKIN, and make sure SF_SHADOW_MAP and SF_FACEGEN are both checked.
 +
*: '''Blender''' usually sets the rest of the flags correctly. If your armor has multiple meshes, you will need to fix these flags in every mesh part.
 +
* Create your new armor in the GECK, and you're done.
  
Some have found that with a three-step process of, after importing the "OBJ" file into '''v2.49b''', they then export it as a '''.3DS''' format file, and then re-import the '''.3DS''' file into '''v2.49b''' before then exporting it as a "NIF" file, they get a better result.
+
So basically, the TL:DR short summary version:
 +
# Create your mesh
 +
# UV map your mesh
 +
# Import the human body mesh and skeleton
 +
# Remove any human body parts that aren't visible
 +
# Parent your mesh to the skeleton
 +
# Fix the bone weights
 +
# Export to NIF
 +
# Fix the shader flags in '''NifSkope'''
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
=== Collision ===
+
<span id="Tip-ImportTexture"></span>
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
+
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/19739/? Blender Video Tutorial - Convex Collision] Video.
+
====TIP Blender Import Texture====
* [http://youtu.be/sADeZhuv748 Fallout to Blender and back: Collision Meshes - Part 1] Video.
+
: Thanks to '''AusAllerWelt''' of the "Fallout New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following.
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56LwyhJ4u5Q Fallout to Blender and back: Collision Meshes - Part 2] Video.
 
* [http://youtu.be/AD4uywa1-pE GECK: Collision creation in Blender] Video.
 
 
 
<span id="Tip-CollisionSounds"></span>
 
====TIP Collision Impact Sounds====
 
: Thanks to '''pixelhate''' and '''miguick''' of the Nexus Fallout "Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
 
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">In FO3 or FNV the impact sound of one material upon another (e.g. a shell casing falling upon the ground, a footstep on a wooden stair, etc.) is referenced in the collision object as "HAV_MAT" (Havok Material).  But it doesn't handle the sound only; it combines it with the particles emitted when hit or shot as well as the decals associated.  "Havok Material" will decide: The impact sound, the decal, the particle effect on impact, the sound when walking over a surface, and the colliding sound upon dropping, kicking, or grabbing an object.  These are hard coded in the game engine and cannot be changed as far as we know.  What the actor is wearing does not affect this; only the action being taken.
+
">* Select your mesh in ''Edit Mode'' and go to ''Windows Type | UV/Image Editor''. (See Fig-1.)<br>
 
+
[[File:BlenderImportTexture Fig-1.jpg|thumb|300px|left|Blender Import Fig-1]]<br clear=all>
However, there is an INI file setting under "[Audio]":
+
* Under ''Image'' you can select ''Open'' and load your texture ".dds" file. You might have to click ''New'' first for the UV of the object to appear and then load your texture again.  (See Fig-2.)<br>
<pre>
+
[[File:BlenderImportTexture Fig-2.jpg|thumb|300px|left|Blender Import Fig-2]]<br clear=all>
fPlayerFootVolume=x
+
* Once you're done with that, you only have to change the ''Draw Type'' for the Render Window to ''Textured'' to display the textures. (See Fig-3.)<br>
</pre>
+
[[File:BlenderImportTexture Fig-3.jpg|thumb|200px|left|Blender Import Fig-3]]<br clear=all>
which has a "x" float type value of "0.65" by default.  Setting "x" to "0" will make your footsteps totally silent.  You can alter it in scripts using '''NVSE''''s ''SetNumericINISetting'' command, as in:
 
<pre>
 
SetNumericINISetting "fPlayerFootVolume:Audio" x
 
</pre>
 
 
 
Modders have found 96 "Havok Materials" which are combinations of different things mentioned before.  32 of them are the most commonly used by the game.  Bear in mind that the names in the drop down list don't reflect the effect at all and can be misleading; so some experimentation may be called for to achieve the desired sound.
 
 
 
There's a drop down list in '''NifSkope''' or your preferred texture editor from which you can choose the most fitting one.
 
 
 
In '''NifSkope:''' open the "Block" list window, select the ''BHKCollisionObject'', expand and look into each of the ''Nodes'' in the "Block Details" window.
 
 
 
Depending on the type and structure of the Collision, you should find one or two places where HAV_MAT is noted: double click on it to access the drop down list.
 
 
 
The material you set in the ''bhkRigidBody(T)'' overides any setting on the lower blocks. To get multiple "Havok Materials" with a single NIF, you have to nest multiple ''NiNodes'' and create a new ''bhkColisionBlock'' for each material you use.  Check to make sure that the ''Layer'' and ''Layer Copy'' entries in your ''bhkRigidBody(T)'' and the ''Layer'' setting inside ''Data Layers'' in your ''bhkNiTriStripShape'' all match.  Collision sequences are one of the few places in a ".NIF" file where the exact order is essential.
 
 
 
Don't forget that the "armature/skeleton" can have it's own HAV_MAT as well.
 
 
 
If you alter the mesh NIFs for your mod, you will have to include them in your package.  There are basically two ways of doing so:
 
* If the items are replacements for vanilla items and should affect all those items in game: place the modified meshes, keeping the original naming, in the "Data" loose folder reproducing exactly the original folder structure. These will then override the ones in the vanilla BSA file when "ArchiveInvalidation" is toggled.  In that case, you shouldn't need to make any changes to your ESP/ESM files to have the new meshes active.
 
* If the items are specific to your mod and should coexist with vanilla items: place the modified meshes, with new names, in a folder structure specific to your mod.  You will then be creating new unique instances of the items using those meshes under that unique path and have to include them in your ESP/ESM files.
 
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-ObjectCollision"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-BlenderBlackTexture"></span>
  
==== TIP Custom Object Collision ====
+
==== TIP Imported NIF texture appears Black ====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">Sometimes (even though you added "collision" to an object) when you initially place it on a shelf or other surface with collision just fine, it seems to fall at least partially through the surface when the cell reloadsIf precisely aligning your object with the surface results in it sinking, try placing the object's Z-axis just slightly above the surface collision boundary and let it drop into collision with the surfaceHowever, this only works if the object is a "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Movable_Static Movable Static]" based upon "Havok Materials", whose weight gives them "gravity" physics. (See also [[#TIP: Collision Impact Sounds|TIP: Collision Impact Sounds]] and the GECK entry for [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Object_palette Object Palette].)
+
">Mesh files (*.NIF) internally point to the texture file (*.DDS) designed for them.  The "vanilla" and DLC game art assets (both mesh and texture files) are stored in "Bethesda Software Archive (BSA)" files instead of under the game "Data" folder tree while using the same folder structure.  (Some mod's do this as well.) As '''Blender''' has no idea what a BSA file is, it can't find the texture file to display it.  If '''Blender''' can't find the texture file, it just shows the image with a "black" textureIn order to see the textures for your mesh while looking at it in '''Blender''' you will have to extract the texture file(s) from the BSA into the appropriate folder under "Data\textures" firstBe careful to extract such files to some other location than the game "Data" folder first, and then manually copy them to the correct "Data" folder to avoid accidents.
 +
</div>
  
Part of the issue can be in how you created the collision mesh.  For simple objects, just copy the mesh for your custom object from the vanilla object mesh.  However, that doesn't work so well for complex objects with a complex collision mesh.  It's preferable to use a simple box collision (which can be created in '''Nifskope''' instead of your "mesh editor").  For "havoked" or "grabable" objects: primative collision (sphere, box, or capsule) are preferable to avoid engine problems.
+
<span id="Tip-NoobBlender"></span>
</div>
 
  
=== Conversions ===
+
====TIP New to Blender====
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following.
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/250761-converting-fo3-mod-for-fnv/ Converting FO3 Mod for FNV] Thread.
+
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* [http://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnv-edit-series-converting-fo3-mods Converting F03 mods to TTW & FNV] Wiki.
+
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* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool, behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site".
+
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* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPKrwES9Cb4 FNVEdit Creating compatibility patches for "Brumbeks Inventory Sorting" (BIS) by JaHn3tiC] Video.
+
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* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z61u0bQUmgM FNVEdit Making a Feature (Basic Compatibility) Patch by Roy Batty] Video.
+
">The '''Blender Noob to Pro''' tutorial included in the Blender v2.49b package under the [[#Programs and Tools|Programs and Tools]] section is a good resource.
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? FNVEdit Training Manual] PDF. Generally applies to all 'xEdit' versions for other games. Chapter 7 is on converting FO3 mods to FNV.
+
Some tips that maybe aren't obvious when you are starting:
* [http://www.grammarly.com/ Grammarly] pretty well regarded grammar checker, with free versions of their plugins for browsers.
+
* Make sure you select all before exporting. Blender only exports what you have selected. Also, make sure you have the export options set properly for what you are doing. If you are making a static, click on the static button (at the top near the middle) and then below that click on the button for the closest material type (wood, metal, etc). If you are making armor, click on "creature", because armor and human skins and creature skins are all basically the same thing.
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62261/? How to make a Custom Race] PDF.
+
* Statics and clutter items need a collision mesh. Armor, clothing, and human and creature skins don't need a collision mesh, but they do need to be parented to an armature (aka "a skeleton").
* [http://tone-analyzer-demo.mybluemix.net/ Tone Analyzer] uses linguistic analysis to detect three types of tones from written text: emotions, social tendencies, and writing style. Users can use the online Tone Analyzer service to analyze conversations and communications.
+
* Blender tends to export statics and clutter objects fine, but the version recommended as most compatible for FNV (v2.49b) doesn't seem to export the shader flags correctly for skins (armor, clothing, etc.). If you don't go into NifSkope and fix the shader flags, your skin thing (armor, clothing, creature, etc) will end up invisible in-game.
: Tools behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site" in their "modder resources" section.
+
* There are two different approaches used for UV mapping. One is to start with the texture and fiddle with the mesh to fit it, and the other is to start with the mesh and let Blender give it a UV map (unwrap using "smart projection") and then fiddle with the texture instead. Either way works, and which is easier depends on what you are making.
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool
+
* Start by making simple modifications to things. Here's an easy one to start with. There's a coffee table mesh ("SubCoffeeTableDirty01" in the GECK) that has an upper part and a lower part to it. Edit the mesh to get rid of the upper part, and edit the collision mesh to match, then export it and put it in a mod somewhere.
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/37660-clothing-converter-lattice-library-share-your-clothing-converter-lattices/ Clothing Converter Lattice Library] Resource.
+
 
 +
There are plenty of good tutorials out there.  Blender is a full-function 3-D editing tool that can be used to make everything from cartoon movies to games, so it's got a lot of stuff in there with lots of examples and tips scattered around the internet. The Nexus Mods site has a wiki "category" devoted to [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/Category:Blender Blender] articles.  Admittedly, there's a bit of a learning curve involved. But as long as you keep plugging away at it, you'll figure it out. It will seem easy once you get used to it.</div>
  
<span id="Tip-MeshConversion"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-BlenderExport"></span>
====TIP Converting meshes====
+
====TIP Blender version NIF export====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''MA48A5''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">Other games has meshes you would like to use; either vanilla or from modsWhich game is better to get a mesh from? Quality wise, and which game is easiest to convert said mesh to '''FNV'''? '''Oblivion''', '''Skyrim''', or '''Skyrim Special Edition'''?
+
">When attempting to export a model from Blender as a NIF file, you get the "traceback (most recent call last):" error message box (after reporting one or more file lines) saying:
 +
<pre>"io_scene_nif.utility.nif_utils.NiError: non-uniform scaling not supported.  Workaround: apply size and rotations (CTRL-A) on '<object>'".</pre>
 +
Most probably the issue lies in using a newer version of Blender.  These are only minimally compatible with modding the older "Gamebryo engine" games.
 +
:* You want to save your model from the newer version of Blender using ("'''Save As''' | '''Legacy Mesh Format'''") which outputs a legacy ".blend" file, and then open it in a '''v2.49b''' version of the tool.  (See [[#Image_Tools|Image Tools]] above under the "Programs and Tools" section.)  However, some things don't seem to export properly when you do it this wayThe next bullet point is a possible way around such problems, but more likely you will just have to edit it.  For this reason, many people prefer to create new meshes using '''Blender v2.49b''' since everything there just works (except hairs).
 +
:* If you try to import a mesh from a different format (example: '''fbx''') '''Blender v2.49b''' won't import it properly.  (See [[#Tip-BlenderImport|TIP: Blender Import other Model Formats.]])  Instead import it into a newer version of '''Blender''' and then export as an "OBJ" format file.  At that point you can (in the same newer version of '''Blender''') just "'''Save As''' | '''Legacy Mesh Format'''" which outputs a legacy ".blend" file, as the mesh probably doesn't contain anything fancy that wouldn't export back to a ''legacy blend''.
 +
: Most have a lot of success in general when importing "OBJ" files so they tend to use that as an intermediary format.  But it isn't required when modding images from Gambryo games such as FNV and earlier.  Note that an "OBJ" file is a lot like a "text" or "CSV" file and does '''not''' include a ''UV Map''. You will need to generate a new one after importing before you can apply a texture. (See  4th bullet point in [[#Tip-NoobBlender|TIP: New to Blender.]])
 +
: You should generally <Ctrl+A> (apply size and rotations) to everything before moving from '''Blender''''s default to another format, or rigging, or any big changes.  It doesn't always matter, but it's a good practice.  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
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">This needs to be done BEFORE creating "collision" or the scaling and rotation will cause the collision to not export properly.</span>  You can avoid that type of ''scaling'' in the first place by ''scaling'' in '''edit mode''' rather than '''object mode'''.</div>
  
If this is for your own personal use, there's no issue. If this is for a mod that you plan on releasing on the '''Nexus''' (or anywhere else), then you can't use assets from other games (period).  They are copyright protected against "distribution" without permission.  Not even from other Bethesda games in the same series like '''Fallout'''.  (The exception is if the resources are already included in the "destination" game's files even though not used.)
+
<span id="Tip-BlenderImport"></span>
 
+
====TIP Blender Import other Model Formats====
You can only use assets from other mods if the mod author gives you explicit permission to do so (e.g. "this is a modder's resource").
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''user826''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
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">The import options for other formats (example: '''fbx''') or even newer version ".blend" format files into the FNV recommended version of '''Blender (v2.49b)''' are more limited in terms of results than with later versions of '''Blender'''.  It is solvable with an annoying two-step process, but by using a later version of '''Blender''' that has an import option for the model format in question you can export it from that version as an "OBJ" file, then read the "OBJ" into '''v2.49b''', which can then export it as a "NIF" file.  However, it is worth noting that the NIF tools will fail in all kinds of ways if the model is too complex, so that may be an issue no matter how you do it.
 +
 
 +
Some have found that with a three-step process of, after importing the "OBJ" file into '''v2.49b''', they then export it as a '''.3DS''' format file, and then re-import the '''.3DS''' file into '''v2.49b''' before then exporting it as a "NIF" file, they get a better result.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== Collision ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/19739/? Blender Video Tutorial - Convex Collision] Video.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/sADeZhuv748 Fallout to Blender and back: Collision Meshes - Part 1] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56LwyhJ4u5Q Fallout to Blender and back: Collision Meshes - Part 2] Video.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/AD4uywa1-pE GECK: Collision creation in Blender] Video.
  
That said, the game engine for '''Oblivion''' is fairly close to the game engine for '''FO3/FNV'''. They changed quite a bit for '''Skyrim'''. In any event, the skeletons for the player and for NPCs is different for any of the TES games. If you are porting over armor or clothing, you'll need to unparent the mesh from its original armature and reparent the mesh to the '''FNV''' skeleton, and of course reassign all of the bone weights as you'd expect from doing that sort of thing.
+
<span id="Tip-CollisionSounds"></span>
 +
====TIP Collision Impact Sounds====
 +
: Thanks to '''pixelhate''' and '''miguick''' of the Nexus Fallout "Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
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">In FO3 or FNV the impact sound of one material upon another (e.g. a shell casing falling upon the ground, a footstep on a wooden stair, etc.) is referenced in the collision object as "HAV_MAT" (Havok Material). But it doesn't handle the sound only; it combines it with the particles emitted when hit or shot as well as the decals associated.  "Havok Material" will decide: The impact sound, the decal, the particle effect on impact, the sound when walking over a surface, and the colliding sound upon dropping, kicking, or grabbing an object.  These are hard coded in the game engine and cannot be changed as far as we know.  What the actor is wearing does not affect this; only the action being taken.
  
Statics don't have a skeleton so those will port much more easily.
+
However, there is an INI file setting under "[Audio]":
 +
<pre>
 +
fPlayerFootVolume=x
 +
</pre>
 +
which has a "x" float type value of "0.65" by default.  Setting "x" to "0" will make your footsteps totally silent. You can alter it in scripts using '''NVSE''''s ''SetNumericINISetting'' command, as in:
 +
<pre>
 +
SetNumericINISetting "fPlayerFootVolume:Audio" x
 +
</pre>
  
Some things just won't port'''Skyrim Special Edition''', being 64-bit, is about impossible to convert to a 32-bit game.<span style="color: orange; background-color:#424242;">[[#Tip-MeshConversionFootnote1|(See also Footnote [1]]])</span> So that leaves '''Skyrim''' and '''Oblivion'''.  '''Skyrim''' armor that uses ''wings'' for example won't ever animate properly in '''FNV''' no matter what you do, because the '''FNV''' skeleton doesn't include ''wings''. To make them work, you'd have to not only create a new skeleton/armature, but you'd also have to create a whole bunch of animations to go with the new skeleton. Otherwise, the best you can do is have ''static wings'', which will look a bit funny.  (There is one armature with support for '''''moving wings''''' by '''Deedes''' (2014) on Nexus with versions for [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/20620 FO3: The Skeleton] and [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56657 FNV: The Skeleton].  You would have to re-parent the mesh to that armature.
+
Modders have found 96 "Havok Materials" which are combinations of different things mentioned before.  32 of them are the most commonly used by the game.  Bear in mind that the names in the drop down list don't reflect the effect at all and can be misleading; so some experimentation may be called for to achieve the desired sound.
  
The [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool, behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site" in their "modder resources" section, is designed to facilitate converting "armor" and "clothing" between different body types.  However, it is still in "Beta" status since 2014, but does work with upper/lower body meshes and CBBE bodies.  Note you will need either an existing [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/37660-clothing-converter-lattice-library-share-your-clothing-converter-lattices/ Clothing Converter Lattice Library] or to make one yourself.
+
There's a drop down list in '''NifSkope''' or your preferred texture editor from which you can choose the most fitting one.
  
'''Skyrim''', being a newer game, has more detailed meshes in general, and mod authors have generally followed suit and have created similarly more detailed custom meshes. While this does make for higher quality 3d models, you can run into difficulty if you use a lot of higher quality models and textures in '''FNV''' since it's an older 32-bit game and it will only use 2 GB of memory by default. You can double that to 4 GB if you install the 4 GB patch, but that's as far as you can take it.  (32-bits can't address any more than 4GB.) Your PC may have gobs more memory than that, but '''FNV''' won't use it. So it's very easy to run the game out of memory if you use high resolution textures and high quality models.
+
In '''NifSkope:''' open the "Block" list window, select the ''BHKCollisionObject'', expand and look into each of the ''Nodes'' in the "Block Details" window.
  
The recommendation is almost never use any textures larger than 1024 x 1024 pixels for '''FNV''' unless it absolutely needs a higher resolution due to the nature of the 3D model, just because of the memory issue.  Also try to keep the triangle count (vertices) as low as possible. If you use a lot of 4096 x 4096 textures, your game will look prettier, but it's also going to crash a lot more often.  (A 4096 x 4096 pixel image with 16 bit color resolution is 32 MB of data. If your screen is displaying 100 different models with textures that size, that's 3.2 GB of data just for the textures. Since a 32 bit program can only handle 4 GB of data, you can see how trying to display a lot of high resolution models is going to run the game out of memory very quickly.) The texture caching system in '''FNV''' seems to leak memory. The more you stress it, the sooner it will run the game out of memory and crash.
+
Depending on the type and structure of the Collision, you should find one or two places where HAV_MAT is noted: double click on it to access the drop down list.
  
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The material you set in the ''bhkRigidBody(T)'' overides any setting on the lower blocks. To get multiple "Havok Materials" with a single NIF, you have to nest multiple ''NiNodes'' and create a new ''bhkColisionBlock'' for each material you use.  Check to make sure that the ''Layer'' and ''Layer Copy'' entries in your ''bhkRigidBody(T)'' and the ''Layer'' setting inside ''Data Layers'' in your ''bhkNiTriStripShape'' all matchCollision sequences are one of the few places in a ".NIF" file where the exact order is essential.
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<span style="color: orange; background-color:#424242;" id="Tip-MeshConversionFootnote1">Footnote [1]:</span> This statement deserves some clarification.
 
  
A lot of people seem to think that anything made with a 64 bit program can't be compatible with stuff made by a 32 bit program. That's not true. What matters is the data format that the programs use. If the format is the same, then the data will work for both the 32 and 64 bit programs. There's nothing special about the data created by a 64 bit program. It's just data.  The key is in the format.
+
Don't forget that the "armature/skeleton" can have it's own HAV_MAT as well.
  
32 bit programs can't access more than 4 GB of memory. This is because 2 to the 32nd power is 4 GB, so if all you have is 32 bits available to specify a memory location, it has to be in the lower 4 GB of memory. This is why FO3 and FNV will never use more than 4 GB of memory (2 GB without the "4 GB patch") no matter what. The programs just aren't capable of accessing any more memory than that.
+
If you alter the mesh NIFs for your mod, you will have to include them in your package.  There are basically two ways of doing so:
 +
* If the items are replacements for vanilla items and should affect all those items in game: place the modified meshes, keeping the original naming, in the "Data" loose folder reproducing exactly the original folder structure. These will then override the ones in the vanilla BSA file when "ArchiveInvalidation" is toggled. In that case, you shouldn't need to make any changes to your ESP/ESM files to have the new meshes active.
 +
* If the items are specific to your mod and should coexist with vanilla items: place the modified meshes, with new names, in a folder structure specific to your mod.  You will then be creating new unique instances of the items using those meshes under that unique path and have to include them in your ESP/ESM files.
 +
</div>
  
'''Skyrim SE''' is basically a 64 bit port of '''Skyrim''' using the updated '''Creation Engine''' that they developed for '''Fallout 4 (FO4)'''. For porting objects from one game to another, we don't really care about that. What we care about is whether the NIF file format changed between '''Skyrim''' and '''Skyrim SE'''. There are plenty of programs which come in 32 and 64 bit versions, and both use the same '''data format''' to store their data '''''if you select it''''', so you can use either the 32 bit or the 64 bit version.
+
<span id="Tip-ObjectCollision"></span>
  
For '''Skyrim SE''' though, they were playing around with the '''Creation Engine''' for '''FO4''' development, and they made changes to the NIF format for '''FO4'''. It's not known how many of those changes (if any) were made to the NIF format for '''Skyrim SE''', but if you can't easily import meshes from '''Skyrim SE''' into '''Blender''' (for example), it's because the tool set hasn't been updated to handle the data format difference. It's a data format difference, not a 32 vs 64 bit difference.
+
==== TIP Custom Object Collision ====
</div>
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
</div>
 
 
 
<span id="Tip-PluginCopy"></span>
 
====TIP Copying between plugins====
 
 
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">Sometimes (even though you added "collision" to an object) when you initially place it on a shelf or other surface with collision just fine, it seems to fall at least partially through the surface when the cell reloads. If precisely aligning your object with the surface results in it sinking, try placing the object's Z-axis just slightly above the surface collision boundary and let it drop into collision with the surface. However, this only works if the object is a "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Movable_Static Movable Static]" based upon "Havok Materials", whose weight gives them "gravity" physics.  (See also [[#TIP: Collision Impact Sounds|TIP: Collision Impact Sounds]] and the GECK entry for [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Object_palette Object Palette].)
* The Trick is to make an ESP first, only dependent on the main master file.   Save and close it.
+
 
: Best way to make a new ESP file is to drop something in the "Render" window, then save and name the file. So loading a cell first is neededSuggest Wasteland cell / Good SpringsYou can of course delete that cell later if it's not needed for your purposes.
+
Part of the issue can be in how you created the collision meshFor simple objects, just copy the mesh for your custom object from the vanilla object meshHowever, that doesn't work so well for complex objects with a complex collision mesh. It's preferable to use a simple box collision (which can be created in '''Nifskope''' instead of your "mesh editor"). For "havoked" or "grabable" objects: primative collision (sphere, box, or capsule) are preferable to avoid engine problems.
* Then open the GECK adding the other files from which you want to use assets, with your new .ESP as the "active file".</div>
+
</div>
  
=== Creature Creation ===
+
=== Conversions ===
 
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/250761-converting-fo3-mod-for-fnv/ Converting FO3 Mod for FNV] Thread.
 +
* [http://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnv-edit-series-converting-fo3-mods Converting F03 mods to TTW & FNV] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool, behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site".
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPKrwES9Cb4 FNVEdit Creating compatibility patches for "Brumbeks Inventory Sorting" (BIS) by JaHn3tiC] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z61u0bQUmgM FNVEdit Making a Feature (Basic Compatibility) Patch by Roy Batty] Video.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? FNVEdit Training Manual] PDF. Generally applies to all 'xEdit' versions for other games.  Chapter 7 is on converting FO3 mods to FNV.
 +
* [http://www.grammarly.com/ Grammarly] pretty well regarded grammar checker, with free versions of their plugins for browsers.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62261/? How to make a Custom Race] PDF.
 +
* [http://tone-analyzer-demo.mybluemix.net/ Tone Analyzer] uses linguistic analysis to detect three types of tones from written text: emotions, social tendencies, and writing style. Users can use the online Tone Analyzer service to analyze conversations and communications.
 +
: Tools behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site" in their "modder resources" section.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/37660-clothing-converter-lattice-library-share-your-clothing-converter-lattices/ Clothing Converter Lattice Library] Resource.
  
The process of creating a "creature" is essentially the same as creating a "NPC Companion", but without the "companion wheel".
+
<span id="Tip-MeshConversion"></span>
 
+
====TIP Converting meshes====
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/6306/? Adding a custom creature to Fallout 3 Tutorial by Ominus] PDF.  Very Basic.
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''MA48A5''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Bethsoft_Tutorial_NPC_population Bethsoft Tutorial NPC population] HTML.  Covers the basic placement of leveled lists for enemy spawning and the use of generic patrol and sandbox package behaviors.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/60497/? Bringing Life to the Mojave by Mindboggles] PDF.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YVZ0FoXXcc GECK Tutorial - Creature/NPC Companion by Seddon4494] Video.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIHh6-4k_q4 GECK Tutorial: Custom Creature Part 1 (of 4) by gerokeymaster] Video.
 
 
 
<span id="Tip-EmbeddedWeapon"></span>
 
====TIP Locate Embedded Creature Weapon====
 
: Thanks to '''uhmattbravo''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' sub-forum for the following:
 
 
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">Other games has meshes you would like to use; either vanilla or from mods.  Which game is better to get a mesh from? Quality wise, and which game is easiest to convert said mesh to '''FNV'''?  '''Oblivion''', '''Skyrim''', or '''Skyrim Special Edition'''?
* If you're using an existing creature, the quickest way to locate an embedded weapon would be to look at one of it's existing weapons in '''GECK'''.
+
 
* If it came from a resource, and doesn't have any existing weapons, open the skeleton in '''Nifskope''' and look at the end of bones where it would be logical to fire from. Typically it's named projectile node or something similar, but it's also one of the few (if not only) bones that doesn't start with ''bip01''.
+
If this is for your own personal use, there's no issue. If this is for a mod that you plan on releasing on the '''Nexus''' (or anywhere else), then you can't use assets from other games (period).  They are copyright protected against "distribution" without permission.  Not even from other Bethesda games in the same series like '''Fallout'''. (The exception is if the resources are already included in the "destination" game's files even though not used.)
</div>
 
  
=== Custom NPCs ===
+
You can only use assets from other mods if the mod author gives you explicit permission to do so (e.g. "this is a modder's resource").
Other sections have relevant information to this subject. The following "Tips" in particular are applicable.
 
* See the [[#Dialogue & Lip-synch|Dialogue & Lip-synch]] section regarding scripting "Dialogue" and "Conversations".
 
:* [[#Tip-GenericDialog | TIP: Adding Generic Dialog.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-Translators|TIP: Conversation/Quest system.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-OCE|TIP: Obsidian Conversation Editor (OCE).]]
 
:* [[#TIP-RandomNPCcomments|Tip: Random NPC Comments.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-DialogTabs|TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 
  
* See the [[#Scripting|Scripting]] section regarding:
+
That said, the game engine for '''Oblivion''' is fairly close to the game engine for '''FO3/FNV'''. They changed quite a bit for '''Skyrim'''. In any event, the skeletons for the player and for NPCs is different for any of the TES games. If you are porting over armor or clothing, you'll need to unparent the mesh from its original armature and reparent the mesh to the '''FNV''' skeleton, and of course reassign all of the bone weights as you'd expect from doing that sort of thing.
:* types of scripts: Objects, Quests, and "Base Effects".
 
:* [[#TIP-EditorIDNames|'''TIP: Do not begin Editor-IDs with numbers.''']]
 
:* [[#Tip-CompoundConditionals|TIP: Debugging Compound Conditionals.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-Debugging|TIP: Debugging data to file.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-EventHandler|TIP: Don't overlook EventHandlers.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-Encapsulation|TIP: Encapsulation - Parens, Brackets, and Braces.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-FunctionParameters|TIP: Function parameter separation with commas.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-ParsingLines|TIP: GECK parses the entire line before evaluating.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-NPCWpnChoice|TIP: NPC Weapon Choice.]]
 
:* [[#TIP-MsgVariable|TIP: Pass a variable number into a script message.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-Notes|TIP: Passing a 'Note' to the player.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-Recipes|TIP: Passing a 'Recipe' to the player.]]
 
  
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]<br>
+
Statics don't have a skeleton so those will port much more easily.
  
"All '''Companions''' are ''NPCs'', but not all ''NPCs'' are '''Companions'''."  Both are discussed in this section, but please note and bear in mind the distinction when used.
+
Some things just won't port.  '''Skyrim Special Edition''', being 64-bit, is about impossible to convert to a 32-bit game.<span style="color: orange; background-color:#424242;">[[#Tip-MeshConversionFootnote1|(See also Footnote [1]]])</span>  So that leaves '''Skyrim''' and '''Oblivion''''''Skyrim''' armor that uses ''wings'' for example won't ever animate properly in '''FNV''' no matter what you do, because the '''FNV''' skeleton doesn't include ''wings''. To make them work, you'd have to not only create a new skeleton/armature, but you'd also have to create a whole bunch of animations to go with the new skeleton. Otherwise, the best you can do is have ''static wings'', which will look a bit funny.  (There is one armature with support for '''''moving wings''''' by '''Deedes''' (2014) on Nexus with versions for [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/20620 FO3: The Skeleton] and [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56657 FNV: The Skeleton].  You would have to re-parent the mesh to that armature.
  
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel] HTML. (Most recommended.)
+
The [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool, behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site" in their "modder resources" section, is designed to facilitate converting "armor" and "clothing" between different body types. However, it is still in "Beta" status since 2014, but does work with upper/lower body meshes and CBBE bodies. Note you will need either an existing [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/37660-clothing-converter-lattice-library-share-your-clothing-converter-lattices/ Clothing Converter Lattice Library] or to make one yourself.
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/5506 CMF Companion Tutorial] RTF by '''Darkfirebird CMF'''.
+
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/900821-fnv-companion-tutorial/ FNV Companion Tutorial] Forum Thread by '''trilioth'''.
+
'''Skyrim''', being a newer game, has more detailed meshes in general, and mod authors have generally followed suit and have created similarly more detailed custom meshes. While this does make for higher quality 3d models, you can run into difficulty if you use a lot of higher quality models and textures in '''FNV''' since it's an older 32-bit game and it will only use 2 GB of memory by default. You can double that to 4 GB if you install the 4 GB patch, but that's as far as you can take it(32-bits can't address any more than 4GB.) Your PC may have gobs more memory than that, but '''FNV''' won't use it. So it's very easy to run the game out of memory if you use high resolution textures and high quality models.
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Adding_items_to_vendors GECK: Adding items to vendors] Wiki tutorial.
+
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLo2FGzSVbkcPedlm9zZ981YvUy7DoSQew GECK: Companion Tutorial playlist by cgy95] Video series.
+
The recommendation is almost never use any textures larger than 1024 x 1024 pixels for '''FNV''' unless it absolutely needs a higher resolution due to the nature of the 3D model, just because of the memory issueAlso try to keep the triangle count (vertices) as low as possible. If you use a lot of 4096 x 4096 textures, your game will look prettier, but it's also going to crash a lot more often. (A 4096 x 4096 pixel image with 16 bit color resolution is 32 MB of data. If your screen is displaying 100 different models with textures that size, that's 3.2 GB of data just for the textures. Since a 32 bit program can only handle 4 GB of data, you can see how trying to display a lot of high resolution models is going to run the game out of memory very quickly.) The texture caching system in '''FNV''' seems to leak memory. The more you stress it, the sooner it will run the game out of memory and crash.
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Creating_a_new_vendor GECK: Creating a new vendor] Wiki tutorial.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9wnoZ7tKro GECK: Creating an NPC] Video.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NuFepoBHptk GECK: Custom NPC and Dialog] Video.
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5184015-guide-replacing-vanilla-hair-with-modded-hair/ GUIDE: Replacing Vanilla Hair with Modded Hair] Forum Thread.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] mod by '''Fallout 2AM'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: Quick 'n' Dirty Merchant] PDF.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38059/? NCCS - NosCo Companion System] Mod. Ready-made basic, customizable companions without the "companion wheel" (available as a plugin)The "companion scripts" make useful examples. There's a guide that comes with it; it's really a case of loading it up in the GECK, duplicating one of the NCCS NPCs, switching it to one of the premade scripts and dumping it in gameTa-da: the basic companion is done and then all you have to do is customise it.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/41652/? Rivens Tattoo Flash Sheets] Resource. (Copy-and-paste tattoos.)
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62261 Tutorial: How to Make a Custom Race] PDF by '''jim_uk'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/43286 Tutorial: Creating a custom PC Race] RTF by '''MagicThize'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62328 Tutorial: How to Make a Freakish Custom Race (Tutorial)] PDFs by '''lazyradly, beardofsocrates, and FancyPants'''.  Details on how to create ".EGMs", ".EGTs", proper NIFs, etc.
 
  
<span id="Tip-ActorHeight"></span>
+
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"  
==== TIP Actor height in GECK ====
+
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: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
+
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white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  /* Mozilla, since 1999 */
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">If you want to make an Actor taller or shorter in the '''GECK''', just modify their '''Height''' on the ''Traits'' tab. It's a little confusing because most Actors have a value of "0.00" for height, which just means ''use the default'': "0.00" is the same as setting the height to "1.00" (told you it's confusing). If you set it to something other than zero, then it's a percentage scale factor. In other words, if you set the height to "0.95" then they'll be "95 percent" as tall as the default, or about 5 percent shorter. Setting the height to "1.05" would make them 5 percent taller (105 percent of normal height).
+
">
 +
<span style="color: orange; background-color:#424242;" id="Tip-MeshConversionFootnote1">Footnote [1]:</span> This statement deserves some clarification.
 +
 
 +
A lot of people seem to think that anything made with a 64 bit program can't be compatible with stuff made by a 32 bit program. That's not true. What matters is the data format that the programs use. If the format is the same, then the data will work for both the 32 and 64 bit programs. There's nothing special about the data created by a 64 bit program. It's just data.  The key is in the format.
 +
 
 +
32 bit programs can't access more than 4 GB of memory. This is because 2 to the 32nd power is 4 GB, so if all you have is 32 bits available to specify a memory location, it has to be in the lower 4 GB of memory. This is why FO3 and FNV will never use more than 4 GB of memory (2 GB without the "4 GB patch") no matter what. The programs just aren't capable of accessing any more memory than that.
  
'''Body meshes''' can just be copied from '''FO3''' to '''FNV''' (and vice-versa, but that's illegal "porting": so, personal use only). The skeleton is the same. The only thing that is different between the two games as far as body parts are concerned is "hair" and "hats", which end up rotated by 90 degrees between the two games. You can fix that in '''NifSkope''' by just rotating the part by 90 degrees.  (See [[#TIP:_Head_Parts_Rotated|TIP: Head Parts Rotated]] under the "Custom Items" section.)  You don't need to re-parent meshes to armatures and that sort of thing.
+
'''Skyrim SE''' is basically a 64 bit port of '''Skyrim''' using the updated '''Creation Engine''' that they developed for '''Fallout 4 (FO4)'''. For porting objects from one game to another, we don't really care about that. What we care about is whether the NIF file format changed between '''Skyrim''' and '''Skyrim SE'''. There are plenty of programs which come in 32 and 64 bit versions, and both use the same '''data format''' to store their data '''''if you select it''''', so you can use either the 32 bit or the 64 bit version.
  
If you want your Actor to be about a foot shorter, that's about 84 percent at the default height of about 6 feet, so set their height to "0.84".
+
For '''Skyrim SE''' though, they were playing around with the '''Creation Engine''' for '''FO4''' development, and they made changes to the NIF format for '''FO4'''. It's not known how many of those changes (if any) were made to the NIF format for '''Skyrim SE''', but if you can't easily import meshes from '''Skyrim SE''' into '''Blender''' (for example), it's because the tool set hasn't been updated to handle the data format difference. It's a data format difference, not a 32 vs 64 bit difference.
 +
</div>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-GetDistance"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-PluginCopy"></span>
====TIP AI Packages and Distance====
+
====TIP Copying between plugins====
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
 
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">Supposing you want your character to meet up with an NPC at some X-Marker location, but they aren't there when you "fast travel" to that location?  You need to "teleport" them ,but you don't want to just make them "vanish". Here is one way to handle it.
+
">
 +
* The Trick is to make an ESP first, only dependent on the main master file.  Save and close it.
 +
: Best way to make a new ESP file is to drop something in the "Render" window, then save and name the file.  So loading a cell first is needed.  Suggest Wasteland cell / Good Springs.  You can of course delete that cell later if it's not needed for your purposes.
 +
* Then open the GECK adding the other files from which you want to use assets, with your new .ESP as the "active file".</div>
  
In the "Dialog Result Script" where you make the NPC start using your "AI Package" to send them to that location, also start a "quest script" (e.g. "ThisQuestName").  This quest should have a processing delay of perhaps one second, and then check for the player to be a certain distance away from the NPC, and for the NPC to not be in the player's view ("Line of Sight": LoS).  Once it's found that both requirements are satisfied, the NPC is teleported to the marker and the quest was ended.  The quest is set to be stopped on proper completion of the AI package as well, in case it's still running.
+
=== Creature Creation ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
  
The example script below uses the '''JIP LN NVSE''' function ''GetDistance2D'', but it will work fine with the vanilla ''GetDistance'' function as well.
+
The process of creating a "creature" is essentially the same as creating a "NPC Companion", but without the "companion wheel".
<pre>
 
Begin GameMode
 
    ; separation of player and NPC check
 
    If player.GetDistance2D refNPC >= 2048
 
        If player.GetLOS refNPC == 0
 
            refNPC.moveto refMarker
 
            ; maybe remove their AI package or add another one or whatever here?  maybe EVP?
 
            StopQuest ThisQuestName
 
        EndIf
 
    EndIf
 
End
 
  
Begin GameMode
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/6306/? Adding a custom creature to Fallout 3 Tutorial by Ominus] PDFVery Basic.
    ; NPC near X-Marker check
+
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Bethsoft_Tutorial_NPC_population Bethsoft Tutorial NPC population] HTML.  Covers the basic placement of leveled lists for enemy spawning and the use of generic patrol and sandbox package behaviors.
    if refNPC.GetDistance2D refMarker <= 64
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/60497/? Bringing Life to the Mojave by Mindboggles] PDF.
        StopQuest ThisQuestName
+
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YVZ0FoXXcc GECK Tutorial - Creature/NPC Companion by Seddon4494] Video.
    endif
+
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIHh6-4k_q4 GECK Tutorial: Custom Creature Part 1 (of 4) by gerokeymaster] Video.
End</pre>
 
''GetLOS'' isn't always reliable, so in some situations it may be preferred just to increase the distance; maybe use ''GetDistance3D''''GetLOS'' has returned "true" when the NPC or object was at the very edge of the player's camera, and has not realized the player couldn't see the NPC. These both require an extreme circumstance, and most of the time it works fine; but it's best to test each situation.
 
</div>
 
  
<span id="Tip-NPCPreview"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-EmbeddedWeapon"></span>
====TIP Avoid CTD previewing NPCs====
+
====TIP Locate Embedded Creature Weapon====
 +
:  Thanks to '''uhmattbravo''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' sub-forum for the following:
 
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">To avoid crashing the GECK when you desire to "preview" an NPC, try opening their face "advanced" tab first.  Then go back to one of the other tabs to check the "Preview Full". And when editing, click "Ok" for closing the NPC window, and then save the file instead of switching to the other tabs. Don't leave "edits" hanging when switching among tabs.</div>
+
">
 +
* If you're using an existing creature, the quickest way to locate an embedded weapon would be to look at one of it's existing weapons in '''GECK'''.
 +
* If it came from a resource, and doesn't have any existing weapons, open the skeleton in '''Nifskope''' and look at the end of bones where it would be logical to fire from. Typically it's named projectile node or something similar, but it's also one of the few (if not only) bones that doesn't start with ''bip01''.
 +
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-OnlyOneRace"></span>
+
=== Custom NPCs ===
====TIP Changing only one race====
+
Other sections have relevant information to this subject.  The following "Tips" in particular are applicable.
 +
* See the [[#Dialogue & Lip-synch|Dialogue & Lip-synch]] section regarding scripting "Dialogue" and "Conversations".
 +
:* [[#Tip-GenericDialog | TIP: Adding Generic Dialog.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Translators|TIP: Conversation/Quest system.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-OCE|TIP: Obsidian Conversation Editor (OCE).]]
 +
:* [[#TIP-RandomNPCcomments|Tip: Random NPC Comments.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-DialogTabs|TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 +
 
 +
* See the [[#Scripting|Scripting]] section regarding:
 +
:* types of scripts: Objects, Quests, and "Base Effects".
 +
:* [[#TIP-EditorIDNames|'''TIP: Do not begin Editor-IDs with numbers.''']]
 +
:* [[#Tip-CompoundConditionals|TIP: Debugging Compound Conditionals.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Debugging|TIP: Debugging data to file.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-EventHandler|TIP: Don't overlook EventHandlers.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Encapsulation|TIP: Encapsulation - Parens, Brackets, and Braces.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-FunctionParameters|TIP: Function parameter separation with commas.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-ParsingLines|TIP: GECK parses the entire line before evaluating.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-NPCWpnChoice|TIP: NPC Weapon Choice.]]
 +
:* [[#TIP-MsgVariable|TIP: Pass a variable number into a script message.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Notes|TIP: Passing a 'Note' to the player.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Recipes|TIP: Passing a 'Recipe' to the player.]]
 +
 
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]<br>
 +
 
 +
"All '''Companions''' are ''NPCs'', but not all ''NPCs'' are '''Companions'''."  Both are discussed in this section, but please note and bear in mind the distinction when used.
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel] HTML. (Most recommended.)
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/69752 Bringing Life to the Mojave Redux Tutorial] PDF by '''Mindboggles'''. (Techniques and an in-depth look at the process.)
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/5506 CMF Companion Tutorial] RTF by '''Darkfirebird CMF'''.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/900821-fnv-companion-tutorial/ FNV Companion Tutorial] Forum Thread by '''trilioth'''.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Adding_items_to_vendors GECK: Adding items to vendors] Wiki tutorial.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLo2FGzSVbkcPedlm9zZ981YvUy7DoSQew GECK: Companion Tutorial playlist by cgy95] Video series.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Creating_a_new_vendor GECK: Creating a new vendor] Wiki tutorial.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9wnoZ7tKro GECK: Creating an NPC] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NuFepoBHptk GECK: Custom NPC and Dialog] Video.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5184015-guide-replacing-vanilla-hair-with-modded-hair/ GUIDE: Replacing Vanilla Hair with Modded Hair] Forum Thread.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] mod by '''Fallout 2AM'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: Quick 'n' Dirty Merchant] PDF.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38059/? NCCS - NosCo Companion System] Mod.  Ready-made basic, customizable companions without the "companion wheel" (available as a plugin).  The "companion scripts" make useful examples.  There's a guide that comes with it; it's really a case of loading it up in the GECK, duplicating one of the NCCS NPCs, switching it to one of the premade scripts and dumping it in game.  Ta-da: the basic companion is done and then all you have to do is customize it.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/41652/? Rivens Tattoo Flash Sheets] Resource. (Copy-and-paste tattoos.)
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62261 Tutorial: How to Make a Custom Race] PDF by '''jim_uk'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/43286 Tutorial: Creating a custom PC Race] RTF by '''MagicThize'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62328 Tutorial: How to Make a Freakish Custom Race (Tutorial)] PDFs by '''lazyradly, beardofsocrates, and FancyPants'''.  Details on how to create ".EGMs", ".EGTs", proper NIFs, etc.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-ActorHeight"></span>
 +
==== TIP Actor height in GECK ====
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">Since the '''GECK''' is really an evil Vault-Tek experiment designed to test modder's frustration levels, one of the annoying things that it does is any time you even click on a race to view it, it marks that race as changed. Your mod will therefore not only create your custom race, but it will also overwrite any other mod's changes to the (Caucasian, Asian, Asian Child, Ghoul, etc.) races. If you don't want your mod to change these other races, when you start up the '''GECK''': select your mod and select ''Details''. Then select the races other than your custom race one by one, and press the ''<Delete>'' key. That will flag those changes so that they don't get loaded when you next load up the GECK. Now load your mod up as usual and save it. That will get rid of the extra races in your mod that you probably didn't want to modify.
+
">If you want to make an Actor taller or shorter in the '''GECK''', just modify their '''Height''' on the ''Traits'' tab. It's a little confusing because most Actors have a value of "0.00" for height, which just means ''use the default'': "0.00" is the same as setting the height to "1.00" (told you it's confusing). If you set it to something other than zero, then it's a percentage scale factor. In other words, if you set the height to "0.95" then they'll be "95 percent" as tall as the default, or about 5 percent shorter. Setting the height to "1.05" would make them 5 percent taller (105 percent of normal height).
  
Alternately, you can use FNVEdit to remove the extra race records. It's a bit less clicking and fiddling to do it in the GECK, but either way works.
+
'''Body meshes''' can just be copied from '''FO3''' to '''FNV''' (and vice-versa, but that's illegal "porting": so, personal use only). The skeleton is the same. The only thing that is different between the two games as far as body parts are concerned is "hair" and "hats", which end up rotated by 90 degrees between the two games. You can fix that in '''NifSkope''' by just rotating the part by 90 degrees.  (See [[#TIP:_Head_Parts_Rotated|TIP: Head Parts Rotated]] under the "Custom Items" section.)  You don't need to re-parent meshes to armatures and that sort of thing.
 +
 
 +
If you want your Actor to be about a foot shorter, that's about 84 percent at the default height of about 6 feet, so set their height to "0.84".
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="TIP-CompanionWheel"></span>
+
<span id="TIP-AIPackageBasics"></span>
====TIP Companion Wheel====
+
==== TIP AI Package Basics ====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' sub-forum for the following basic summary:
 
 
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">To make the companion wheel work, you MUST use the specific dialog options and variables shown in the [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel] tutorial, as those are the options that the command wheel is expectingHopefully when converting an existing one, the original companion has enough dialog options that you can just copy the voice files to the dialog topics that you needThe tutorial has two quests, one that runs the companion and one that is only to hire the companion. You don't really need a quest to hire the companion. You can just do it through dialog if you really want to keep it simple.
+
">You need to understand the difference between an [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetCurrentAIPackage AIPackage] and an [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetCurrentAIProcedure AIProcedure].  Also, check out the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:AI_Functions Category:AI Functions] to understand the less obvious things you can do with them.  (Take the time to read the linked wiki pages.)
 +
 
 +
First you have to chose the correct type of [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Packages Package] to use; investigating how each is intended to be used and actually functions in practice for your purposesRemember: only one '''Package''' will run on any given Actor at a time; but that package can have several '''Procedures''' within it to deal with different circumstances.  While there is overlap between the two, note that '''Procedures''' is a longer list.  Don't get ahead of yourself: work on and refine each '''Procedure''' by itself before you attempt to combine them into a comprehensive '''Package'''.  (You will use "condition flags" to control which gets used whenMore on this later.)
 +
 
 +
For example: "Stalking" would be a '''Procedure''' that is more than just a simple "follower" script because you want the Actor to try to remain unnoticed. For one thing, you might want to use an "Escort" or "Guard" base package instead of "Follow". "Sneaking" is inherently slower than normal movement, but NPCs "cheat" by "teleporting" when they get too far away from the target they are following. (You might not have noticed this unless you checked on companions behind yourself frequently in rough terrain.)  But you might find you need to shift in and out of "sneak" mode.  Various '''Target Followers''' may affect what you need for the effective trailing distance to avoid having aggressive ones attacking your "stalker".
 +
 
 +
Once you get that functional, you might want a "flee" '''Procedure''' that will keep that Actor at a proper distance from the '''Target''' without losing track of them so it can resume "following".  A "special case" to test is if your "stalker" is fleeing while the '''Target''' changes cells. In which case, what are you going to have your "stalker" do to "pick up the scent" of their '''Target''' again?
  
Only one companion conversation option should be active at a time.  In other words, if you already have a dialog option for the companion to follow you, you need to disable that conversation option and use the existing '''FollowersLetsGo''' topic instead. Similarly, if you have a wait option, you need to disable that and use '''FollowersWait''' instead. Using ''SetPlayerTeammate 1'' in the hiring script is enough make the command wheel appear whenever you talk to the NPC, but the command wheel options won't actually work unless you use the '''Followers''' topics: such as '''FollowersWait, FollowersLetsGo, FollowersTrade''', and the various '''FollowersTactics'''' options.
+
When the Actor gets far enough from the '''Target''', they then might need a '''Procedure''' to find somewhere to "hide" (break line-of-sight from the '''Target'''), wait a reasonable amount of time for any followers to stop "searching for enemies", and then resume the "Follow" / "Stalk" AI procedure.
  
If the topics aren't showing up, check to make sure you have ''Top Level'' checked (upper right on the quest form) and make sure that the conditions are valid. Also, trading (''OpenTeammateContainer'') won't work unless the NPC is set to be a teammate
+
AI packages are in a [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Packages_Tab priority list] of "conditions".  ("Conditions" are just variables, often called "flags", you define and set to control things.  A common use is a "do once" variable in a "quest" script.  You are going to need to "set" and "clear" a number of them for this to indicate when to use only one procedure or package at a time.)  The first package that meets all of it's conditions as "true" then is used.  While the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] and [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=RemoveScriptPackage RemoveScriptPackage] functions might seem appropriate to  generally use, they have major limitations.  (See [[#TIP_Using_AI_Packages|TIP Using AI Packages]] and the linked description for more details on this.)  Just adding a package does not place the package within the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Packages_Tab priority list]; instead it overrides the list for immediate implementation but goes away once completed and won't matter after that as it's conditions are never evaluated after that point.  (And an "AddScriptPackage" package seems to be over when the Actor "teleports", such as "catching-up the distance" when following, or between interior and exterior cells.)  Typically you will want to place your package in the [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Packages_Tab AI Packages Tab] list of packages for your "stalker" Actor, set the appropriate "conditional flag variables", and use the "Evaluate Package" (EVP) function to cause the list to be processed again to determine which is now the "first true" package.  Note that you do not use EVP with '''AddScriptPackage'''.  That function performs the equivalent immediately when called.  
(you've done a ''SetPlayerTeammate 1'' on the NPC, which is usually done when hiring the NPC).
 
  
Make sure you have a line with ''SetPlayerTeammate 0'' when firing the companion so the command wheel will no longer show up when you talk to themThe tutorial has the details of exactly which topics you need to use.
+
Each '''Package''' needs to consider that it may encounter conditions that require another '''Package''' or '''Procedure''' to take precedence and execute.  You do not simply "resume" an AI package where you left offIt starts over, and the evaluation of which package is "true" starts again, whatever the current situation is when it gets invoked.  That could be in a completely different cell than where it left off.  This is why it is important to keep your "condition flags" current and updated as things change.
</div>
 
  
span id="Tip-CustomRaceFaces"></span>
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See also:
====TIP Custom Race and Faces====
+
* [[#TIP_AI_Packages_and_Distance|TIP AI Packages and Distance]]
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
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* [[#TIP_Making_NPCs_move_aka_AI_Packages|TIP Making NPCs move aka AI Packages]]
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">A ''custom race'' doesn't give you a ''custom face''.  (The ''head'' mesh is separate from the ''body'' mesh and the ''race'' textures.  See [[#Tip-CustomSkinTextures|TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures.]]) It gives you a custom face blueprint that is further modified by all of the '''FaceGen''' stuff (see [[#FaceGen:_Heads,_Faces,_Hairs,_and_Helmets|FaceGen: Heads, Faces, Hairs, and Helmets]] section) when you actually apply it to your NPC or player preset. If the custom race version is pretty close to what you want, then you'll probably want to adjust all of the  sliders in both the ''Geometry'' and the ''Texture'' section of the NPC pretty close to the middle (zero) for each slider. There are some shading and tinting effects that always get applied whether you want them or not, which is a royal pain in the backside sometimes. Unfortunately, there's no known way to disable them.
 
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-CustomSkinTextures"></span>
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<span id="Tip-GetDistance"></span>
  
====TIP Custom Race and Skin Textures====
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====TIP AI Packages and Distance====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
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: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">Suppose you want to add tattoos (or scars or whatever decoration) to the skin of a particular NPC or race.  The body texture is controlled by the race, not by the mesh "NIF" file. You need to change this in the '''GECK'''.  '''NifSkope''' won't help you here.
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">Supposing you want your character to meet up with an NPC at some X-Marker location, but they aren't there when you "fast travel" to that location?  You need to "teleport" them ,but you don't want to just make them "vanish"Here is one way to handle it.
  
You are probably going to want to create a ''custom race'' for your character, otherwise the tattoo will show up on every NPC who is a member of that race.
+
In the "Dialog Result Script" where you make the NPC start using your "AI Package" to send them to that location, also start a "quest script" (e.g. "ThisQuestName").  This quest should have a processing delay of perhaps one second, and then check for the player to be a certain distance away from the NPC, and for the NPC to not be in the player's view ("Line of Sight": LoS).  Once it's found that both requirements are satisfied, the NPC is teleported to the marker and the quest was ended.  The quest is set to be stopped on proper completion of the AI package as well, in case it's still running.
  
To create a ''custom race'', open up the '''GECK''' with at least the '''Fallout New Vegas.ESM''' file selected, select the ''Actor Data | Race'' tab on the left (in the Object Window), double click on one of the races to bring up the ''Race'' form, and now select one of the races to duplicate. (Note there is a "TestQACaucasian" race that is not otherwise used if you want to try out the process.) If your tattooed character is ''Caucasian'', for example, right-click on the ''Caucasian'' race and select ''Duplicate''.
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The example script below uses the '''JIP LN NVSE''' function ''GetDistance2D'', but it will work fine with the vanilla ''GetDistance'' function as well.
 +
<pre>
 +
Begin GameMode
 +
    ; separation of player and NPC check
 +
    If player.GetDistance2D refNPC >= 2048
 +
        If player.GetLOS refNPC == 0
 +
            refNPC.moveto refMarker
 +
            ; maybe remove their AI package or add another one or whatever here? maybe EVP?
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            StopQuest ThisQuestName
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        EndIf
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    EndIf
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End
  
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Begin GameMode
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    ; NPC near X-Marker check
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    if refNPC.GetDistance2D refMarker <= 64
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        StopQuest ThisQuestName
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    endif
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End</pre>
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''GetLOS'' isn't always reliable, so in some situations it may be preferred just to increase the distance; maybe use ''GetDistance3D''.  ''GetLOS'' has returned "true" when the NPC or object was at the very edge of the player's camera, and has not realized the player couldn't see the NPC.  These both require an extreme circumstance, and most of the time it works fine; but it's best to test each situation.
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</div>
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<span id="Tip-NPCPreview"></span>
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====TIP Avoid CTD previewing NPCs====
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">To avoid crashing the GECK when you desire to "preview" an NPC, try opening their face "advanced" tab first.  Then go back to one of the other tabs to check the "Preview Full".  And when editing, click "Ok" for closing the NPC window, and then save the file instead of switching to the other tabs. Don't leave "edits" hanging when switching among tabs.</div>
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<span id="Tip-OnlyOneRace"></span>
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====TIP Changing only one race====
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: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
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">Important Note: Since the '''GECK''' is an evil Vault-Tec tool designed to test modder's frustration levels, it's important to note that, for no other reason than it's evil, it has now decided to mark your original vanilla ''Caucasian'' race as modified, even though you haven't made any modifications to it, thus guaranteeing that your tattoo mod will conflict with any other mods that modify the ''Caucasian'' race. Stupid '''GECK'''.  (See also [[#Tip-OnlyOneRace|TIP: Changing only one race.]]) Fortunately, fixing this is fairly simple. You can use '''FNVEdit''' to remove the modified ''Caucasian'' race from your mod, OR you can just save your mod, start up the '''GECK''' again, select ''Data'', and instead of just selecting your new mod, highlight your new mod and select the '''Details''' button (at the bottom next to the '''Set as Active File''' button). There should be a '''RACE''' entry under the ''Type Column'', with the '''Caucasian''' Editor-ID.  Highlight that and press the ''<Delete>'' key. This will mark the modified ''Caucasian'' race as not to be loaded by the '''GECK'''. Select the '''Close''' button, and now load up your mod in the '''GECK'''. With that your mod no longer includes the modified '''Caucasian''' race, so save your mod, and now the unintentionally modified vanilla ''Caucasian'' race is permanently gone from your mod.</div>
+
">Since the '''GECK''' is really an evil Vault-Tek experiment designed to test modder's frustration levels, one of the annoying things that it does is any time you even click on a race to view it, it marks that race as changed. Your mod will therefore not only create your custom race, but it will also overwrite any other mod's changes to the (Caucasian, Asian, Asian Child, Ghoul, etc.) races. If you don't want your mod to change these other races, when you start up the '''GECK''': select your mod and select ''Details''. Then select the races other than your custom race one by one, and press the ''<Delete>'' key. That will flag those changes so that they don't get loaded when you next load up the GECK. Now load your mod up as usual and save it. That will get rid of the extra races in your mod that you probably didn't want to modify.
 +
 
 +
Alternately, you can use FNVEdit to remove the extra race records. It's a bit less clicking and fiddling to do it in the GECK, but either way works.
 +
</div>
  
Now that you have a modified race to work with, again select ''Race'' on the left side and double-click on your "new race" to bring up the ''Race'' form with your "new race" selected. <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: red;
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<span id="Tip-CharGenFacePresets"></span>
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====TIP CharGen Face Presets====
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: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following.
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">Make sure you do not even click on any other race, or that race will be marked as modified by your mod</span> (stupid '''GECK'''). Again, if you goof up and accidentally click on another race, you can mark it as deleted during load and get rid of it that way, or you can clear it out using '''FNVEdit'''.
+
">When you want to take a Actor's (Player or NPC) face data to or from a save game file and turn it into a "CharGen Face Preset":
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/35769/ FaceGen Save Face Ripper for FNVEdit] tool to rip face hex data from save files for use in '''FNVEdit'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009? Jokerine's Misc Resources and Tutorials - FNV] has a step-by-step tutorial on the process.
  
Make sure the ''Playable'' box is checked. As long as you copied from another playable race, it should be checked already.
+
Once you have the face in the '''GECK''', you can copy the face from one Actor to another by opening both Actors in the '''GECK'''. There is a copy and paste option under the ''Face Advanced'' tab.  
  
Select the ''Text Data'' tab at the top of the ''Race'' form, and change the name of your "new race". If you don't do this, when you go to select your race during character creation, you'll have two races that both say ''Caucasian'' (or whatever race you copied) and you won't be able to tell which race is which. So change it to something like ''Tattoo Race'' or ''Caucasian Tattoo'' or whatever you want to call it.
+
There are two bugs you need to be aware of.
 +
* First, you need to copy the hair color over to the target Actor first (the three RGB values under the ''Face'' tab); otherwise when you change the hair color the FaceGen data will change slightly.
 +
* The second thing is that when you do copy and paste from the ''Face Advanced'' tab, whatever option is selected (by default it's the first one, ''Brow Ridge High/Low'') will not be copied. So go to the source Actor, press ''Copy'', go to the target Actor, press ''Paste'', then change the selection from ''Brow Ridge High/Low'' (or whatever is currently selected) to something else and press ''Paste'' again.
  
If you are only modifying the female body texture, check the ''Female'' box down at the bottom where it says ''editing''. (There is a box for ''Male'' and ''Female'', and ''Male'' is checked by default.)
+
The '''Character Gen Preset''' shouldn't have any factions or inventory or anything else. You can open up one of the existing presets (they all have "CG" at the start of their Editor-ID) and save it with a new Editor-ID and it should be set up correctly. If you are making a new one from scratch instead, make sure you check ''Is CharGen Face Preset''. The '''GECK''' is a buggy mess, so if you change any of the flags on the left, save the Actor and re-open before changing tabs and doing something else or your changes to the check boxes can get lost.
 +
</div>
  
There are four textures that define a human body: The ''body'' texture (includes ''torso, arms, legs, and feet''), ''left hand, right hand, and head''. All of these except the ''head'' are found on the ''Body Data'' tab. The default human bodies use the same texture for both the right and left hand. For my tattooed characters, I have given them custom tattoos on each hand and therefore have ended up with unique textures for both the left and right hands. Just click on ''Edit'' and select your new textures. If you are only replacing the body texture, then you only need to modify the ''Upper Body Texture'' and you can leave the hand textures alone.
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<span id="TIP-CompanionWheel"></span>
  
 +
====TIP Companion Wheel====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' sub-forum for the following basic summary:
 
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">Another important note: You only select the main texture file (i.e. '''upperbodyfemale.dds''') in the '''GECK'''. The '''GECK''', and the game, assume that the ''normal map'' and ''skin'' files are in the same folder, and have exactly the same name as the main texture, except with "_n" for the normal map and "_sk" for the skin appended to the base filename. In other words:
+
">To make the companion wheel work, you MUST use the specific dialog options and variables shown in the [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel] tutorial, as those are the options that the command wheel is expecting. Hopefully when converting an existing one, the original companion has enough dialog options that you can just copy the voice files to the dialog topics that you need. The tutorial has two quests, one that runs the companion and one that is only to hire the companion. You don't really need a quest to hire the companion. You can just do it through dialog if you really want to keep it simple.
: If your tattooed texture is called '''upperbodyfemale.dds''':
 
:* the normal map has to be '''upperbodyfemale_n.dds''', and
 
:* the skin needs to be '''upperbodyfemale_sk.dds'''.
 
: If your tattooed texture is called '''tattoobody.dds''', then
 
:* the normal map needs to be '''tattoobody_n.dds''', and
 
:* the skin needs to be '''tattoobody_sk.dds'''.
 
Typically, if you are only adding tattoos to an existing texture, you can just copy the "_n" and "_sk" files from the original body to the folder with your new tattoo texture. Each modified texture (body, left hand, right hand, head) that you have needs a matching "_n" and "_sk" file.</div>
 
  
It should go without saying that all of these textures have to be somewhere in your "Data\Textures" folder.
+
Only one companion conversation option should be active at a time.  In other words, if you already have a dialog option for the companion to follow you, you need to disable that conversation option and use the existing '''FollowersLetsGo''' topic instead. Similarly, if you have a wait option, you need to disable that and use '''FollowersWait''' instead. Using ''SetPlayerTeammate 1'' in the hiring script is enough make the command wheel appear whenever you talk to the NPC, but the command wheel options won't actually work unless you use the '''Followers''' topics: such as '''FollowersWait, FollowersLetsGo, FollowersTrade''', and the various '''FollowersTactics'''' options.
  
The ''head'' texture works the same, except it is under the ''Face Data'' tab instead of the ''Body Data'' tab with all of the other textures.
+
If the topics aren't showing up, check to make sure you have ''Top Level'' checked (upper right on the quest form) and make sure that the conditions are valid. Also, trading (''OpenTeammateContainer'') won't work unless the NPC is set to be a teammate
 +
(you've done a ''SetPlayerTeammate 1'' on the NPC, which is usually done when hiring the NPC).
  
Once you have all of your modifications done and you have all of the files in the right place, you can click the '''preview boxes''' to look at your race's ''Head'' or ''Full'' view.
+
Make sure you have a line with ''SetPlayerTeammate 0'' when firing the companion so the command wheel will no longer show up when you talk to them.  The tutorial has the details of exactly which topics you need to use.
 +
</div>
  
 +
<span id="Tip-CustomNPCRace"></span>
 +
==== TIP Custom NPC Race ====
 +
: Thanks to '''Armok74''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">Something else to note: if you make changes to the ''head'' texture and '''preview''' it, further changes to the ''head'' texture don't always show up in the '''GECK'''. It caches a copy of your ''head'' texture and sometimes won't show any newer version in the preview window. You can shut down the GECK and reload your mod to properly preview your head texture changes if that happens. ''It will usually pick up modifications to the '''body''' texture if you preview again though.'' It's only the ''head'' texture that gets stuck (it has the same issue for  textures for items and other non-NPC things).  See also [[#Tip-FaceFeatures|TIP: Switching Custom Facial Features.]]</div>
+
">So, you have a custom player race (see [[#Tip-CustomRaceFaces|TIP Custom Race and Skin Textures]]) you would like to add to the NPC population and were hoping there would just be a way to add the new race to a list the game picks from.  But it seems every race in every role is a separate entry and you have to make a new entry for Goodsprings settlers, melee Powder Gangers, Fiends with rifles, Vegas gamblers in suits, armoured Rangers, etc., etc..  Is that the only option there is?
 +
 
 +
: Yep. That's the way. Edit some NPC that uses other NPCs as a template and then add your NPC to the corresponding LeveledCharacter List with the "Var-" prefix in it's ID, for example "Fiend1GunAFNV" goes to "VarFiend1GunNV".
 +
 
 +
The race "ST Robot Race" used a script to give the robot a head and "gloves" for hands, makes them an undroppable quest item and equips them.  Can that script just be attached to NPCs too?
 +
 
 +
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 +
That script works for player only. You can write a similar Object script that equips head and gloves on spawn but you don't really need to do that. If you have "Old World Blues" (OWB) just look up how '''trauma suits''' work - they are just NPCs that use non-playable armor.
  
If you are using a custom body for your player, you can select the NIF for that on the ''Body Data'' tab as well. There is an ''Upper Body'' model, and a ''Left'' and ''Right Hand'' model. For hand and body NIFs, all you need is the NIF in your '''Meshes''' folder. ''Head'' meshes need an "EGM" file as well, and the file name again needs to match. If your NIF is '''CustomHead.nif''' then the "EGM" needs to be '''CustomHead.egm''', for example.
+
Basically what you need is make Non-Playable variants of head and gloves armors that were added by mod and add them to your NPCs. If the NPC uses a template: just uncheck the "Use Inventory" box and edit the inventory. Then you can add your NPC in the corresponding LeveledCharacter list and that's it.
  
If all you are doing is adding a texture to whatever the default mesh is on your system for that race, then you probably don't need to worry about custom NIFs. This is true even if you are using a ''body replacer'', since they tend to place themselves in the same location as the default vanilla body NIFs in the folder structure. In other words, if you are using say the "Type 3 body replacer" and your "tattoo texture" is for "Type 3", you already have custom NIFs in your '''Meshes\Characters...''' folder for the "Type 3", and those are already what gets loaded by the GECK for each race type. You don't need to have a custom "Type 3" NIF for your character.
+
But some NPCs have armor with exposed skin so you'll need to make custom armor. Same process as with head and gloves armor.  
  
On the other hand, if you want a custom NIF just for your character so that they use a different mesh than the default races, then you will need to specify a custom NIF in the ''race'' in the '''GECK'''. Whatever ''body texture'' is defined in the NIF ends up getting ignored by the game, though. The game will use the custom texture defined in the '''GECK''' instead.
+
Usually generic NPCs use Leveled Item lists for armor - you can just replace it with your armor or make a leveled list of your custom armor if you want to. (See [[#Tip-LeveledLists|TIP Adding Items to Actors aka Leveled Lists]].)</div>
 
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<span id="Tip-Hostility"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-CustomRaceFaces"></span>
====TIP Hostility between NPCs====
+
====TIP Custom Race and Faces====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">Hostilities will not immediately break out between two NPCs when they come into proximity simply because they are in "Enemy" [[#Factions|Factions]].  Their actions are influenced by the NPCs personal "aggression" and "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Confidence confidence]" numbers (on the GECK "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/AI_Data_Tab AI Data Tab]" page and the resulting "Threat Ratio" at the time. 
+
">A ''custom race'' doesn't give you a ''custom face''.  (The ''head'' mesh is separate from the ''body'' mesh and the ''race'' textures.  See [[#Tip-CustomSkinTextures|TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures.]]) It gives you a custom face blueprint that is further modified by all of the '''FaceGen''' stuff (see [[#FaceGen:_Heads,_Faces,_Hairs,_and_Helmets|FaceGen: Heads, Faces, Hairs, and Helmets]] section) when you actually apply it to your NPC or player preset. If the custom race version is pretty close to what you want, then you'll probably want to adjust all of the  sliders in both the ''Geometry'' and the ''Texture'' section of the NPC pretty close to the middle (zero) for each slider. There are some shading and tinting effects that always get applied whether you want them or not, which is a royal pain in the backside sometimes. Unfortunately, there's no known way to disable them.
 +
</div>
  
You can use the "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/SetActorValue setav]" command in script to change the "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/ActorValue#User_Defined_Actor_Values Actor Value]" for permanent changes or "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/DamageActorValue DamageActorValue]" and "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/RestoreActorValue RestoreActorValue]" for temporary changes to the "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Stats_List Stats List]". (See the GECK "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Actor_Value_Codes Actor Value Code]" list.)  Be careful about the scope of effect of your changes.  Read the warnings under "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/ActorValue Actor Value]" carefully. 
+
<span id="Tip-CustomSkinTextures"></span>
  
There are ten "user defined/mod actor values". They have no defined game functions, but can be used by quests to establish permanent data on the actor. Keep in mind that setting one of the variables on an actor implicitly defines that variable for ALL actors, not just in your mod.  Using these values to store extra information has the potential to cause conflicts with other mods. <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">If you need to store information on an actor, use a token (an unplayable, therefore invisible, piece of armour) instead.</span>
+
====TIP Custom Race and Skin Textures====
</div>
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
 
<span id="Tip-InterruptCombat"></span>
 
====TIP Interrupt combat for dialog====
 
: Thanks to '''clanky4''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
 
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">Suppose you want an NPC (once engaged) to interrupt combat in order to switch to some dialog: such as to offer to surrender when their HP drops low enough(An example of this is during the "Dog/God" fight in the kitchen of the Sierra Madre Casino, but that script is a mess to try to interpret.)
+
">Suppose you want to add tattoos (or scars or whatever decoration) to the skin of a particular NPC or raceThe body texture is controlled by the race, not by the mesh "NIF" file. You need to change this in the '''GECK'''.  '''NifSkope''' won't help you here.
  
When the conditions for that interruption are correct, use the command:
+
You are probably going to want to create a ''custom race'' for your character, otherwise the tattoo will show up on every NPC who is a member of that race.
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">PlayerRef.[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StopCombatAlarmOnActor StopCombatAlarmOnActor]
 
</div>
 
This ends the fighting flag for all enemies targeting the specified actor (e.g. PlayerRef). All hostile actors that are in combat with that actor will return to their normal routines. Now they can enter into dialog (or other activities such as a "run away" travel package).
 
  
If you wish to only stop the fighting flag for a single actor, refer to [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StopCombat StopCombat].
+
To create a ''custom race'', open up the '''GECK''' with at least the '''Fallout New Vegas.ESM''' file selected, select the ''Actor Data | Race'' tab on the left (in the Object Window), double click on one of the races to bring up the ''Race'' form, and now select one of the races to duplicate. (Note there is a "TestQACaucasian" race that is not otherwise used if you want to try out the process.)  If your tattooed character is ''Caucasian'', for example, right-click on the ''Caucasian'' race and select ''Duplicate''.
</div>
 
  
<span id="Tip-NPCMovement"></span>
 
====TIP Making NPCs move ''aka '''AI Packages'''''====
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''EPDGaffney''', and '''FiftyTifty''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' and '''kingbeast88''' of the 'New Vegas Mod Troubleshooting' sub-forums for the following basic summary of how to get NPCs to move:
 
 
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 +
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 +
">Important Note: Since the '''GECK''' is an evil Vault-Tec tool designed to test modder's frustration levels, it's important to note that, for no other reason than it's evil, it has now decided to mark your original vanilla ''Caucasian'' race as modified, even though you haven't made any modifications to it, thus guaranteeing that your tattoo mod will conflict with any other mods that modify the ''Caucasian'' race. Stupid '''GECK'''.  (See also [[#Tip-OnlyOneRace|TIP: Changing only one race.]]) Fortunately, fixing this is fairly simple. You can use '''FNVEdit''' to remove the modified ''Caucasian'' race from your mod, OR you can just save your mod, start up the '''GECK''' again, select ''Data'', and instead of just selecting your new mod, highlight your new mod and select the '''Details''' button (at the bottom next to the '''Set as Active File''' button). There should be a '''RACE''' entry under the ''Type Column'', with the '''Caucasian''' Editor-ID.  Highlight that and press the ''<Delete>'' key. This will mark the modified ''Caucasian'' race as not to be loaded by the '''GECK'''. Select the '''Close''' button, and now load up your mod in the '''GECK'''. With that your mod no longer includes the modified '''Caucasian''' race, so save your mod, and now the unintentionally modified vanilla ''Caucasian'' race is permanently gone from your mod.</div>
 +
 
 +
Now that you have a modified race to work with, again select ''Race'' on the left side and double-click on your "new race" to bring up the ''Race'' form with your "new race" selected. <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: red;
 +
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">An NPC that just stands there typically is doing so because they don't have an [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/AI_Packages_Tab GECK: AI package] to run.
+
">Make sure you do not even click on any other race, or that race will be marked as modified by your mod</span> (stupid '''GECK'''). Again, if you goof up and accidentally click on another race, you can mark it as deleted during load and get rid of it that way, or you can clear it out using '''FNVEdit'''.
 +
 
 +
Make sure the ''Playable'' box is checked. As long as you copied from another playable race, it should be checked already.
  
A typical companion will have a companion script which will have defined a number of [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Packages GECK: Packages]: a '''Follow''' default package, a '''Follow Long''' package, an '''Idle/Wait''' package, and a '''Non-hired''' package (they may use the same package for ''Wait'' and '''Non-hired''', like a ''sandbox'' type package, for example). Each of the packages must have a condition variable, which will typically be the equivalent of "'''if (''IsFollowingDefault'' == 1)'''" for the follow default package, or ''IsFollowingLong'' for the follow long package, or ''HasBeenHired'' is set to zero for the '''Not-hired''' ''sandbox'' (or whatever) package, and "'''if (''waiting'' == 1)'''" for the '''Wait''' package. If you don't have a condition, then the package will want to always run. Those variables (e.g. ''IsFollowingDefault'', ''IsFollowingLong'', etc.) all have to be defined in the NPC's script. You set the various variables to match what you want the character to do as the way you control which package is used, then do an ''[http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage EvaluatePackage] (.EVP)'' function on the NPC to get them to switch.
+
Select the ''Text Data'' tab at the top of the ''Race'' form, and change the name of your "new race". If you don't do this, when you go to select your race during character creation, you'll have two races that both say ''Caucasian'' (or whatever race you copied) and you won't be able to tell which race is which. So change it to something like ''Tattoo Race'' or ''Caucasian Tattoo'' or whatever you want to call it.
  
Function ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ResetAI ResetAI]'' clears all current AI behaviors from an actor. Combat, pathing, and packages are re-evaluated.  This is a severe command that affects all AI behavior.  Usually, you just want to have an actor re-evaluate its current package. In that case, use ''EvaluatePackage'' instead.  (When using the number of "tokens" present in an Actor's inventory to control AI packages, one author found it necessary to use ''ResetAI'' instead of ''EVP'' in order to get their script to function correctly more often than the first time.  The cause behind this behavior is unknown.)
+
If you are only modifying the female body texture, check the ''Female'' box down at the bottom where it says ''editing''. (There is a box for ''Male'' and ''Female'', and ''Male'' is checked by default.)
  
See also [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/How_Are_Packages_Evaluated How Are Packages Evaluated].
+
There are four textures that define a human body: The ''body'' texture (includes ''torso, arms, legs, and feet''), ''left hand, right hand, and head''. All of these except the ''head'' are found on the ''Body Data'' tab. The default human bodies use the same texture for both the right and left hand. For my tattooed characters, I have given them custom tattoos on each hand and therefore have ended up with unique textures for both the left and right hands. Just click on ''Edit'' and select your new textures. If you are only replacing the body texture, then you only need to modify the ''Upper Body Texture'' and you can leave the hand textures alone.
  
So, if you want your NPC to '''Follow''' you, it's necessary to script the following in the NPC's conversation quest (replace "MyNPCREF" with the NPC's actual Ref-ID, obviously):
 
 
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">
+
">Another important note: You only select the main texture file (i.e. '''upperbodyfemale.dds''') in the '''GECK'''. The '''GECK''', and the game, assume that the ''normal map'' and ''skin'' files are in the same folder, and have exactly the same name as the main texture, except with "_n" for the normal map and "_sk" for the skin appended to the base filename. In other words:
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 1
+
: If your tattooed texture is called '''upperbodyfemale.dds''':
: Set IsFollowingLong to 0
+
:* the normal map has to be '''upperbodyfemale_n.dds''', and
: Set waiting to 0
+
:* the skin needs to be '''upperbodyfemale_sk.dds'''.
: MyNPCREF.evp
+
: If your tattooed texture is called '''tattoobody.dds''', then
 +
:* the normal map needs to be '''tattoobody_n.dds''', and
 +
:* the skin needs to be '''tattoobody_sk.dds'''.
 +
Typically, if you are only adding tattoos to an existing texture, you can just copy the "_n" and "_sk" files from the original body to the folder with your new tattoo texture. Each modified texture (body, left hand, right hand, head) that you have needs a matching "_n" and "_sk" file.</div>
 +
 
 +
It should go without saying that all of these textures have to be somewhere in your "Data\Textures" folder.
 +
 
 +
The ''head'' texture works the same, except it is under the ''Face Data'' tab instead of the ''Body Data'' tab with all of the other textures.
 +
 
 +
Once you have all of your modifications done and you have all of the files in the right place, you can click the '''preview boxes''' to look at your race's ''Head'' or ''Full'' view.
 +
 
 +
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 +
">Something else to note: if you make changes to the ''head'' texture and '''preview''' it, further changes to the ''head'' texture don't always show up in the '''GECK'''. It caches a copy of your ''head'' texture and sometimes won't show any newer version in the preview window. You can shut down the GECK and reload your mod to properly preview your head texture changes if that happens. ''It will usually pick up modifications to the '''body''' texture if you preview again though.'' It's only the ''head'' texture that gets stuck (it has the same issue for  textures for items and other non-NPC things).  See also [[#Tip-FaceFeatures|TIP: Switching Custom Facial Features.]]</div>
 +
 
 +
If you are using a custom body for your player, you can select the NIF for that on the ''Body Data'' tab as well. There is an ''Upper Body'' model, and a ''Left'' and ''Right Hand'' model. For hand and body NIFs, all you need is the NIF in your '''Meshes''' folder. ''Head'' meshes need an "EGM" file as well, and the file name again needs to match. If your NIF is '''CustomHead.nif''' then the "EGM" needs to be '''CustomHead.egm''', for example.
 +
 
 +
If all you are doing is adding a texture to whatever the default mesh is on your system for that race, then you probably don't need to worry about custom NIFs. This is true even if you are using a ''body replacer'', since they tend to place themselves in the same location as the default vanilla body NIFs in the folder structure. In other words, if you are using say the "Type 3 body replacer" and your "tattoo texture" is for "Type 3", you already have custom NIFs in your '''Meshes\Characters...''' folder for the "Type 3", and those are already what gets loaded by the GECK for each race type. You don't need to have a custom "Type 3" NIF for your character.
 +
 
 +
On the other hand, if you want a custom NIF just for your character so that they use a different mesh than the default races, then you will need to specify a custom NIF in the ''race'' in the '''GECK'''. Whatever ''body texture'' is defined in the NIF ends up getting ignored by the game, though. The game will use the custom texture defined in the '''GECK''' instead.
 
</div>
 
</div>
If you want the NPC to '''Follow Long''', you would do the following:
+
 
 +
<span id="Tip-Hostility"></span>
 +
====TIP Hostility between NPCs====
 
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">
+
">Hostilities will not immediately break out between two NPCs when they come into proximity simply because they are in "Enemy" [[#Factions|Factions]].  Their actions are influenced by the NPCs personal "aggression" and "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Confidence confidence]" numbers (on the GECK "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Data_Tab AI Data Tab]" page and the resulting "Threat Ratio" at the time. 
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 0
+
 
: Set IsFollowingLong to 1
+
You can use the "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=SetActorValue setav]" command in script to change the "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=ActorValue#User_Defined_Actor_Values Actor Value]" for permanent changes or "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=DamageActorValue DamageActorValue]" and "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=RestoreActorValue RestoreActorValue]" for temporary changes to the "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Stats_List Stats List]". (See the GECK "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Actor_Value_Codes Actor Value Code]" list.)  Be careful about the scope of effect of your changes.  Read the warnings under "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=ActorValue Actor Value]" carefully. 
: Set waiting to 0
+
 
: MyNPCREF.evp
+
There are ten "user defined/mod actor values". They have no defined game functions, but can be used by quests to establish permanent data on the actor. Keep in mind that setting one of the variables on an actor implicitly defines that variable for ALL actors, not just in your mod.  Using these values to store extra information has the potential to cause conflicts with other mods. <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">If you need to store information on an actor, use a token (an unplayable, therefore invisible, piece of armour) instead.</span>
 
</div>
 
</div>
: <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 
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">(Also, on the NPC object: uncheck the ''no low-level processing'' box if they need to follow you through portals consistently.)</span>
 
  
And if you want the NPC to '''Wait''', you would do the following:
+
<span id="Tip-InterruptCombat"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Interrupt combat for dialog====
 +
: Thanks to '''clanky4''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">
+
">Suppose you want an NPC (once engaged) to interrupt combat in order to switch to some dialog: such as to offer to surrender when their HP drops low enough.  (An example of this is during the "Dog/God" fight in the kitchen of the Sierra Madre Casino, but that script is a mess to try to interpret.)
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 0
+
 
: Set IsFollowingLong to 0
+
When the conditions for that interruption are correct, use the command:
: Set waiting to 1
+
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="SimCodeBox"
: MyNPCREF.evp
+
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background-color:#424242; padding:3px;"
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/* Remove the next four 'white-space' lines to restore default white-space processing. */
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white-space: pre-wrap;      /* css-3 */
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white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  /* Mozilla, since 1999 */
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 +
">PlayerRef.[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StopCombatAlarmOnActor StopCombatAlarmOnActor]
 
</div>
 
</div>
: <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
+
This ends the fighting flag for all enemies targeting the specified actor (e.g. PlayerRef). All hostile actors that are in combat with that actor will return to their normal routines. Now they can enter into dialog (or other activities such as a "run away" travel package).
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">(Don't forget to set the ''Guard Location'' on the '''Wait''' package to "Near Current Location" instead of the default "Near Editor Location", or the companion will run off to wait at their spawn site.)</span>
 
  
Note that you want to set variables to enable your packages, and also clear variables to stop the other packages from trying to run. You want to set it up so that the only condition that evaluates to '''true''' is the one that's for the package you want the NPC to run. For example: if you want the NPC to follow the "default" package, you need to enable the '''IsFollowingDefault''' variable while disabling both the '''IsFollowingLong''' and the '''Wait''' package variables.
+
If you wish to only stop the fighting flag for a single actor, refer to [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StopCombat StopCombat].
 +
</div>
  
The ''HasBeenHired'' variable would be used to enable or disable various conversation options, and would also be set when the NPC is hired and cleared when the NPC is fired (and again, an ''.EVP'' would be done to get the character to ''sandbox'' when not hired so they don't just stand there like an idiot).
+
<span id="Tip-NPCMovement"></span>
 +
====TIP Making NPCs move aka AI Packages====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''EPDGaffney''', '''FiftyTifty''', and '''UnvalidUserName''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' and '''kingbeast88''' of the 'New Vegas Mod Troubleshooting' sub-forums for the following basic summary of how to get NPCs to move:
 +
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">An NPC that just stands there typically is doing so because they don't have an [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Packages_Tab GECK: AI package] to run.
  
If you want a fully functional command wheel, you '''''have to use the conversation topics''''' that the command wheel expects.
+
A typical companion will have a companion script which will have defined a number of [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Packages GECK: Packages]: a '''Follow''' default package, a '''Follow Long''' package, an '''Idle/Wait''' package, and a '''Non-hired''' package (they may use the same package for ''Wait'' and '''Non-hired''', like a ''sandbox'' type package, for example). Each of the packages must have a condition variable, which will typically be the equivalent of "'''if (''IsFollowingDefault'' == 1)'''" for the follow default package, or ''IsFollowingLong'' for the follow long package, or ''HasBeenHired'' is set to zero for the '''Not-hired''' ''sandbox'' (or whatever) package, and "'''if (''waiting'' == 1)'''" for the '''Wait''' package. If you don't have a condition, then the package will want to always run. Those variables (e.g. ''IsFollowingDefault'', ''IsFollowingLong'', etc.) all have to be defined in the NPC's script. You set the various variables to match what you want the character to do as the way you control which package is used, then do an ''[http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage EvaluatePackage] (.EVP)'' function on the NPC to get them to switch.
  
The first tutorial listed ('Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel') is recommended for learning to use the "companion command wheel".
+
Function ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ResetAI ResetAI]'' clears all current AI behaviors from an actor. Combat, pathing, and packages are re-evaluated.  This is a severe command that affects all AI behavior.  Usually, you just want to have an actor re-evaluate its current package. In that case, use ''EvaluatePackage'' instead.  (When using the number of "tokens" present in an Actor's inventory to control AI packages, one author found it necessary to use ''ResetAI'' instead of ''EVP'' in order to get their script to function correctly more often than the first time. The cause behind this behavior is unknown.)
  
[[File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|thumbnail|100px|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]]
+
See also [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/How_Are_Packages_Evaluated How Are Packages Evaluated].
Some people prefer to follow the simpler instructions and example in the [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/900821-fnv-companion-tutorial/ FNV Companion Tutorial] Thread by '''trilioth''' (even though it does not include how to use the "companion wheel"), but get confused at "Step 3: Create AI Packages".
 
  
The way this was done in the vanilla game (and the [[:File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]] image here) was using quest variables, whereas '''trilioth''''s tutorial uses script variables.  Follow the tutorial, as based on the preceding steps you should have these variables in your object script, not your quest script.  The way you create the package is the same otherwise.  (See [[:File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]].  {{Thumbnail_enlargement_message}})
+
===== Following =====
 
+
So, if you want your NPC to '''Follow''' you, it's necessary to script the following in the NPC's conversation quest (replace "MyNPCREF" with the NPC's actual Ref-ID, obviously):
<span style="text-align: left; color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">(WARNING: There is a bug in GECK on versions of Windows after Win7 that causes the columns under the "Conditions" tab to be collapsed to the left and appear to not be present.  Accessing this field in the "AI Package" form consistently causes this bug to trigger, and it then affects other "list box" type fields in other forms.  Please see the [[#Issue:_GECK_is_missing_text_in_fields|Issue: GECK is missing text in fields]] entry for suggestions on dealing with this.)</span>
+
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For '''Patrol''' packages your NPC needs to be linked to your first "X marker" in the navmeshed patrol path.  (See the [[#Tip-NavMeshExteriors|TIP: Navmeshing Exterior cells.]])  All "X markers" in the patrol path need a ''unique ID'', need to be ''persistent'', and linked to each other in the succession you wish it traversed. "Idle markers" can be used but need ''duration'' times set and need to be made ''persistent''.
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+
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To make a new '''Patrol''' package with a unique ID: Just edit a base package to your liking; then change the Editor-ID name. GECK will create a new form.  Make sure the package type is '''Patrol''', the ''starting location'' is a linked reference (e.g. "X marker"), and flagged ''repeatable''. Then give the NPC the new package and link your NPC to the first marker in the patrol path.
+
">
 +
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 1
 +
: Set IsFollowingLong to 0
 +
: Set waiting to 0
 +
: MyNPCREF.evp
 +
</div>
 +
If you want the NPC to '''Follow Long''', you would do the following:
 +
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">
 +
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 0
 +
: Set IsFollowingLong to 1
 +
: Set waiting to 0
 +
: MyNPCREF.evp
 +
</div>
 +
: <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
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">(Also, on the NPC object: uncheck the ''no low-level processing'' box if they need to follow you through portals consistently.)</span>
  
An NPC not waking up from sleep is an indication the time schedule conflicts with another package.  All it should need is a package type of '''Sleep''', a ''schedule time'' and ''duration'' (do not allow the times to overlap with other packages), flag enable ''fallout behavior'' & for ''location'': the ''name of a cell'' or a linked reference (which needs to be selected) or a ''near reference'' (if you have multiple beds for instance and don't care which they use).
+
And if you want the NPC to '''Wait''', you would do the following:
 +
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 +
">
 +
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 0
 +
: Set IsFollowingLong to 0
 +
: Set waiting to 1
 +
: MyNPCREF.evp
 +
</div>
 +
: <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
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">(Don't forget to set the ''Guard Location'' on the '''Wait''' package to "Near Current Location" instead of the default "Near Editor Location", or the companion will run off to wait at their spawn site.)</span>
  
'''Exterior sandbox''' type packages need a package type of ''sandbox'', and a ''wander location'' set with a ''radius''.  Set whatever flags you want in: ''allowed behavior'', enabled ''fallout behavior'' in flags, and a non overlapping time scheduled.
+
Note that you want to set variables to enable your packages, and also clear variables to stop the other packages from trying to run. You want to set it up so that the only condition that evaluates to '''true''' is the one that's for the package you want the NPC to run. For example: if you want the NPC to follow the "default" package, you need to enable the '''IsFollowingDefault''' variable while disabling both the '''IsFollowingLong''' and the '''Wait''' package variables.
  
When you send someone away (i.e. "no longer hired" or "go home"), set the "GoHome" package to be a "sandbox" type instead of "travel", and they will automatically run off to the "home" location to sandbox there.  The game scripts often teleport actors to that location first when they want to avoid encountering "hostiles" enroute.  Be sure you first set the conditions you are using as appropriate (i.e. "not hired", "available for hire", etc.) before an ".evp" command to take immediate effect.
+
===== Conversations =====
 +
The ''HasBeenHired'' variable would be used to enable or disable various conversation options, and would also be set when the NPC is hired and cleared when the NPC is fired (and again, an ''.EVP'' would be done to get the character to ''sandbox'' when not hired so they don't just stand there like an idiot).
  
Be very careful using "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] <packagename>". In practice, whenever an NPC teleports (fast travel, goes through a door, etc) they tend to stop running whatever AI package was added through '''AddScriptPackage''', and then use a suitable sandbox package. It's a useful function for some things, but it won't work in cases like this (traversing cells).
+
If you want a fully functional command wheel, you '''''have to use the conversation topics''''' that the command wheel expects.
  
If your NPCs take off for parts unknown when following a package, make sure you have a "North Marker" placed in the cell.
+
The first tutorial listed ('Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel') is recommended for learning to use the "companion command wheel".
  
To make the NPC go back to Goodsprings (for example), you need a package that sends him there. The condition for the package will be similar to "<CompanionREF>.HasBeenHired == 0". You don't necessarily need to make an Xmarker the destination. You can have the package be a sandbox inside the "Goodsprings Saloon" cell if you want. Then he'll just sandbox around inside the Saloon whenever he isn't hired and he'll go back there if you fire him.
+
[[File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|thumbnail|100px|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]]
See also [[#TIP-AIPackages|TIP: Using AI Packages.]]
+
Some people prefer to follow the simpler instructions and example in the [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/900821-fnv-companion-tutorial/ FNV Companion Tutorial] Thread by '''trilioth''' (even though it does not include how to use the "companion wheel"), but get confused at "Step 3: Create AI Packages".
</div>
+
 
 +
The way this was done in the vanilla game (and the [[:File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]] image here) was using quest variables, whereas '''trilioth''''s tutorial uses script variables.  Follow the tutorial, as based on the preceding steps you should have these variables in your object script, not your quest script.  The way you create the package is the same otherwise.  (See [[:File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]].  {{Thumbnail_enlargement_message}})
 +
 
 +
<span style="text-align: left; color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">(WARNING: There is a bug in '''GECK''' on versions of '''Windows''' after Win7 that causes the columns under the "Conditions" tab to be collapsed to the left and appear to not be present.  Accessing this field in the "AI Package" form consistently causes this bug to trigger, and it then affects other "list box" type fields in other forms.  Please see the [[#Issue:_GECK_is_missing_text_in_fields|Issue: GECK is missing text in fields]] entry for suggestions on dealing with this.)</span>
 +
 
 +
===== Package Types =====
 +
For '''Patrol''' packages your "Patrol Leader" NPC needs to be linked to your first "X marker" in the navmeshed patrol path.  (See the [[#Tip-NavMeshExteriors|TIP: Navmeshing Exterior cells.]])  All "X markers" in the patrol path need a ''unique ID'', need to be ''persistent'', and linked to each other in the succession you wish it traversed. "Idle markers" can be used but need ''duration'' times set and need to be made ''persistent''.  Patrol packages might be buggy with idle markers: they worked in Fallout 3, but in the experience of mod creators have issues in '''New Vegas'''.  For parties of more than one Actor, the remainder should "Guard" the "Patrol Leader" in order to react to threats to that Leader.
 +
 
 +
To make a new '''Patrol''' package with a unique ID: Just edit a base package to your liking; then change the Editor-ID name.  '''GECK''' will create a new form.  Make sure the package type is '''Patrol''', the ''starting location'' is a linked reference (e.g. "X marker"), and flagged ''repeatable''. Then give the NPC the new package and link your NPC to the first marker in the patrol path.
 +
 
 +
An NPC not waking up from sleep is an indication the time schedule conflicts with another package.  All it should need is a package type of '''Sleep''', a ''schedule time'' and ''duration'' (do not allow the times to overlap with other packages), flag enable ''fallout behavior'' & for ''location'': the ''name of a cell'' or a linked reference (which needs to be selected) or a ''near reference'' (if you have multiple beds for instance and don't care which they use).
 +
 
 +
''Sandboxing'' chooses things completely at random, including just standing where they are and picking idles from the idle manager.  '''Exterior sandbox''' type packages need a package type of ''sandbox'', and a ''wander location'' set with a ''radius'', rather than just in a particular cell.  Set whatever flags you want in: ''allowed behavior'', enabled ''fallout behavior'' in flags, and a non overlapping time scheduled.
 +
 
 +
You'll also want to avoid locking/unlocking doors in ''packages'', as this is completely broken and unreliable in '''New Vegas'''.
 +
 
 +
When you send someone away (i.e. "no longer hired" or "go home"), set the "GoHome" package to be a "sandbox" type instead of "travel", and they will automatically run off to the "home" location to sandbox there.  The game scripts often teleport actors to that location first when they want to avoid encountering "hostiles" enroute.  Be sure you first set the conditions you are using as appropriate (i.e. "not hired", "available for hire", etc.) before an ".EVP" command to take immediate effect.
 +
 
 +
Be very careful using "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] <packagename>". In practice, whenever an NPC teleports (fast travel, goes through a door, etc) they tend to stop running whatever AI package was added through '''AddScriptPackage''', and then use a suitable sandbox package. It's a useful function for some things, but it won't work in cases like this (traversing cells).
 +
 
 +
If your NPCs take off for parts unknown when following a package, make sure you have a "North Marker" placed in the cell.
 +
 
 +
To make the NPC go back to Goodsprings (for example), you need a package that sends him there. The condition for the package will be similar to "<CompanionREF>.HasBeenHired == 0". You don't necessarily need to make an Xmarker the destination. You can have the package be a sandbox inside the "Goodsprings Saloon" cell if you want. Then he'll just ''sandbox'' around inside the Saloon whenever he isn't hired and he'll go back there if you fire him.
 +
See also [[#TIP-AIPackages|TIP: Using AI Packages.]]
 +
 
 +
===== Teleporting and Following Navmeshes =====
 +
In order  for a companion to ''teleport'' to you when you go through a door (or otherwise ''teleport'' elsewhere, as when using '''Fast Travel'''), all the companion needs is to be set as ''your companion'', i.e. you executed the script command '''SetPlayerTeammate 1'''.
 +
 
 +
Additionally, for a companion to follow you, the companion needs to have a ''follow package'' and that package needs a conditional variable on it which is "true", and all other packages that the companion has need conditions that are "false" at the same time so that they will not run instead of the ''follow package''.
 +
 
 +
For example. let's say your NPC has a ''follow package'' and a ''wait package'', and a variable '''npc_following''' and a variable '''npc_waiting'''. The ''follow package'' has the condition '''"if npc_following = 1"''' and the ''wait package'' has the condition '''"if npc_waiting = 1"'''. If you '''"set npc_following to 1"''' and '''"set npc_waiting to 0"''', and then execute an '''EVP''' command on the NPC, then they should follow you. If you want them to ''wait'', '''"set npc_following to 0"''' and '''"set npc_waiting to 1"'''. If you accidentally set both variables to 1 then either package could execute (depending upon their sequence in the packages list), so the NPC might follow you or they might not. If you accidentally set both variables to 0 then the companion will not do anything.
 +
 
 +
The other thing that might stop a companion from moving is if they aren't on a valid '''Navmesh'''. If the area that they are in isn't '''Navmeshed''', then they will just stand there.
 +
 
 +
===== Waves of Actors =====
 +
To get "waves" of Actors to move according to a given package, first place the Actors of each wave where you want them to spawn, keeping them initially disabled.  However, instead of disabling the Actors all individually, have an ''xMarker'' for each "wave"; and for all of the Actors in that wave, set their "enable ref" to be the ''xMarker'' for that "wave".  Have all of the waves' ''xMarkers'' initially set to disabled and then enable each wave ''xMarker'' ref with a quest script at intervals as desired each time if the player is in the correct Cell.  The advantage of this method is that your script has one line for each wave and you don't need to keep track of all of the Actor ref-IDs; only your wave ''xMarker'' ref-IDs and you only have as many of them as you have waves.
 +
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-MerchantInventory"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-MerchantInventory"></span>
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">It is generally understood that you cannot add Perks to '''Companions''' in the same way as to the Player.  However, according to a [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Blog:News/New_Vegas_dev_quote_roundup J.E. Sawyer (FNV project director) Q&A roundup]:
+
">It is generally understood that you cannot add Perks to '''Companions''' in the same way as to the Player.  Bethesda's documentation for '''AddPerk''' says that it works on any actor, which is wrong. You can't add a perk to an NPC (well, technically you can, but it doesn't do anything).  However, according to a [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Blog:News/New_Vegas_dev_quote_roundup J.E. Sawyer (FNV project director) Q&A roundup]:
 
Quote:
 
Quote:
;<blockquote>
 
 
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<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
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">There is an undocumented feature in F:NV that some modders may find useful. It is the ability to give perks to companions. Or, more accurately, it is the ability to add perks to a special list on the player that will have an effect on any active followers. Here's how it works:
+
">There is an undocumented feature in F:NV that some modders may find useful. It is the ability to give perks to companions. Or, more accurately, it is the ability to add perks to a special list on the player that will have an effect on any active followers.
 +
Here's how it works:
 
<pre>player.addperk XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1</pre>
 
<pre>player.addperk XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1</pre>
 
The "1" means "put this on the special list for companions". Companions will still not store/keep perks, but we give the player a second list of non-displayed perks that only apply to companions. If you want the effect to apply to all companions, you do not need to conditionalize the perk owner conditions for the perk's entry points. If you want the perk to be special for the companion, check the NPC's ID or ref in the perk owner conditions.
 
The "1" means "put this on the special list for companions". Companions will still not store/keep perks, but we give the player a second list of non-displayed perks that only apply to companions. If you want the effect to apply to all companions, you do not need to conditionalize the perk owner conditions for the perk's entry points. If you want the perk to be special for the companion, check the NPC's ID or ref in the perk owner conditions.
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N.B.: The effects will ONLY work while a companion is in the party. So in the above scenario, Raul would no longer have the benefits of RaulShotgunSurgeon if he left the party.</div>
 
N.B.: The effects will ONLY work while a companion is in the party. So in the above scenario, Raul would no longer have the benefits of RaulShotgunSurgeon if he left the party.</div>
;</blockquote>
+
 
 
This tip applies to '''"companions"''' only.  Some test results of using this "feature" are found at the end of this [http://forums.bethsoft.com/topic/1142430-perks-on-companions/?p=16697594&fromsearch=1#entry16697594 Bethsoft 'Perks on Companions' thread].
 
This tip applies to '''"companions"''' only.  Some test results of using this "feature" are found at the end of this [http://forums.bethsoft.com/topic/1142430-perks-on-companions/?p=16697594&fromsearch=1#entry16697594 Bethsoft 'Perks on Companions' thread].
 +
 +
'''Radioactivelad''' contributes:<br>
 +
You may find references on loading screens and wikis to companion's getting a '''Charisma''' based [https://fallout.fandom.com/wiki/Fallout:_New_Vegas_companions#Nerve Nerve] attribute, which was an "engine side" implementation and not something which could be modded.  '''Nerve''' was supposedly completely disabled in a game patch and replaced with the [https://fallout.fandom.com/wiki/Companion_Suite Companion Suite] Perk.  However, '''Charisma''' does indeed still modify how much damage companions do in the vanilla game (1 Charisma seems to be base damage, and every point after that is a bonus).  Supposedly it also increased the "Damage Threshold" (DT) by a percentage, but that doesn't seem to be functional.  Be aware that even the '''Companion Suite''' is not doing everything it's supposed to do according to its description.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-FaceFeatures"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-FaceFeatures"></span>
 +
 
====TIP Switching Custom Facial Features====
 
====TIP Switching Custom Facial Features====
: Thanks to '''rikkurikku''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''rikkurikku''' and '''Budong''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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">For example: Let us say you want to switch between the normal actor's face, and one that is "bloodied".  Set up your "bloody" face version texture as a different race and use the ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetRace SetRace]'' function to switch, followed by "Update3D" to refresh the display in-game.  This applies to both the Player and NPCs.  See [[#TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures|TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures]] regarding creating a "custom race" and the appropriate folders.<br>
+
">For example: Let us say you want to switch between the normal actor's face, and one that is "bloodied".  Set up your "bloody" face version texture as a different race and use the JIP ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetRace SetRace]'' function to switch, followed by "Update3D" to refresh the display in-game.  This applies to both the Player and NPCs.  See [[#TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures|TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures]] regarding creating a "custom race" and the appropriate folders.<br>
When switching among custom facial features (such as eyes or hair), switch to a "vanilla" feature first, and then switch to a new "custom" look.  The GECK gets confused if you try to switch straight from one custom feature to another.
+
 
 +
'''Budong''' added:<br>
 +
If you want to ensure compatibility for everyone, you can accomplish the same thing entirely without needing the JIP NVSE Plugin.  Set up one race for your "healthy" NPC, and another race for the "injured" NPC.  Link them to one another via the ''YoungerRace'' and ''OlderRace'' options in the '''RaceEditor''', then call the ''AgeRace'' function to visually clobber/heal them. Entirely vanilla and will work for everyone.
 +
 
 +
When switching among custom facial features (such as eyes or hair), switch to a "vanilla" feature first, and then switch to a new "custom" look.  The '''GECK''' gets confused if you try to switch straight from one custom feature to another.<br>
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
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">If you create the NPC in an ESP, you can run into the infamous "head/body mismatch" bug. There are some settings you can change that fix the bug on some computers, but if you want it to work on all systems, define the NPC in an ESM file.
 
">If you create the NPC in an ESP, you can run into the infamous "head/body mismatch" bug. There are some settings you can change that fix the bug on some computers, but if you want it to work on all systems, define the NPC in an ESM file.
 
* See also sections [[#Dialogue & Lip-synch|Dialogue & Lip-synch]] and [[#Scripting|Scripting]] for related info.</div>
 
* See also sections [[#Dialogue & Lip-synch|Dialogue & Lip-synch]] and [[#Scripting|Scripting]] for related info.</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-TempCompanion"></span>
 +
==== TIP Turn a Temporary Companion into a Permanent one ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
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 +
">Supposing you want to turn a "temporary" quest companion into a permanent one (for example '''Corporal Halford''').  How would you go about it?
 +
 +
The recommended tutorial, which includes using a companion wheel, is: [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278 Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel].  Since the NPC already exists and has a quest for hiring, you don't need to make the hiring quest part of the tutorial.  Make sure you use the existing functions as shown in the tutorial instead of creating your own. Those functions are what makes the companion wheel work.  See also [[#TIP_Companion_Wheel|TIP Companion Wheel]].
 +
 +
When I made a companion out of '''Corporal Betsy''' I found it easiest to make a duplicate and then swap out the duplicate <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">once the vanilla quests were done</span>. The advantage of this is that you don't have to hack into the existing quests and dialog, other than to add the hiring option (which triggers the swap) at the appropriate conversation stage.
 +
</div>
  
 
<span id="TIP-AIPackages"></span>
 
<span id="TIP-AIPackages"></span>
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* You can activate dialogue and travel packages by using the [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] function, usually in a "dialogue result" or "base effect" script.  This has the advantage that a package added in this fashion will take precedence over all other packages until it is done, and terminate as soon as it is able (check the ''Must Complete'' and/or ''Must Reach Location'' flags to prevent premature termination, but be sure you provide the means to determine it '''''IS''''' completed).
 
* You can activate dialogue and travel packages by using the [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] function, usually in a "dialogue result" or "base effect" script.  This has the advantage that a package added in this fashion will take precedence over all other packages until it is done, and terminate as soon as it is able (check the ''Must Complete'' and/or ''Must Reach Location'' flags to prevent premature termination, but be sure you provide the means to determine it '''''IS''''' completed).
 
* <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">An actor can have only one script package active at a time.</span>  When calling the function twice on the same actor, the second package replaces the first one added.  Unless the ''AddScriptPackage'' has some constraint on it (''Must Complete'' and/or ''Must Reach Location''), it will be removed the next time the actor reevaluates his package.
 
* <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">An actor can have only one script package active at a time.</span>  When calling the function twice on the same actor, the second package replaces the first one added.  Unless the ''AddScriptPackage'' has some constraint on it (''Must Complete'' and/or ''Must Reach Location''), it will be removed the next time the actor reevaluates his package.
 +
* The ''AddScriptPackage'' can get prematurely terminated when the Actor "teleports", such as when they "catch-up the distance" when following too far behind in exteriors or when moving between interior and exterior cells.  It is preferable to place such packages into the priority list so they get properly evaluated each time the list is processed.
 
* Actors evaluate their packages every 10 seconds. If no packages have true conditions then the actor will just stand there by default, unless they are in combat. So if you want a package to take effect right away, set the conditions for the package and call the [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage EvaluatePackage] (.EVP) function on the actor: [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage ActorREF.evp].
 
* Actors evaluate their packages every 10 seconds. If no packages have true conditions then the actor will just stand there by default, unless they are in combat. So if you want a package to take effect right away, set the conditions for the package and call the [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage EvaluatePackage] (.EVP) function on the actor: [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage ActorREF.evp].
 
* Sometimes it can be difficult to get the ''AddScriptPackage'' to trigger, or you don't want it to take precedence over all other packages.  The usual method to assign AI packages is to attach the package directly to the actor and give it conditions to trigger or disable activation.  On the NPC/Creature object, the first package from the top of the list ''that has true conditions'' will be the one in effect when packages are evaluated.
 
* Sometimes it can be difficult to get the ''AddScriptPackage'' to trigger, or you don't want it to take precedence over all other packages.  The usual method to assign AI packages is to attach the package directly to the actor and give it conditions to trigger or disable activation.  On the NPC/Creature object, the first package from the top of the list ''that has true conditions'' will be the one in effect when packages are evaluated.
Line 1,874: Line 2,278:
 
* AI Packages attached directly to the actor are activated or deactivated by setting the variables used in the conditional tests.  If they are only in effect in very specific circumstances (such as being in a particular cell or location), then use another variable set in a quest script to determine if the circumstances exist to avoid making the full condition checks unnecessarily.
 
* AI Packages attached directly to the actor are activated or deactivated by setting the variables used in the conditional tests.  If they are only in effect in very specific circumstances (such as being in a particular cell or location), then use another variable set in a quest script to determine if the circumstances exist to avoid making the full condition checks unnecessarily.
 
* If an Actor won't use a particular weapon type, make sure they have a "combat style" appropriate for that weapon in the package; and that the weapon has a "health" greater than zero.  They will always use the "best" weapon in their inventory for the combat situation.
 
* If an Actor won't use a particular weapon type, make sure they have a "combat style" appropriate for that weapon in the package; and that the weapon has a "health" greater than zero.  They will always use the "best" weapon in their inventory for the combat situation.
* If the AI Package has a "schedule" or timing (''start time'' and ''duration'') to it's events, make sure that schedule does not overlap or conflict with any other package assigned to the NPC.  A scheduling conflict will prevent either package from running.
+
* If the AI Package has a "schedule" or timing (''start time'' and ''duration'') to it's events, make sure that schedule does not overlap or conflict with any other package assigned to the Actor.  A scheduling conflict will prevent either package from running.
  
 +
* Be aware that for Actors with the "No Low Level Processing (LLP)" flag set: The Actor does not update its AI unless the player is in the same cell as it.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">LLP behaves differently, depending on whether the object is persistent or not, and on whether the object is in an interior or an exterior cell:
 +
 +
* Persistent in an interior: All functions should always work reliably.
 +
* Persistent in an exterior: If the Actor is in the same cell, or the cell is currently buffered (i.e. within loaded ''uGrids'') - all functions should always work reliably. Otherwise, some functions will fail (example: GetParentCell).
 +
* Non-persistent in either an interior or an exterior: If the cell is currently buffered - all functions should always work reliably. Otherwise, all functions will always fail.
 +
 +
Keep in mind an Actor may not be unloaded immediately when changing cells, while persistent ones and quest NPCs marked in their base form will process more frequently.
 +
 +
If you place an actor in the world with the '''GECK''' and mark that REF as persistent - then they are persistent regardless of the LLP setting. They can always be referenced by a script.
 +
 +
You can use the '''JIP LN NVSE''' function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetPersistent SetPersistent] to set a non-persistent (dynamic, aka "spawned") reference to persistent at runtime.
 +
 +
You might want to also be aware of and test for an Actor's "processing level" with the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetActorProcessingLevel GetActorProcessingLevel] function.
 +
</div>
 
See also [[#Tip-NPCMovement|TIP: Making NPCs move (aka "AI Packages").]]
 
See also [[#Tip-NPCMovement|TIP: Making NPCs move (aka "AI Packages").]]
 
</div>
 
</div>
Line 1,882: Line 2,305:
 
Other sections have relevant information to this subject.  The following "Tips" in particular are applicable.
 
Other sections have relevant information to this subject.  The following "Tips" in particular are applicable.
  
* See the [[#Custom NPCs|Custom NPCs]] section regarding scripting "AI Packages".
+
* See the [[#Custom NPCs|Custom NPCs]] section regarding scripting "AI Packages" and "Conversations".
 
:* [[#TIP-CompanionWheel|TIP: Companion Wheel.]]
 
:* [[#TIP-CompanionWheel|TIP: Companion Wheel.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-Hostility|TIP: Hostility between NPCs.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-Hostility|TIP: Hostility between NPCs.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-InterruptCombat|TIP: Interrupt combat for dialog]]
 
:* [[#Tip-NPCMovement|TIP: Making NPCs move (aka "AI Packages").]]
 
:* [[#Tip-NPCMovement|TIP: Making NPCs move (aka "AI Packages").]]
 
:* [[#Tip-CompanionPerks|TIP: Perks for Companions.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-CompanionPerks|TIP: Perks for Companions.]]
Line 1,924: Line 2,348:
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvQCChzifyQ Qenosa's Tutorial on Dialogue and NPC creation] Video.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvQCChzifyQ Qenosa's Tutorial on Dialogue and NPC creation] Video.
  
<span id="Tip-GenericDialog"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-AnimationDialog"></span>
 +
==== TIP Adding Animation/Video to Dialog ====
 +
: Thanks to '''Radioactivelad''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">[https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Animation_Tab Animations] in [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Dialogue Dialogue] are simply assigned in the "Response Dialog" box where you entered the dialogue. You can also have the NPC just play a selection of animations based on the emotion assigned to that dialogue.
 +
 
 +
Unfortunately there is no interface to actually tell what the animations are, but you can "preview"  them in the "idle animations" section of AI packages.
 +
 
 +
Also it can be somewhat unpredictable whether the animations will play. Some will play consistently, others sporadically, and some not at all.  Not sure if the "Use Emotion Animation" has any impact on this. It's probably broken.
 +
 
 +
A "cut scene" is a "Bink (BIK)" video file and can similarly be triggered by [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=PlayBink PlayBink] in a "Result Script".  Please see the "[[#Import_Custom_Videos|Import Custom Videos]]" entry.  If you have problems with other sounds while playing the video, see the [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=FadeSFX FadeSFX] function.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-GenericDialog"></span>
 
====TIP Adding Generic Dialog====
 
====TIP Adding Generic Dialog====
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 1,940: Line 2,380:
  
 
See also [[#Tip-DialogTabs | TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 
See also [[#Tip-DialogTabs | TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-BatchLips"></span>
 +
==== TIP Batch Lip file generation ====
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">So, the lads at the "New California" mod team happened upon an incredibly useful bit of information regarding a hidden functionality for batch generation of LIP files.  The way it works is:
 +
 +
[[File:GECKFacialAnimation menu.PNG|thumbnail|100px|GECK Facial Animation menu image]]
 +
# Set up all your WAV files in advance, with the correct names and formatting so that they would be "previewable" in the '''GECK''' for the relevant lines of dialogue.
 +
#: Then, once they're all done, you can do the batch process.
 +
# This step is required for '''MO/MO2''' users.  <span style="color:green;background-color:#FFFFFF;">If not using '''MO/MO2''' or a similar "empty Data folder" mod manager, you probably don't need to worry about this step as the folders should already be there under "Data\Sound\Voice".</span>
 +
#: If you are using '''MO/MO2''', go into your vanilla '''Fallout New Vegas Data''' folder and then make all the hierarchies (e.g. "Fallout New Vegas\Data\Sound\Voice\NewCalifornia.esm\PBODocIsaakVoiceType"), but the audio files don't need to be moved from your '''MO/MO2''' folder.
 +
#:[[File:GECKFacialRecreate prompt.PNG|thumbnail|100px|GECK Recreate Facials prompt image]]
 +
#: <span style="color:red;background-color:#FFFFFF;">This was only tested for '''MO2''', but it probably works for other "empty Datafolder" managers such as '''MO'''.  Because '''MO''' and '''MO2''' load everything virtually, it makes sense that the '''GECK''' doesn't know where to put the LIP files unless you make the hierarchy in the vanilla folder.  Users should be able to make LIP files the normal way (individually) as long as the folder structure is there in the vanilla Data folder.</span>
 +
# Whether you skip '''Step 2''' or not, now click on the '''GECK''' menu bar ''Gameplay | Facial Animation... '' option.  (See [[:File:GECKFacialAnimation menu.PNG|GECK Facial Animation menu image]].  {{Thumbnail_enlargement_message}})
 +
# You'll be asked: "Do you want to forcibly recreate all facial animation files", and you'll want to choose the "Yes" button.  (See [[:File:GECKFacialRecreate prompt.PNG|GECK Recreate Facials prompt image]].  {{Thumbnail_enlargement_message}})
 +
# The GECK will put up a progress bar and then appear to freeze as it processes in the background.  After the better part of an hour, it should be finished.  However, in practice, it does the last Form-IDs first, meaning after the first couple of minutes it has probably finished with what was needed, and could be force-quit if desired.  They didn't actually try that; but it crashed on its own once and everything seemed fine.
 +
 +
:: <span style="color:red;background-color:#FFFFFF;">Dialogue topics that are technically vanilla but are modified to add new dialogue, even for characters that are added by a new ESM/ESP; most notably '''GREETING''' but also any of the combat lines or the iron sights one(s), unfortunately have very low Form-IDs, and as such will be among the last to be generated by this batch process.</span>  Probably easier to do those manually unless you plan to set '''GECK''' to do its work and then leave your PC alone for a bit.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-Translators"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-Translators"></span>
 +
 
====TIP Conversation or Quest system====
 
====TIP Conversation or Quest system====
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the following:
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the following:
Line 1,952: Line 2,416:
  
 
What this means for FNV is that some dialog is spread out through a lot of different quests. If you want to edit '''Doc Mitchell''''s dialog during your initial character creation, for example, that's in the various ''VCGxx'' quests (''VCG01'', ''VCG02'', etc). His healing options are in ''VDoctors'', the same quest as for all of the other wasteland doctors. If you right click on '''Doc Mitchell''''s ID in the GECK and select "Use Info", you'll get a list of topics where his ID is used.
 
What this means for FNV is that some dialog is spread out through a lot of different quests. If you want to edit '''Doc Mitchell''''s dialog during your initial character creation, for example, that's in the various ''VCGxx'' quests (''VCG01'', ''VCG02'', etc). His healing options are in ''VDoctors'', the same quest as for all of the other wasteland doctors. If you right click on '''Doc Mitchell''''s ID in the GECK and select "Use Info", you'll get a list of topics where his ID is used.
 +
 +
Being part of a ''faction'' and using an existing ''voice type'' is enough to trigger a lot of the dialog in-game. If you only want your Actor to say what you have scripted them to say, and only that, then give them a unique ''voice type''.  Otherwise, generic dialog may get triggered unexpectedly
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<span id="TIP-CuttingLipFiles"></span>
 
<span id="TIP-CuttingLipFiles"></span>
 +
 
====Tip Cutting Lip files to match dialog====
 
====Tip Cutting Lip files to match dialog====
 
:  Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
:  Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 2,006: Line 2,473:
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-NoDriver"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-LocatingVoices"></span>
==== TIP No sound driver available error message ====
+
==== TIP Locating voiced dialog ====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''clanky4''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">So, you keep getting an error message saying "Error: No sound driver available for use" every time you open the dialogue window.  What gives and how do you make it go away?
+
">When you want to edit or replace an existing Actor's voice file, how do you go about locating them?
 
 
It's not necessarily an audio driver problem.  It doesn't matter where your '''GECK''' is installed.
 
 
 
The form in the '''GECK''' where you edit dialog is also where you record audio for that dialog. If you do not have a microphone or some sort of ''line input'' connected to your computer, the '''GECK''' can't find anything to record audio from and gives you that error.
 
 
 
Plug in a microphone and the error will go away. Depending upon your version of '''Windows''', something other than a microphone (such as headphones) plugged into the line input will also make the error go away.
 
  
Some audio drivers will have a ''virtual audio source'' of some sort that will be enough for the '''GECK''' to think that it has something to record from.  If nothing else, many audio drivers used to have a loopback so that they could record whatever was going out through the speakers. (Microsoft and the audio driver manufacturers have moved away from this since some folks were using it to illegally record the audio off of '''YouTube''' videos and the like.)
+
You could try using the [https://www.nexusmod...egas/mods/63317 Lazy Voice Finder].  Its a bit similar to the GECK in that you can load up ESM/ESP files to use dialogue data from.
  
Look under the '''Windows''' "Control Panel | System | Sound | Input | Device Properties". There should be a drop-down box in the "Device Properties" window that lets you enable various devices (e.g. "Stereo Mix (Realtek Audio)") that (regardless of whether they actually function or not) will be sufficient to get rid of the error message in '''GECK'''.
+
For example, looking for Boone referring to his "beret":
 +
* Select "File | Open | '''FalloutNV.esm'''", and select the "OK" button.
 +
* Once it is done loading, type "beret" in the search bar and it'll show every dialogue line where an NPC says "beret".
 +
*: One of those is Boone, or more specifically "'''maleuniquecraigboone'''" saying "I'd really like my beret back, please."
 +
* <Right-click> on that selection and then select "Copy asset path" to get the proper location for the dialogue file. In this case:
 +
*: <code>sound\voice\falloutnv.esm\maleuniquecraigboone\vdialoguec_vdialoguecraigb_0015f1dd_1.ogg</code>
 +
*: You can also copy the '''dialogue file''' itself, as well as the '''lip file''', if you wanted those for anything.
 +
* Now from here all you'd need to do is place a '''.wav''' or '''.ogg''' file with the name you just located (e.g. "vdialoguec_vdialoguecraigb_0015f1dd_1") at the same location:
 +
*: <code>sound\voice\falloutnv.esm\maleuniquecraigboone</code>
 +
: to replace that bit of audio.
  
If you have something configured or plugged into one of your sound card's inputs and you still have the error, then you have an audio driver problem.
+
To replace the written dialogue bit you'd need to do some work in the GECK as outlined elsewhere in this section.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-OCE"></span>
+
<span id="TIP-MultipleGreetings"></span>
  
====TIP Obsidian Conversation Editor aka '''OCE'''====
+
====TIP Multiple Greetings====
: Thanks to ''' EDPGaffney''' (the "I" in the following) of the Nexus "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the details of this tip:
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus "Fallout New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">'''Obsidian''' wrote the '''Conversation Editor''' (OCE) to help them do dialogue in this game in a way that was workable for so many branching paths and such.  It comes with the "New Vegas G.E.C.K." and can be accessed by clicking the last button on the right on the top toolbar, which looks like the symbol for a "right-justified" paragraph.  Its interface looks very similar to the ''Dialogue Tree'' in the '''Quest''' window that most people seem to use even in this game. (I suspect because of all the Fallout 3 tutorials, and that OCE wasn't available in Fallout 3).  Some of its advantages are:
+
">When deciding what to say, your NPC will go down the list of greetings until it finds the first greeting for which all of the greeting's conditions are true.  If your only condition is that the character ID matches your NPC, then as soon as it hits the ''first'' greeting with that condition on the list, your NPC will always say that line and not any others.
* loading things much faster,
+
 
* never crashing (at least for me after weeks of editing hundreds of lines),
+
There are different ways to make an NPC say different things. Many of the vanilla NPCs have the "say once" flag checked. They'll have a bunch of greetings, each with the say once flag, so the first time they'll say the first greeting, the second time they'll say the second, etc. Eventually they run out of greetings and they will then default to a greeting that doesn't have the say once flag set.
* not having that Windows 10 bug unless you open certain other things in the G.E.C.K.,
+
 
 +
There is also a flag for them to say a particular line once per day.
 +
 
 +
If you want them to keep saying a line and not just say it once, another option is to have the line be checked as random. Then they'll pick a random greeting.
 +
 
 +
What is also done for more control in cases of multiple greetings like this is use a variable in the NPC's script. Then every time they say a given line, increment the variable so that they'll say the next line. When they reach the last line, reset the variable to zero (or whatever number starts your list). This guarantees that they'll say every line, but if you don't have many greetings and you speak to the NPC often you might notice the cycle. So there are advantages and disadvantages over using this compared to using a random greeting.
 +
 
 +
Of course you don't have to "walk the list".  The variable value is just another condition check that can be set by other scripts under desired circumstances; for example, after combat ends.
 +
 
 +
You can also add conditions to make them say different things. For example, you can check the time of day and have them say good morning, good afternoon, or good evening, or if your NPC is less pleasant you can make them say that they hate mornings if the hour is earlier than 10 am. If you are in a particular location, you can have the NPC check what cell they are in or you can check their distance to a particular marker. That way you can make them say "I love the smell of jet fuel in the morning!" every time they are in Nellis, for example.
 +
 
 +
Be creative and have fun.
 +
 
 +
See also TIPs [[#TIP_Random_NPC_Comments|Random NPC Comments]], [[#TIP_Say_Once_use|Say Once use]], and [[#TIP_Standard_Dialog|Standard Dialog]].
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NoDriver"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP No sound driver available error message ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">So, you keep getting an error message saying "Error: No sound driver available for use" every time you open the dialogue window.  What gives and how do you make it go away?
 +
 
 +
It's not necessarily an audio driver problem.  It doesn't matter where your '''GECK''' is installed.
 +
 
 +
The form in the '''GECK''' where you edit dialog is also where you record audio for that dialog. If you do not have a microphone or some sort of ''line input'' connected to your computer, the '''GECK''' can't find anything to record audio from and gives you that error.
 +
 
 +
Plug in a microphone and the error will go away. Depending upon your version of '''Windows''', something other than a microphone (such as headphones) plugged into the line input will also make the error go away.
 +
 
 +
Some audio drivers will have a ''virtual audio source'' of some sort that will be enough for the '''GECK''' to think that it has something to record from.  If nothing else, many audio drivers used to have a loopback so that they could record whatever was going out through the speakers. (Microsoft and the audio driver manufacturers have moved away from this since some folks were using it to illegally record the audio off of '''YouTube''' videos and the like.)
 +
 
 +
Look under the '''Windows''' "Control Panel | System | Sound | Input | Device Properties".  There should be a drop-down box in the "Device Properties" window that lets you enable various devices (e.g. "Stereo Mix (Realtek Audio)") that (regardless of whether they actually function or not) will be sufficient to get rid of the error message in '''GECK'''.
 +
 
 +
If you have something configured or plugged into one of your sound card's inputs and you still have the error, then you have an audio driver problem.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-OCE"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Obsidian Conversation Editor aka '''OCE'''====
 +
: Thanks to ''' EDPGaffney''' (the "I" in the following) of the Nexus "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the details of this tip:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">'''Obsidian''' wrote the '''Conversation Editor''' (OCE) to help them do dialogue in this game in a way that was workable for so many branching paths and such.  It comes with the "New Vegas G.E.C.K." and can be accessed by clicking the last button on the right on the top toolbar, which looks like the symbol for a "right-justified" paragraph.  Its interface looks very similar to the ''Dialogue Tree'' in the '''Quest''' window that most people seem to use even in this game. (I suspect because of all the Fallout 3 tutorials, and that OCE wasn't available in Fallout 3).  Some of its advantages are:
 +
* loading things much faster,
 +
* never crashing (at least for me after weeks of editing hundreds of lines),
 +
* not having that Windows 10 bug unless you open certain other things in the G.E.C.K.,
 
* being able to save your mod with it open,
 
* being able to save your mod with it open,
 
* inheriting the speaking NPC (and optionally other conditions if you tell it to, I think) so that you needn't enter it for every single line,
 
* inheriting the speaking NPC (and optionally other conditions if you tell it to, I think) so that you needn't enter it for every single line,
Line 2,049: Line 2,569:
 
<span id="TIP-RandomNPCcomments"></span>
 
<span id="TIP-RandomNPCcomments"></span>
 
====Tip Random NPC Comments====
 
====Tip Random NPC Comments====
 +
: Thanks to '''Mktavish''' of the '''Nexus Fallout New Vegas GECK and Modders''' forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
Line 2,057: Line 2,578:
 
If the 150 char limit isn't enough then add another 150 char block in the Response field.
 
If the 150 char limit isn't enough then add another 150 char block in the Response field.
 
On the Topic text (at the top) say something like: "Do you have any info on this place?".  Flag it as a top level dialogue; then the priority will determine where it shows in the list of options after their "Greeting".
 
On the Topic text (at the top) say something like: "Do you have any info on this place?".  Flag it as a top level dialogue; then the priority will determine where it shows in the list of options after their "Greeting".
If you're not within the maximum distance to any marker then that option shouldn't show up as a dialogue option for the player. - Source: Mktavish, Nexus forums
+
If you're not within the maximum distance to any marker then that option shouldn't show up as a dialogue option for the player.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-SayOnce"></span>
+
: '''Budong''' added the following alternative method:
==== TIP '''Say Once''' use ====
 
: Thanks to '''Mktavish''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
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">The "Say Once" flag is set per "response", not per "Topic".  So basically you take the Topic, and add as many responses to it as you want.  Flag them "top level", and set "priority" for what order each response will be presented in.  You can even set conditions that might change when they are used, such as (for example) a "quest stage" or "gateway variable".  Once they have been spoken, the responses you flag as "Say Once" will no longer be considered in the priority list thereafter.
+
">NPC is running this script, which basically waits and does nothing until a random amount of time has passed and then forces the NPC to say something to the Player.
  
The dialogue tool is pretty versatile.  But it is not very intuitive either and one of the harder things to get proficient with in the '''GECK'''.  However, there is no one set way to do things.  See [[#TIP_Obsidian_Conversation_Editor_aka_OCE|TIP Obsidian Conversation Editor aka OCE]].
+
<pre>
 +
float m_banterTimer
 +
float m_banterThreshold
 +
 
 +
BEGIN GameMode
 +
  if m_banterTimer < m_banterThreshold
 +
    set m_banterTimer to m_banterTimer + GetSecondsPassed
 +
  else
 +
    set m_banterTimer to 0
 +
    set m_banterThreshold to GetRandomPercent*4
 +
    SayTo player LocationBanter;
 +
  endif ; banterTimer
 +
END</pre>
 +
 
 +
Then put all the NPC's banter dialog into the topic called LocationBanter.  The '''location-specific responses''' all have a condition using the '''GetInCell''' function to tie them to specific places and are at the top of the topic's stack so they evaluate first but only trigger when the Player is at a specific location; they're also flagged with "once per day" so you don't get spammed by them. The bonus to this method is that you can have '''generic non-location-specific''' dialog at the BOTTOM of the topic's stack, so if the Player is NOT at a landmark, the NPC still makes amusing observations every now and again. (Plus you are not forced into dropping new objects in cells all over the game; it's just the script and the dialog.  Nice and tidy, easy to manage.)
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-RecordVoice"></span>
 +
==== TIP Record new voice files ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Adding original voiced dialog from within the '''GECK''' can make the process less painful.  The '''GECK''' will technically record from (accept as input) any standard '''Windows''' audio '''output''' source, but you do have to also have configured '''Windows''' with an '''input''' source (microphone).  See [https://manual.audacityteam.org/man/windows_accessing_the_windows_sound_controls.html#Accessing_the_Settings_dialog Accessing the Windows Sound Controls].
 +
 
 +
What is the '''GECK''' calling your primary sound driver?  Is that your sound card's output?  What happens if you try to record from that?
 +
 
 +
The problem that you are going to run into is that most sound drivers provided by default with '''Windows''' these days don't export the main audio as a device from which the '''GECK''' can record. If your sound driver can do it, then the '''GECK''' can use it.  (Check the audio vendor website for possible alternative drivers.)  It's often referred to in '''Windows''' as some sort of "loopback device" or "mixer" in the sound driver options and it is usually disabled by default.  The device name in '''Windows''' may not be obvious (such as "Stereo Mix" or "Wave Out Mix") so experimentation is usually required.
 +
 
 +
Once you have the '''GECK''' recognizing your audio input, you are ready to record.  But you will still need to create "lip files" as described in [[#TIP_Batch_Lip_file_generation|TIP Batch Lip file generation]].
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-SayOnce"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP '''Say Once''' use ====
 +
: Thanks to '''Mktavish''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The "Say Once" flag is set per "response", not per "Topic".  So basically you take the Topic, and add as many responses to it as you want.  Flag them "top level", and set "priority" for what order each response will be presented in.  You can even set conditions that might change when they are used, such as (for example) a "quest stage" or "gateway variable".  Once they have been spoken, the responses you flag as "Say Once" will no longer be considered in the priority list thereafter.
 +
 
 +
The dialogue tool is pretty versatile.  But it is not very intuitive either and one of the harder things to get proficient with in the '''GECK'''.  However, there is no one set way to do things.  See [[#TIP_Obsidian_Conversation_Editor_aka_OCE|TIP Obsidian Conversation Editor aka OCE]].
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
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">Certain bits of dialog are standard, but have to be added from the correct tab in the '''Quest Stages'''.
+
">NOTE: Dialog ''quests'' must be checkboxed to "start enabled".  If the ''quest'' isn't "active" the ''topics'' will not be available.
 +
 
 +
Certain bits of dialog are standard, but have to be added from the correct tab in the '''Quest Stages'''.
 
See the following references:
 
See the following references:
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Quest_and_Dialogue_Tutorial Quest and Dialogue Tutorial], in particular the "Dialogue Topics" section.
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Quest_and_Dialogue_Tutorial Quest and Dialogue Tutorial], in particular the "Dialogue Topics" section.
Line 2,085: Line 2,649:
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Creating_a_new_vendor Creating a new vendor] tutorial on creating dialog for a NPC's interaction with the player.
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Creating_a_new_vendor Creating a new vendor] tutorial on creating dialog for a NPC's interaction with the player.
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StartConversation StartConversation] command forces a conversation between two NPCs, starting with a specified topic.
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StartConversation StartConversation] command forces a conversation between two NPCs, starting with a specified topic.
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/How_to_script_conversation_between_two_or_more_NPCs How to script conversation between two or more NPCs] tutorial.
+
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=How_to_script_conversation_between_two_or_more_NPCs How to script conversation between two or more NPCs] tutorial.
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Dialogue GECK Category: Dialogue] This page has a number of important points to bear in mind, such as flags and:
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Dialogue GECK Category: Dialogue] This page has a number of important points to bear in mind, such as flags and:
 
:* '''Prompt:''' This text will be displayed in place of the topic text. If left blank (as is default), the topic text will be used.
 
:* '''Prompt:''' This text will be displayed in place of the topic text. If left blank (as is default), the topic text will be used.
Line 2,093: Line 2,657:
 
The following is intended to help clarify the above GECKWiki pages:
 
The following is intended to help clarify the above GECKWiki pages:
 
* ''GREETING'' only shows up as an option in the ''topics tab'' of your Quest when you < right-click > on the '''Topics''' tab in the left-hand pane of the GECK "Object Window" under the "Actor Data/Quest" section; and then also select/highlight the ''info response'' field in the top right-hand pane: where it shows a piece of the text and conditions.  Then you go to that small "list box" on the right side labeled "Add Topic"  and < right-click > in there to select from the list of existing ''topics'', or select '''New''' to add a completely new one.  In case it isn't clear: this ''GREETING'' is the NPC's first response when the Player first initiates dialog.  If you enable (check) the "SayOnce" box, it does not appear again '''''for that Actor'''''.  It can appear for another Actor which meets any qualifying conditions.  Do not confuse it with ''Hello'' which is all actors' way to start conversations, but usually only between NPCs.
 
* ''GREETING'' only shows up as an option in the ''topics tab'' of your Quest when you < right-click > on the '''Topics''' tab in the left-hand pane of the GECK "Object Window" under the "Actor Data/Quest" section; and then also select/highlight the ''info response'' field in the top right-hand pane: where it shows a piece of the text and conditions.  Then you go to that small "list box" on the right side labeled "Add Topic"  and < right-click > in there to select from the list of existing ''topics'', or select '''New''' to add a completely new one.  In case it isn't clear: this ''GREETING'' is the NPC's first response when the Player first initiates dialog.  If you enable (check) the "SayOnce" box, it does not appear again '''''for that Actor'''''.  It can appear for another Actor which meets any qualifying conditions.  Do not confuse it with ''Hello'' which is all actors' way to start conversations, but usually only between NPCs.
 +
* Don't use the GOODBYE topic for that dialogue directed to the Player. Its for ending a conversation between two NPC's.  Make your own "Farewell" sort of topic on the '''Topics''' tab.  Anything that is ''in dialog'' between an NPC and the Player belongs on the '''Topic''' tab, but be sure to enable the "GoodBye" checkbox under "Info Details" for your terminating line(s) of dialog.  Use the '''Conversation''' tab for conversations between two NPCs, or random comments that your follower can say.  Think '''Topics''' with the Player involved, and '''Conversations''' strictly for NPCs.
 
* Once created, ''Hello'' and ''GOODBYE'' only show up as dialog options upon < right-click > on the '''Conversation''' tab and select ''Add Topic''.  They should be "top level", with a priority of 5.  ''Hello'' is generally used for conversations between two or more NPCs, without the Player.  ''GOODBYE'' is essential to be able to terminate a conversation.  If in the '''Topics''' tab you do not set up any topic flagged as ''GOODBYE'', the dialog will end with one of those ''GOODBYE''s from the '''Conversation''' tab.
 
* Once created, ''Hello'' and ''GOODBYE'' only show up as dialog options upon < right-click > on the '''Conversation''' tab and select ''Add Topic''.  They should be "top level", with a priority of 5.  ''Hello'' is generally used for conversations between two or more NPCs, without the Player.  ''GOODBYE'' is essential to be able to terminate a conversation.  If in the '''Topics''' tab you do not set up any topic flagged as ''GOODBYE'', the dialog will end with one of those ''GOODBYE''s from the '''Conversation''' tab.
 +
* If you want a character to say a GREETING response (the first thing any Actor will say when activating them) without activating '''Dialogue Mode''' (as in "freeze time, zoom in on their face"), check/enable the GOODBYE flag  under the "Info Details" section for the GREETING response.
 +
*: If you have multiple such type responses (for instance: for guards that just say "move along" or "I'm watching you") when the Player tries to talk to them and they shouldn't actually go into full dialog mode, make sure to also check the RANDOM flag.  Or you can use a script variable and a condition to check for it to cycle through a bunch of responses.  Just increment the script variable and make sure to wrap it around to the start when you reach the end of the dialog options. You can also set a variable and create an AI package using the appropriate (e.g. "eating") idle so that the Actor will only say "leave me alone, I'm eating" when they are actually eating.
 +
*  There is a "conditions" box under your entry in the "Conversation" tab on the "Dialogue" tab in the "Quests" object window.  Please see [[#TIP_Basic_conditional_test_syntax|TIP Basic conditional test syntax]].  However, the "conditions" box fields are structured slightly different enough you might be confused.  The values should be selected from the "pick list" presented to you when you click in each field.<br>{{filepath:GECKDialogConditions.png}}
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 50px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The fields are:
 +
# the "function name" that retrieves the primary value you want to test.  As shown in the image, this will often be the "ActorID"  from function "GetIsID", to whom you wish to limit the line of dialog.
 +
# whom or what you are comparing the returned first value to; i.e. in this instance "Creature: ZRCZaar".  That is: the "ActorID" returned must be "Creature: ZRCZaar".
 +
# the "type of comparison".  In this instance it is "equals to" ("==").  (IIRC "not equal to" is given as "!=", though some languages use "<>" instead.)
 +
# the "desired result of the comparison" which should be regarded as "True".  A "True" result is always "1", and a "False" result is always "0".  But note that you may want to consider a returned "False" result (i.e. "0.00") to be the desired result making the "condition = true"; in which case you would want "0.00" to be used here.  A classic example is when you are testing that the first field is NOT the same as the second field (e.g. "GetIsID", "==", "Creature: ZRCZaar", "0.00" .)  However, it is a best practice to use the correct "logical condition" (i.e. "!=") instead of the "false" value ("0.00") in such a case because the expectation is a "condition" will be met when "true".  The rule is: whatever makes the most/clearest sense reading the statement when you come back to look at it with fresh eyes in a year.
 +
# the "logical combination with the next line" value, which is always going to be present (and equal "AND" by default), but is only meaningful if there is another condition statement following that one.  The other possible "logical combination" is "OR".  This will always be present and ignored on the very last conditional line.
 +
 +
Each condition line following the first is considered in combination with the preceding tests.
 +
* Each pair of lines connected by "AND" must all be "true" for that combination to be "true". (E.g. Only if line1 AND line2 are both "true", then the combination is "true".  If either one is "false", then the combination "false".)
 +
* Any one line or set of "AND" lines which are then connected by a trailing "OR" will be "true" if either set on either side of the "OR" statement is "true".  (E.g. if line1 OR line2 is either one "true", then the combination is "true".  Only if both are "false" is the combination "false".)
 +
* The entire set of combinations is parsed out and tested before the final result of the statement is determined.  If the results are not what you expect, it's because you are not understanding how the groupings are being parsed.  This is addressed in the referenced "Tip".
 +
 +
It helps immensely if you initially block out such a mixture of "AND/OR" conditions using parentheses to group the "AND" line pairs separately from the "OR" lines and perhaps rearrange their order to simplify the groupings before entering them into such fields.  Use parentheses to group pairs of statements to clarify in which order they should be determined: the most nested levels of parentheses first.
 +
</div>
 +
* For '''combat barks''', you need to use the default topics in the COMBAT tab of your quest.
 +
*: Use the vanilla companion control quest (VNPCFollowers) as a reference if you're wondering how to use each topic.
 
* You will need Voice "sound" (and corresponding Lip-Sync ".lip") files for your dialog lines so they take the appropriate amount of time before proceeding to the next line.  Otherwise they may appear to "skip" over some lines or cut each other off.  "Silent" sound files are common for this purpose when the actor is not voiced, but still needed to establish the timing.  See the [[#Sound and Voice Tools|Sound and Voice Tools]] section entries for the necessary tools.
 
* You will need Voice "sound" (and corresponding Lip-Sync ".lip") files for your dialog lines so they take the appropriate amount of time before proceeding to the next line.  Otherwise they may appear to "skip" over some lines or cut each other off.  "Silent" sound files are common for this purpose when the actor is not voiced, but still needed to establish the timing.  See the [[#Sound and Voice Tools|Sound and Voice Tools]] section entries for the necessary tools.
 
* Sort your list of dialog '''Topics''' by ''Priority''.  ("1" is highest, "100" is lowest.)  Place the ''GREETING''  and ''GOODBYE'' Topics at the top of the list.  '''Topics''' are processed from the top down until it finds the first one with all conditions "true".
 
* Sort your list of dialog '''Topics''' by ''Priority''.  ("1" is highest, "100" is lowest.)  Place the ''GREETING''  and ''GOODBYE'' Topics at the top of the list.  '''Topics''' are processed from the top down until it finds the first one with all conditions "true".
Line 2,102: Line 2,690:
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-TextDisplay"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-TalkingActivators"></span>
 
+
==== TIP Talking Activators ====
==== TIP Text display timing ====
 
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
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background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
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">Many new mod creators think of "voice" and "lip-sync" files as "optional" when they only intend to display a text message. Then they wonder why sometimes their message only displays briefly in a flash and others wait until something is clicked upon. The latter is because a message displayed under control of a menu block is "paused" until an "input" (key entry or button click) is received(Sometimes this is not as obvious as a "button", such as using an elipsis ("...") instead.  Generally not having an obvious means of proceeding is considered "poor design" unless it is deliberate as a form of "visual puzzle".) This is one way to ensure the message is seen by the Player.
+
">An "[https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Activator activator]" has a "trigger boundary" under the '''NavMesh Generation Import Option''' that gets triggered by ''collision'' with the PlayerA "[https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Talking_Activator talking activator]" is an object (such as a radio or intercom) with properties related to the conversation, and can be found, created and edited from the Objects window under [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Actors Actors].
  
If you are not getting display of the Dialog response text outside of a menu, most likely it is because the text has no "voice" audio and/or lip-sync file attached(Both are needed.) These files determines how long the text remains on screen before allowing the display to proceedEven if there is no actual voice to be heard, a "silent" audio file of sufficient length is required to determine the length of the display of the textThe mod [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63052 Silent Voice Generator] by '''Enter_77''' can generate both silent voice and corresponding lip-sync files of up to 30 seconds duration from exported GECK quest and dialog text documents(See "Voices" under the [[#Music_and_Sounds|Music and Sounds]] section.  It is recommended placing your own "silent voice" files under their own sub-folder to avoid the risk of overwriting actual voices used by others.)
+
The thing to remember with ''talking activators'' is they are just extensions of Actors ... if you want them to be.  Hence an Actor speaks for the activator, or vice versa (whichever way you want to think about it), but the topic will be found under the ActorThe confusing part being that a talking activator can also replace an actor(You can use any suitable mesh in place of the NPC as the Actor, such as the typical "intercom" or "radio".) So you can make lines be spoken as if a ghost is talking without a visible point source and you can force a conversation through the "invisible" activator.  The activator just being the focal point of the Player dialogue's "zoom in on the face" feature(If you don't want the "zoom in" feature, enable the "Goodbye" box under "Info Details" in the appropriate GREETING response Topic "Conversation" Tab.  See the image under [[#TIP_Standard_Dialog|TIP Standard Dialog]].)
</div>
 
  
=== FaceGen ''Heads Faces Hairs and Helmets'' ===
+
Some examples of how this has been implemented:
: This information is compiled from a number of threads, guides, and articles by authors such as '''DrakeTheDragon''', '''throttlekitty''', '''Ghogiel''', '''scanti''', and '''Skree000'''. It is an overview at best.
+
* If you want the quest giver to just give orders over a two way radio or intercom, you can just trigger sounds to play. '''Christine Royce''' in '''Dead Money''' gives you orders in a similar fashion.
 +
:: For another "in-game" example, check out the script "REPCONEnterScript": Lines 26 & 27. Its the quest where you meet '''Jason Bright''', but before that '''Chris Haversam''' talks to you through an intercom.
 +
* If you want the "dialog window" to open and "zoom in" on the focal point object, you are going to need something to talk to. The easiest thing might be an invisible NPC. Just create an invisible outfit that uses all body slots. If the conversation starts at a particular location, like walking down a particular hallway, then you can set up the invisible NPC there and have a trigger start the conversation. If the location isn't fixed, it might be easier to have the invisible NPC in a temp holding cell (place a piece of floor to stand on first, and a [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=XMarker XMarker] there if you need to be able to move them back) and then move them to the player's location to initiate the conversation with "<ActivatorRef> [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=StartConversation StartConversation] <TargetID>, <TopicID>" (e.g. "MyRadioRef StartConversation Player, MyTopicStage01").
  
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/9360 The Conformulator] Mod Tool.
+
* To get an "intercom" to only talk to the Player after the Player has read a note, give the intercom NPC a topic, and under the conditions tab, give a new condition: "Player [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetHasNote GetHasNote] <YourNoteID> > 0".  Now the intercom will only say that line if the player has the note in his inventory.
* [[Working with Skyrim head TRIs|Working with Skyrim head TRIs]] (Wiki) for additional tutorials and resources.
+
:: Please see [[#TIP_Passing_a_Note_to_the_player|TIP Passing a Note to the player]]. The "holotape" or "piece of paper" is just the "artwork/mesh" image associated with the trigger. You can actually use pretty much anything that has collision.
* [http://oblivion.nexusmods.com/mods/20166 Head06 Resource] Oblivion Mod by '''Throttlekitty''' as a reference example.
 
  
The heads of characters and NPCs in Bethesda games are created using the builtin [http://facegen.com/index.htm FaceGen] tool, which is a licensed '''Singular Immersion ''FaceGen Modeler'''''.  According to the FaceGen site "Customizer" tool [http://facegen.com/customizer_help.htm user manual] the resulting information is stored in the following files.
+
*  '''jazzisparis''' contributes the following from 2014:<br>
 +
: There is no function that would enable you to retrieve the dialogue's target reference directly. There is, however, a workaround. It requires NVSE version 3 (or newer).
 +
: 1. Create a new Quest, tick ''Start Game Enabled'' and set the ''Processing Delay'' to "1.0".
 +
: 2. Create a new Script, set ''Script Type'' to "Quest", and use the following code:
 +
<div style="margin:0px 10px 10px 50px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;">
 +
scn DialogueTargetScript<br>
 +
short bScan<br>
 +
ref rActor<br>
 +
ref rTarget<br>
 +
<br>
 +
begin MenuMode 1009<br>
 +
: if bScan == 0
 +
:: set bScan to 1
 +
:: set rActor to GetFirstRef 200 2 0
 +
:: Label 1
 +
:: if IsFormValid rActor
 +
::: if rActor.GetDialogueTarget == player
 +
:::: set rTarget to rActor ; Found the dialogue target (now stored in rTarget).
 +
:::: ; Do something.
 +
:::: Return
 +
::: endif
 +
::: set rActor to TeddyBear01
 +
::: set rActor to GetNextRef
 +
::: GoTo 1
 +
:: endif
 +
: endif
 +
end<br>
 +
<br>
 +
begin GameMode
 +
: if bScan
 +
:: set bScan to 0
 +
:: set rTarget to 0
 +
: endif
 +
end
 +
</div>
 +
: 3. Return to the Quest from step 1 and select this script from the Script dropbox.
 +
 
 +
: This script runs continuously and retrieves the dialogue target's reference, every time you start a conversation with an NPC.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-TextDisplay"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Text display timing ====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Many new mod creators think of "voice" and "lip-sync" files as "optional" when they only intend to display a text message.  Then they wonder why sometimes their message only displays briefly in a flash and others wait until something is clicked upon. The latter is because a message displayed under control of a menu block is "paused" until an "input" (key entry or button click) is received.  (Sometimes this is not as obvious as a "button", such as using an elipsis ("...") instead.  Generally not having an obvious means of proceeding is considered "poor design" unless it is deliberate as a form of "visual puzzle".)  This is one way to ensure the message is seen by the Player.
 +
 
 +
If you are not getting display of the Dialog response text outside of a menu, most likely it is because the text has no "voice" audio and/or lip-sync file attached.  (Both are needed.)  These files determines how long the text remains on screen before allowing the display to proceed.  Even if there is no actual voice to be heard, a "silent" audio file of sufficient length is required to determine the length of the display of the text.  The mod [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63052 Silent Voice Generator] by '''Enter_77''' can generate both silent voice and corresponding lip-sync files of up to 30 seconds duration from exported GECK quest and dialog text documents.  (See "Voices" under the [[#Music_and_Sounds|Music and Sounds]] section.  It is recommended placing your own "silent voice" files under their own sub-folder to avoid the risk of overwriting actual voices used by others.)
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== FaceGen ''Heads Faces Hairs and Helmets'' ===
 +
: This information is compiled from a number of threads, guides, and articles by authors such as '''DrakeTheDragon''', '''throttlekitty''', '''Ghogiel''', '''scanti''', and '''Skree000'''.  It is an overview at best.
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/66932 Generating EGM files for Headwear and Hairs] PDF tutorial by '''Roy Batty'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/9360 The Conformulator] Mod Tool.
 +
* [[Working with Skyrim head TRIs|Working with Skyrim head TRIs]] (Wiki) for additional tutorials and resources.
 +
* [http://oblivion.nexusmods.com/mods/20166 Head06 Resource] Oblivion Mod by '''Throttlekitty''' as a reference example.
 +
 
 +
Hair NIFs usually have two models inside of them, one called Hat and one called NoHat. Adjust your alternate hairstyle's Hat model so that it doesn't clip through any hat you want the Actor to wear.
 +
 
 +
The heads of characters and NPCs in Bethesda games are created using the builtin [http://facegen.com/index.htm FaceGen] tool, which is a licensed '''Singular Immersion ''FaceGen Modeler'''''.  According to the FaceGen site "Customizer" tool [http://facegen.com/customizer_help.htm user manual] the resulting information is stored in the following files.
  
 
Each model part consists of one or more of the following file types, with the same root name:
 
Each model part consists of one or more of the following file types, with the same root name:
Line 2,132: Line 2,781:
 
EGM, EGT, and TRI extension files are in turn are used to construct "OBJ" (whole head mesh) files.  This is because "faces", "hair", and "helmets" have to be able to "morph" or "conform" to the underlying "head" mesh.  Different heads can be used with the same body to provide the customized faces of PlayerCharacters.
 
EGM, EGT, and TRI extension files are in turn are used to construct "OBJ" (whole head mesh) files.  This is because "faces", "hair", and "helmets" have to be able to "morph" or "conform" to the underlying "head" mesh.  Different heads can be used with the same body to provide the customized faces of PlayerCharacters.
  
Note that everything related to the head must be placed in a BSA for it to be processed properly by the game engine.  Otherwise the "loose files" do not get "conformed" to the head mesh properly.  (Use the "BSArch" tool linked in the [[#Packaging_Tools|Packaging Tools]] section to '''''create/update''''' your BSA file.)
+
'''Note that everything related to the head must be placed in a BSA for it to be processed properly by the game engine.''' Otherwise the "loose files" do not get "conformed" to the head mesh properly.  (Use the "BSArch" tool linked in the [[#Packaging_Tools|Packaging Tools]] section to '''''create/update''''' your BSA file.)
  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
Line 2,505: Line 3,154:
 
=== LOD Generation ===
 
=== LOD Generation ===
 
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
* [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB TESTG: LOD/VWD Overview] Wiki.
+
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB TESTG: LOD/VWD Overview] Wiki.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562/? FNVLODGen/xLODGen] Tool by '''zilav'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562/? FNVLODGen/xLODGen] Tool by '''zilav'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/60733/? Tree LOD billboard creator for xLODGen] Tool by '''zilav'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/60733/? Tree LOD billboard creator for xLODGen] Tool by '''zilav'''.
Line 2,524: Line 3,173:
 
* [[LOD_Generation_For_New_Vegas_and_Fallout_3|GECK: LOD Generation For New Vegas and Fallout 3]] Wiki.
 
* [[LOD_Generation_For_New_Vegas_and_Fallout_3|GECK: LOD Generation For New Vegas and Fallout 3]] Wiki.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61206/? LOD additions and improvements] Resource mod.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61206/? LOD additions and improvements] Resource mod.
: NOTE: The GECK LOD generation process uses "decimation" to create it's "low polygon meshes" for LOD/VWD.  Please read the TESTG site sub-topic [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB#The_problem_with_LOD.2FVWD_files The problem with LOD/VWD files] about why this is believed to be less effective than that used in later games such as '''Skyrim'''.
+
: NOTE: The GECK LOD generation process uses "decimation" to create it's "low polygon meshes" for LOD/VWD.  Please read the TESTG site sub-topic [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB#The_problem_with_LOD.2FVWD_files The problem with LOD/VWD files] about why this is believed to be less effective than that used in later games such as '''Skyrim'''.
  
 
<span id="Tip-LODGen"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-LODGen"></span>
Line 2,532: Line 3,181:
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">Even the casual user of the tool '''xLODGen''' should read the [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB TESTG: LOD/VWD Overview] article and the thread [http://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnvlodgen TTW: FNVLODGen] to gain an understanding of what is involved.  Among other things the later thread points out that the "green billboards and trees" are deliberately added by '''xLODGen''' to flag that they are missing textures (sort of like the red "!" to flag missing meshes, but specific to LOD).  '''xLODGen''' lists them in it's log when generating LOD.<br>
+
">Even the casual user of the tool '''xLODGen''' should read the [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB TESTG: LOD/VWD Overview] article and the thread [http://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnvlodgen TTW: FNVLODGen] to gain an understanding of what is involved.  Among other things the later thread points out that the "green billboards and trees" are deliberately added by '''xLODGen''' to flag that they are missing textures (sort of like the red "!" to flag missing meshes, but specific to LOD).  '''xLODGen''' lists them in it's log when generating LOD.<br>
 
The resulting '''xLODGen.esp''' file needs to remain in your load order.  It should be regenerated whenever you add or remove "background" meshes and textures, as the "load order" affects the "quads" constructed to stitch together the distant view.</div>
 
The resulting '''xLODGen.esp''' file needs to remain in your load order.  It should be regenerated whenever you add or remove "background" meshes and textures, as the "load order" affects the "quads" constructed to stitch together the distant view.</div>
  
Line 2,541: Line 3,190:
  
 
==== ESM and ESP Files ====
 
==== ESM and ESP Files ====
'''Master''' Files (those with a ".ESM" extension - e.g. '''Fallout3.esm''') and '''Plugin''' files ("TES files" or "mods" for short - files with a ".ESP" - e.g., '''Fallout3mod.esp''') are the core data files of Bethesda games.  A master file acts as a database of all of the data for the world, including object data, dialogue, gameplay settings, object placements, AI settings, landscape, script commands, cells, etc. The '''GECK''' is the tool we use to view and edit master files and plugins for the "Fallout 3" and "Fallout: New Vegas" series.
+
'''Master''' Files (those with a ".ESM" extension - e.g. '''Fallout3.esm''') and '''Plugin''' files ("TES files" or "mods" for short - files with a ".ESP" - e.g., '''Fallout3mod.esp''') are the core data files of Bethesda games.  A master file acts as a database of all of the data for the world, including object data, dialogue, game settings, object placements, AI settings, landscape, script commands, cells, etc. The '''GECK''' is the primary tool we use to create, view, and edit master files and plugins for the "Fallout 3" and "Fallout: New Vegas" series.
  
 
(However, not all game data files are '''Master''' and '''Plugin''' files. Textures, meshes, sounds, videos, etc. are all part of the full game. More about these files elsewhere.)
 
(However, not all game data files are '''Master''' and '''Plugin''' files. Textures, meshes, sounds, videos, etc. are all part of the full game. More about these files elsewhere.)
  
'''Master''' files and '''Plugins''' are largely identical in format, but have some important distinctions in practice. The main practical difference is that '''GECK''' will not (natively) create '''Master''' files. Nor will it allow '''Plugin''' files to modify other '''Plugin''' files.  (The '''Extender''' and '''PowerUp''' addons overcome this limitation.)  See the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Data_Files GECK: Data Files] entry for more.
+
'''Master''' files and '''Plugins''' are largely identical in format, but have some important distinctions in practice. The main practical difference is that '''GECK''' will not (natively) create '''Master''' files. Nor will it allow '''Plugin''' files to modify other '''Plugin''' files.  (The '''Extender''' and '''PowerUp''' addons overcome this limitation.) However, be aware that when you change an ESP to an ESM, you can only do this properly by setting the file header "master" flag in '''xEdit/FNVEdit''' (though now with the '''GECK Extender''' you don't need to change the extension so long as the "master" flag is set) so that the '''ONAM''' record is generated; otherwise overrides to cells will not work.  Additionally references by packages to ''markers'' and other scripted objects need to be '''''persistent''''' or they will not work in an ESM. See the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Data_Files GECK: Data Files] entry for more.
 +
 
 +
It sometimes helps to think of using ".ESM" files to ''add new things'', and ".ESP" files to ''change existing things or modify existing areas''.  Depending on how you create your "ESM", it might not modify existing things in-game. In other words, if there is an existing navmesh, an "ESP" will overwrite that navmesh, but an "ESM" might not. Similarly, if your "ESM" deletes an object (like a rock) it might work as an "ESP" but the rock might still be there as an "ESM".
 +
 
 +
It is possible for more than one '''Plugin''' file to ''depend'' upon the same '''Master''' file.  They don't even have to be by the same author.  Such '''Plugins''' are called ''dependencies''.  '''xEdit''' (aka '''FNVEdit''') is the primary tool used to identify and manipulate such "master/dependent" relationships.  (See the wiki article [[Missing_Masters|Missing Masters]].  '''LOOT''' can also detect such dependencies, but not alter them.)  It can also be used to edit the values of specific records, and to create "compatibility" and "merge" patch files.  (See the wiki [[Merged_Plugin_Guidelines_for_Personal_Use|Merged Plugin Guidelines for Personal Use]] article.)
  
It is possible for more than one '''Plugin''' file to ''depend'' upon the same '''Master''' fileThey don't even have to be by the same author. Such '''Plugins''' are called ''dependencies''.  '''xEdit''' (aka '''FNVEdit''') is the primary tool used to identify such "master/dependent" relationships. (See the wiki article [[Missing_Masters|Missing Masters]].)
+
If you have a problem with navmeshes after converting an ESP to an ESM, the problem likely is the original navmesh was deleted and your edit needs to be changed to an ''override'' (using '''xEdit/FNVEdit'''), then '''refinalized''' in '''GECK'''.  A navmesh in the ESP will also eventually stop working. It is a known bug in the '''Gamebryo Engine''' and was not fixed until later in '''Skyrim''''s life ('''Creator Engine''').
  
 
<span id="Tip-ESMOnly"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-ESMOnly"></span>
Line 2,566: Line 3,219:
 
* Once your mod (as an ESP file) is done: if you then convert it to an ESM using '''FNVedit''' (by toggling the "ESM" field flag of the "File Header") and saving, and YOU DO ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ELSE TO IT, it will work. (That's in caps because it's important).
 
* Once your mod (as an ESP file) is done: if you then convert it to an ESM using '''FNVedit''' (by toggling the "ESM" field flag of the "File Header") and saving, and YOU DO ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ELSE TO IT, it will work. (That's in caps because it's important).
  
* Once you change your ESP into an "ESM" in the ''file header'' of '''FNVEdit''', make sure you change the file extension to ESM to match.  '''FNVEdit''' loads files based upon their extension and timestamp, period.  It doesn't care about the internal ESM flag on ESP extension files; they get loaded after other ESMs.  Besides, it confuses your customers: the players.
+
* Once you change your ESP into an "ESM" in the ''file header'' of '''FNVEdit''', make sure you change the file extension to ESM to match.  '''FNVEdit''' loads files based upon their extension and timestamp, period.  (But other games may ignore those same attributes and load based upon the "plugins.txt" file sequence.)  Both '''FNVEdit''' and the game engine don't care about the internal ESM flag on ESP extension files; they get loaded after other ESMs.  Fortunately '''LOOT''' does detect such internally flagged ESP files and sorts them with the rest of the actual ESM files.  And since version 4 of '''xEdit''', it's "Sort Masters" option automatically matches them to the current "load order".  Besides, using a different extension from the purpose of the plugin confuses your customers: the players.
  
* If you have something like an NPC or a package or pretty much anything in an ESM, and something modifies that NPC/package/whatever in another ESP or another ESM, do not ever change the NPC/package/whatever in the original ESM afterwards. That can really corrupt your mod. You'll also save yourself a lot of headaches if you don't modify things in another ESP/ESM. In other words, if you have an NPC defined in an ESM, but then you place the NPC in the game in an ESP, do not modify the original NPC definition (Base-ID form) in the ESP. You can modify your ''reference'' in the ESP all you want. Just don't modify the original NPC definition.  (If that sentence confuses you, please see the [[#GECK_Form-ID,_Base-ID,_Ref-ID,_and_Editor-ID|GECK Form-ID, Base-ID, Ref-ID, and Editor-ID]] section again for the distinctions.)
+
* If you have something like an NPC or an AI package or pretty much anything in an ESM, and something modifies that NPC/package/whatever in another ESP or another ESM, do not ever change the NPC/package/whatever in the original ESM afterwards. That can really corrupt your mod. You'll also save yourself a lot of headaches if you don't modify things in another ESP/ESM. In other words, if you have an NPC defined in an ESM, but then you place the NPC in the game in an ESP, do not modify the original NPC definition (Base-ID form) in the ESP. You can modify your ''reference'' in the ESP all you want. Just don't modify the original NPC definition.  (If that sentence confuses you, please see the [[#GECK_Form-ID,_Base-ID,_Ref-ID,_and_Editor-ID|GECK Form-ID, Base-ID, Ref-ID, and Editor-ID]] section again for the distinctions.)
  
 
* Any NPC you define in an ESP will likely suffer from the infamous "mismatched head/body texture" bug (e.g. a head with one skin texture on a body with a different skin texture). Some people think that all you need to do is edit your INI files and you can fix this bug, but while that works for some mods and people, the solution doesn't work for others. If you don't want your NPCs to have mismatched skin textures, and you want it to be done reliably so it works for everyone, you need to define the NPCs in an ESM, period.  Take the time to plan ahead.
 
* Any NPC you define in an ESP will likely suffer from the infamous "mismatched head/body texture" bug (e.g. a head with one skin texture on a body with a different skin texture). Some people think that all you need to do is edit your INI files and you can fix this bug, but while that works for some mods and people, the solution doesn't work for others. If you don't want your NPCs to have mismatched skin textures, and you want it to be done reliably so it works for everyone, you need to define the NPCs in an ESM, period.  Take the time to plan ahead.
Line 2,608: Line 3,261:
 
==== GIMP Posters and Images ====
 
==== GIMP Posters and Images ====
 
* [[Gimp_create_old_weathered_posters_and_other_images|Gimp: create old weathered posters and other images]] Wiki.
 
* [[Gimp_create_old_weathered_posters_and_other_images|Gimp: create old weathered posters and other images]] Wiki.
 +
<span id="HowToSection"></span>
 
==== How to ''do something'' ====
 
==== How to ''do something'' ====
 +
<span id="HowToAddLoadingScreens"></span>
 +
===== How to add '''''Loading Screens''''' =====
 +
: Thanks to '''jessesDRpepper''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">How do you go about adding your own "loading screen" content to the game?  You know: the images behind the "splash screen" that appear as the game or the main menu or while your "save game" file is loading.
  
===== How to create a challenge =====
+
In concept they are simple "texture files" saved as DDS images in DXT1 format.  But getting them to be used by the game is not well documented.  Fortunately now there is the mod [https://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/69078 DIY Load Screens] (by '''DullCandle29'''), an ESP file which, to use it's own words, provides an:
* [[How_to_create_a_challenge|How to create a challenge]] Wiki.
+
<blockquote>
 
+
Empty template to "add" your own load screens. Not a replacer, nor a wallpaper collection. Simple step by step tutorials for how to do things are in the description. Optional example images provided.
===== How to create a message =====
+
This mod will let you "add" (not replace) up to 1,199 additional loadscreens for you to personalize your loading experience.  
* [[How_to_create_a_message|How to create a message]] Wiki.
+
</blockquote>
 +
</div>
  
===== How to create a perk =====
+
<span id="Tip-GMSTs"></span>
* [[How_to_create_a_perk|How to create a perk]] Wiki.
+
===== How to change '''''Game Settings''' aka '''GMSTs''''' =====
 
+
: Thanks to '''punchbattle''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
===== How to create a Primative ''activators'' ''trigger volumes'' ''multibounds and occlusion planes'' =====
 
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Creating_Primitives How to create a Primative (activators, trigger volumes, multibounds, and occlusion planes)] Wiki.
 
 
 
<span id="Tip-TransparentActivators"></span>
 
====== Tip Transparent Activators ======
 
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">Sometimes you want an activation prompt based on scripting conditions, not proximity.  You need the mesh to be there; but not the texture.  Activators require the collision and the mesh to be under the reticle to be activated, but the texture apparently doesn't need to be visible.  That might be an ''invisible texture'' or the ''null texture set''.  Any texture would work (like a 4x4 saved as DXT1 format); so it doesn't need to be transparent (DXT5).  Just bring the Alpha of the ''NiMaterialProperty'' to 0.
+
">As one might expect, the game has many variables it uses in various functions and algorithms.  Where are these and how can you change them?  They can be altered using either [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34703/? xEdit/FNVEdit] (freeware) to edit '''GMST''' records or the '''GECK''' to change "Game Settings".
 +
 
 +
Example: Change "decapitation rates".
 +
Making your own mod file:
 +
# Open the '''GECK''', then go to the upper left menu and click "File | Data..."
 +
# A list of ".ESM" files should pop up. Check the box next to '''FalloutNV.esm''' and uncheck any other box that might be checked.  (If this is an annoying problem with the DLCS, please see [[#Issue_-_GECK_does_not_automatically_select_FalloutNV_or_some_DLC_ESM_file|Issue - GECK does not automatically select FalloutNV or some DLC ESM file]].)
 +
# Highlight FalloutNV.esm, then click "Set as Active File", and press OK
 +
# Once it's done loading up, you should be ready to start editing!
 +
[But first: change the filename to "make it your own".]
 +
 
 +
Editing '''Game Settings''' in the '''GECK''':
 +
# Click "Gameplay | Settings...".
 +
# A window should pop up with a long list of game variables. You can type things into the '''Filter''' field to see specific variables.
 +
 
 +
These are the ones you're looking for in this example:
 +
* '''iCombatDismemberPartChance'''
 +
* '''iMessCrippledLimbExplodeBonus'''
 +
* '''iMessIntactLimbDismemberChance'''
 +
* '''iMessIntactLimbExplodeBonus'''
 +
* '''iMessTargetedLimbExplodeBonus'''
 +
* '''iMessTorsoExplodeChance'''
 +
 
 +
It is believed that '''iCombatDismemberPartChance''' is the base chance a limb will ''dismember'', and the '''iMess...''' values kick in if you have the ''Bloody Mess'' perk. Just put in whatever values you think feel right, and see how things go. It may take a couple of tweaks before you get it exactly where you want it to be.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToChallenge"></span>
 +
===== How to create '''''a challenge''''' =====
 +
* [[How_to_create_a_challenge|How to create a challenge]] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToMessage"></span>
 +
===== How to create '''''a message''''' =====
 +
* [[How_to_create_a_message|How to create a message]] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToPerk"></span>
 +
===== How to create '''''a perk''''' =====
 +
* [http://youtu.be/BLRFMVQkpFQ GECK Tutorial - Perk (Ability)] Video by '''Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/62bHp1_PIdk GECK Tutorial - Perk (Entry Point)] Video by '''Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [[How_to_create_a_perk|How to create a perk]] Wiki article.
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToPrimative"></span>
 +
===== How to create a '''''Primative'' - activators, trigger volumes, multibounds, and occlusion planes''' =====
 +
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Creating_Primitives How to create a Primative (activators, trigger volumes, multibounds, and occlusion planes)] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-InteriorOcclusion"></span>
 +
====== Tip Interior Occlusion problem ======
 +
: Thanks to '''FiftyTify''', '''Radioactivelad''', and '''placeholderthesteam''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Problem: Everything looks fine in the editor, but in game there's a really weird occlusion issue where the room isn't drawn when looking into it; and when inside only some parts of the room appear depending on where you stand and where you're looking.
 +
 
 +
This is the result of a feature called a [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Room_Bounds_and_Portal_Basics Room Bound]; It's for performance optimization.
 +
 
 +
NOTE: You may need to enable the '''GECK''' "View" menu "Show/Hide" option to "show" additional options before you will see the "Portals and Rooms" option, which is usually hidden away.
 +
 
 +
There's a couple of ways to correct this:
 +
 
 +
* Resize the existing Room Bound to include the new section of your room. (May not be ideal depending on where it is.)
 +
* Add a new Room Bound for your new Room and attach a Portal between it and the existing Room Bound.
 +
* Regenerate the portals, which handles the occlusion culling via visibility of large proxy cubes. 
 +
 
 +
It might happen that a "Room Bound" on one side extends slightly into the room in question, and one portal alone is not sufficient.  In this case, placing another portal perpendicular to the troublesome one may fix it.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-TransparentActivators"></span>
 +
 
 +
====== Tip Transparent Activators ======
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Sometimes you want an activation prompt based on scripting conditions, not proximity.  You need the mesh to be there; but not the texture.  Activators require the collision and the mesh to be under the reticle to be activated, but the texture apparently doesn't need to be visible.  That might be an ''invisible texture'' or the ''null texture set''.  Any texture would work (like a 4x4 saved as DXT1 format); so it doesn't need to be transparent (DXT5).  Just bring the Alpha of the ''NiMaterialProperty'' to 0.
  
 
Caution: Some have had the ''null texture set'' not work for manual activation, but a ''fully transparent'' texture did.
 
Caution: Some have had the ''null texture set'' not work for manual activation, but a ''fully transparent'' texture did.
Line 2,640: Line 3,370:
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
=====  How to make a working pipboy icon =====
+
<span id="HowToIcon"></span>
 +
=====  How to make '''''a working pipboy icon''''''' =====
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/65589?tab=description FNV Icon Tutorial - How to make icons with Inkscape] PDF and resources by '''ZuTheSkunk'''.  '''Inkscape''' is linked in the [[#Image_Tools|Image Tools]] portion of the [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]] section.
 
* [[How_to_make_a_working_pipboy_icon|How to make a working pipboy icon]] Wiki.
 
* [[How_to_make_a_working_pipboy_icon|How to make a working pipboy icon]] Wiki.
  
Line 2,657: Line 3,389:
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
===== How to Move a Quest NPC =====
+
<span id="HowToMoveNPC"></span>
 +
===== How to '''''Move a Quest NPC''''' =====
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''kingbeast88''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''kingbeast88''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
Line 2,695: Line 3,428:
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">Suppose you want an NPC's "home" to be changeable to a new location.  You can either place different xMarkers at the potential sites, or use a "creature" that is initially "disabled" for your Marker.  Static objects like the default XMarker object cannot be moved, but a "persistent creature" set as a "quest object" can be moved and assigned as a "marker".  Then drop the "marker/creature" in the new "home" cell. "Creature" positions are always updated in the game, whereas static objects are not, so you don't need to use the "enable/disable" trick to update their location.  You then assign a "GoHome" travel AI Package to the marker as it's destination, and another "sandbox behavior" AI Package to let it wander the immediate area of the marker.  See the wiki article [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Bethsoft_Tutorial_NPC_population GECK: Bethsoft Tutorial NPC population].</div>
+
">Suppose you want an NPC's "home" to be changeable to a new location.  You can either place different xMarkers at the potential sites, or use a "creature" that is initially "disabled" for your Marker.  Static objects like the default XMarker object cannot be moved, but a "persistent creature" set as a "quest object" can be moved and assigned as a "marker".  Then drop the "marker/creature" in the new "home" cell. "Creature" positions are always updated in the game, whereas static objects are not, so you don't need to use the "enable/disable" trick to update their location.  You then assign a "GoHome" travel AI Package to the marker as it's destination, and another "sandbox behavior" AI Package to let it wander the immediate area of the marker.  See the wiki article [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Bethsoft_Tutorial_NPC_population GECK: Bethsoft Tutorial NPC population].</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="NVSEPlugins"></span>
 +
==== NVSE Plugins ====
 +
Unfortunately there is neither documentation nor tutorials on creating an NVSE Plugin.  The only advice is to use the older, freeware '''IDA 5.0 Disassembler''' by [http://www.hex-rays.com/products/decompiler/ Hex-Rays] for 32-bit executables, which is hosted on the [http://www.scummvm.org/news/20180331/ ScummVM] site, and your knowledge of "C-like" programming languages.  From that page:
 +
<blockquote>
 +
    A recent discussion [Mar 2018] about the most recent IDA Disassembler freeware 7.0 revealed that it no longer supports disassembling older DOS and Windows executables. This is obviously a problem for potential contributors, as well as potential GSoC students wanting to reverse engineer an old adventure game or RPG for their project. The obvious solution is to provide an earlier freeware version that still supports them.
 +
    Consulting with Hex-Rays, they're kindly consented for us to host one of the earlier IDA freeware versions, for those in the future who wish to use it.
 +
</blockquote>
  
 
==== PAINTdotNET ''Normal Maps'' ====
 
==== PAINTdotNET ''Normal Maps'' ====
Line 2,710: Line 3,451:
 
XML is a "data definition" structure, based upon a "data schema" which was defined by Bethesda.  They didn't publish their "schema", but some things have been learned about it.  However, without a published scheme, you must either use only elements found in other XML files, or be willing to experiment.
 
XML is a "data definition" structure, based upon a "data schema" which was defined by Bethesda.  They didn't publish their "schema", but some things have been learned about it.  However, without a published scheme, you must either use only elements found in other XML files, or be willing to experiment.
 
* [http://www.w3schools.com/xml/ W3School's XML Tutorial] Wiki.  Covers various XML standards such as Ajax, DOM, XPath, XSLT, XQuery, DTD, Schema, and Services.
 
* [http://www.w3schools.com/xml/ W3School's XML Tutorial] Wiki.  Covers various XML standards such as Ajax, DOM, XPath, XSLT, XQuery, DTD, Schema, and Services.
* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Category:Oblivion_XML Category:Oblivion XML] Wiki (Oblivion).
+
* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Category:Oblivion_XML Category:Oblivion XML] Wiki (Oblivion, but still applies to FO3 and FNV).
 +
* [http://content3.uesp.net/wiki/Tes4Mod:Oblivion_XML/Traits Tes4Mod:Oblivion XML/Traits] Wiki (Oblivion, but still applies to FO3 and FNV).
 
* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/53411-reading-ui-hud-xml-files/ Reading UI & HUD XML files] by '''DoctaSax''' (Adults (18+)Only site).  Covers XML Basics.
 
* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/53411-reading-ui-hud-xml-files/ Reading UI & HUD XML files] by '''DoctaSax''' (Adults (18+)Only site).  Covers XML Basics.
 
* [http://qxmledit.org/ QXmlEdit] (freeware) XML Editor.  Note the tutorials on this site are regarding the tool's features; not XML in general.
 
* [http://qxmledit.org/ QXmlEdit] (freeware) XML Editor.  Note the tutorials on this site are regarding the tool's features; not XML in general.
Line 2,723: Line 3,465:
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/274194-tutorial-how-to-create-a-new-radio-station/ GECK Tutorial - How to Create A New Radio Station] by '''DorostheConqueror'''.  Forum post. See [[#TIP-CallingFormat|TIP: Format to call a song]].
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/274194-tutorial-how-to-create-a-new-radio-station/ GECK Tutorial - How to Create A New Radio Station] by '''DorostheConqueror'''.  Forum post. See [[#TIP-CallingFormat|TIP: Format to call a song]].
 
* [http://www.freesfx.co.uk/ Free Sound Effects] Web site.
 
* [http://www.freesfx.co.uk/ Free Sound Effects] Web site.
 +
* [http://freesound.org/ FreeSound.org] Web site for sharing 'Creative Commons' licensed sounds (including voices).
 
* [http://great78.archive.org/ The Great 78 Project] Web site.  About 78,000 (and growing) old 78 LP's ranging from 1898 till around some time in the 1950's.  But would-be users need to note the [http://archive.org/about/terms.php Terms of Use] required by the Internet Archive organization.  In short, their material is "free to access" but not particularly "free to distribute", and may be subject to various copyright laws.  Access is granted for scholarship and research purposes only.  It is your responsibility to ensure such legalities are complied with for individual titles.
 
* [http://great78.archive.org/ The Great 78 Project] Web site.  About 78,000 (and growing) old 78 LP's ranging from 1898 till around some time in the 1950's.  But would-be users need to note the [http://archive.org/about/terms.php Terms of Use] required by the Internet Archive organization.  In short, their material is "free to access" but not particularly "free to distribute", and may be subject to various copyright laws.  Access is granted for scholarship and research purposes only.  It is your responsibility to ensure such legalities are complied with for individual titles.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63052/? Silent Voice Generator by Enter_77] Mod.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63052/? Silent Voice Generator by Enter_77] Mod.
Line 2,756: Line 3,499:
 
:::* '''tenpenny'''
 
:::* '''tenpenny'''
 
::* '''npc''' (by type of actor): ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.
 
::* '''npc''' (by type of actor): ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.
::* '''voc''' (sound effect "voices"): ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.
+
::* '''voc''' (sound effect "voices"): ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.  These can be "broadcast" from radios or speakers with the ''playsound'' function in the ''menumode for terminals''.  The sound file length controls the timing.
:* '''voices''' (Data\Sound\voice): dialog.  ''OGG'' and ''LIP'' '''mono''' files.
+
:* '''voices''' (Data\Sound\voice): dialog.  ''OGG'' and ''LIP'' '''mono''' files.  These are "spoken" by Actors as "talking head" dialog.  The '''LIP''' file controls the timing.
  
 
<span id="TIP-AddingASound"></span>
 
<span id="TIP-AddingASound"></span>
Line 2,811: Line 3,554:
 
* '''Seddon'''s video guide on how to make a station is a good one, but its major flaw is that he was operating under the presumption that ''mono WAV'' files were required.  '''You''' must make the above calling convention adjustments if using ''MP3'' or ''stereo'' files instead.
 
* '''Seddon'''s video guide on how to make a station is a good one, but its major flaw is that he was operating under the presumption that ''mono WAV'' files were required.  '''You''' must make the above calling convention adjustments if using ''MP3'' or ''stereo'' files instead.
 
* '''DorostheConqueror'''s text-based guide is slightly more comprehensive than Seddon's if I recall, but suffers from the same ''mono WAV'' file presumption, and the same adjustments apply.
 
* '''DorostheConqueror'''s text-based guide is slightly more comprehensive than Seddon's if I recall, but suffers from the same ''mono WAV'' file presumption, and the same adjustments apply.
 +
* NOTE: Radio stations are similar to dialog in that their ''quests'' must be checkboxed to "start enabled".  If the ''quest'' isn't "active" the ''topics/songs'' will not play.
 +
 +
===== Breaking News Flash =====
 +
: '''WarMachineDD7''' adds the following:
 +
 +
: The "Radio New Vegas" quest ('''RadioNewVegas''') keeps track of major events by having the quest for them modify a variable used in the '''RadioNewVegas''' quest. So for example, that quest has a variable called ''bKimballMOD'', and if the quest '''You'll Know It When It Happens (VMQ03)''' results with the Vertibird bomb exploding and killing Kimbal, then the '''VMQ03''' quest will change '''RadioNewVegas'''' ''bKimballMOD'' variable to "1".  Alternatively, if the player uses Jeremy Watson to kill Kimbal by placing C4 in his helmet, the '''VMQ03''' quest will change '''RadioNewVegas'''' ''bKimballMOD'' variable to "5", and so on and so forth for all 5 recognized possibilities for '''VMQ03'''. '''RadioNewVegas''' will use a different news report depending on the value of ''bKimballMOD''.
 +
 +
: One of the scripts that ends up changing '''RadioNewVegas''''s ''bKimballMOD'' variable is '''VHDKimballVertibirdScript'''. In other words, the vertibird's script will tell you if a bomb went off and killed Kimball.  (Presumably the other scripts that change it have to do with whoever takes the shot at Kimball or blows him up.)
 +
 +
: The same goes for the ''nStory'' variable in the '''RadioNewVegas''' quest. Each specific point in the story's quest moves that variable along for '''RadioNewVegas''' to react to. Those are the only two variables used for news flash tracking according to the '''RadioNewVegasSCRIPT'''.
 +
 +
: The other way to check on world events is with ''[https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Globals Global Variables]''. The result of a quest will have a line there at the end changing a global variable according to the result of a quest, which RadioNewVegas will use to see if the news story will trigger (they all start with "VStoryEvent", like ''VStoryEventMonorailDestroyed'' for example).
 +
 +
: You can use those same variables for your own radio station if you don't want to add new ones (in other words, when ''RadioNewVegas.bKimballMOD'' changes to "5", your radio mod can read that and play a different news flash, without having to insert your own variable). And you can also make different scripted events to catch something else happening in the world if you want to make another news flash, so you don't have to do it exactly like they did. The point is that something somewhere will change the variable that your radio mod will use to track the outcome of an event, and your radio will react with a news flash once it changes.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-BattleMusic"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-NavMeshMultiLevels"></span>
====TIP Replacing Battle Music====
+
==== TIP Multi-Level Areas ====
: Thanks to '''KadoDragon''' and '''DaemonGrin''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">You need to know what ''audio object'' (in the GECK) to edit in the ''audio tab'' which means you need to know the names of the battle songs you want to replace. All you have to do once you have that information is redirect the ''audio object'' to the '''wav, mp3 or ogg''' file of the new one. Or you can find the '''mp3, wav, ogg''' you want to replace with your own music and just rename yours to the same names of the vanilla files (after backing them up of course); making sure to leave them in the correct directory path(s) in the "Data\sound\" folder path.  Not hard at all.  Really the hardest thing to do with sound is creating the ''intro'' and ''outro'' segments: they are super short and need to blend nicely with the fade-in of the battle music.
+
">Try to avoid having one area above another in a single cell.  Even if you properly navmesh everything, NPCs can jump through the floor to get from one area to the other.  They can also get stuck halfway through the floor.  Even if you have stairs that connect two areas and everything is navmeshed properly, they will still often go through the floor instead of walking down the stairs.
 +
 
 +
NPCs also don't stay put unless you specifically tell them to stay put. If you leave and then re-enter a cell, they can end up anywhere inside that cell that has a proper navmesh, even if that means going through a wall that they can't possibly go through.  Locked doors won't stop them either.
 +
 
 +
If you need an NPC in a specific spot, put something there and give them an AI package that keeps them there. For example, put a "sit marker" on the floor or a "wall marker" next to the wall and give them a travel package that forces them to it.  Or put a chair there and give them a travel package to the chair. Or just put an xMarker on the floor and have them travel to that.
 +
 
 +
Place a "North" marker in the cell so the NPCs orient themselves in it properly.  Please see the "[[#TIP_Center_On_Cell_COC_Markers|TIP Center On Cell COC Markers]]" and "[[#TIP_Finding_cell_North_in_GECK|TIP Finding cell North in GECK]]" entries under the "Worldspaces" section.  Also see the "[[#TIP_Making_NPCs_move_aka_AI_Packages|TIP Making NPCs move aka AI Packages]]" entry under the "Custom NPCs" section.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-MusicAndDialog"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Music and Dialog ====
 +
: Thanks to '''Glenrhee''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When you have the problem of your added music won't fade or mute during dialog, probably you have not encoded it correctly.
 +
# The music has to be in '''mono .wav''' format.
 +
# It has to be in a CBR (constant bit rate) of 256 or less. Most audio editing programs let you choose to export it this way.
 +
# It'll sound louder '''out-of-game''' than '''in-game''', so don't lower the volume too much on it.
 +
Now your music should automatically get quieter when in dialog.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Random Multiple Sounds ====
 +
: Thanks to '''KICHo666''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Normally you select the specific ".wav" file you want to play in the "new sound" editing window, but what about when you want the game to pick a random file from several possible sounds, such as for when repairing a weapon?
 +
 
 +
Just select the ''folder'' where the desired sounds reside.  The engine will handle the random file selection process automatically for you.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-BattleMusic"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Replacing Battle Music====
 +
: Thanks to '''KadoDragon''' and '''DaemonGrin''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">You need to know what ''audio object'' (in the GECK) to edit in the ''audio tab'' which means you need to know the names of the battle songs you want to replace. All you have to do once you have that information is redirect the ''audio object'' to the '''wav, mp3 or ogg''' file of the new one. Or you can find the '''mp3, wav, ogg''' you want to replace with your own music and just rename yours to the same names of the vanilla files (after backing them up of course); making sure to leave them in the correct directory path(s) in the "Data\sound\" folder path.  Not hard at all.  Really the hardest thing to do with sound is creating the ''intro'' and ''outro'' segments: they are super short and need to blend nicely with the fade-in of the battle music.
  
 
The game combines the ''intros'' and ''outros'' from the '''Data\Sound\fx\mus\bttl''' sub-folder and then plays the music from the appropriate '''Data\Music\''' sub-folder.
 
The game combines the ''intros'' and ''outros'' from the '''Data\Sound\fx\mus\bttl''' sub-folder and then plays the music from the appropriate '''Data\Music\''' sub-folder.
Line 2,861: Line 3,661:
 
So what happens? You have someone shooting at you, and the further you get away, the less loud the sound gets. But then when you pass a certain distance, the shooting sound goes from nearly silent to relatively loud again.
 
So what happens? You have someone shooting at you, and the further you get away, the less loud the sound gets. But then when you pass a certain distance, the shooting sound goes from nearly silent to relatively loud again.
  
Using the 'getdistance player' console command, you can track the distance (measured in game units) between the shooting NPC and yourself. Approaching the 2400 unit distance the gunfire sound is almost silent. Then, upon increasing the distance between yourself and the NPC a little more, the louder distant shooting sound takes it's place.
+
Using the 'getdistance player' console command, you can track the distance (measured in [[Fallout 3/NV Game Units|game units]]) between the shooting NPC and yourself. Approaching the 2400 unit distance the gunfire sound is almost silent. Then, upon increasing the distance between yourself and the NPC a little more, the louder distant shooting sound takes it's place.
  
 
In the GECK Weapon record Form there are "attack sound" fields on two different tabs: "Art and Sound", and "Mod Info".
 
In the GECK Weapon record Form there are "attack sound" fields on two different tabs: "Art and Sound", and "Mod Info".
Line 3,021: Line 3,821:
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: NifSkope Texture Paths by Jokerine] Mod PDF.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: NifSkope Texture Paths by Jokerine] Mod PDF.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64746 NIF tangents and binormals updater] Command line tool to batch update tangents/binormals.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64746 NIF tangents and binormals updater] Command line tool to batch update tangents/binormals.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56203/? Material and Texture Animations in NifSkope - Tutorial] PDF/DOC download.
 
* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifSkope NifSkope Wiki] Wiki.
 
* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifSkope NifSkope Wiki] Wiki.
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/984792-tutorial-working-with-the-nicontrollermanager/ NifSkope: Working with the NiControllerManager] Forum Thread.  Alternate images available [http://www.mediafire.com/file/p0srsyrfuaszevp/Tutorial.zip here].
 
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/984792-tutorial-working-with-the-nicontrollermanager/ NifSkope: Working with the NiControllerManager] Forum Thread.  Alternate images available [http://www.mediafire.com/file/p0srsyrfuaszevp/Tutorial.zip here].
Line 3,026: Line 3,827:
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63770/? Nifskope Testing Skeleton] by clanky4. Mod for testing animations in NifSkope only.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63770/? Nifskope Testing Skeleton] by clanky4. Mod for testing animations in NifSkope only.
  
<span id="Tip-ModelMashups"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-AttachLightSource"></span>
==== TIP Merging parts from different source files ====
+
==== TIP Attaching a light source to a mesh ====
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''M48A5''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''MonsterMonkey''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">Sometimes you want to "mash up" parts of mesh (and texture) files from different sources. You might think to export parts of models from the source files as "*.OBJ" files, and then import them into your "*.NIF" files as "*.OBJ" in NifSkope. This is not how this is usually done, and will generally produce "array Shader Textures are invalid" and "device position incorrect after block number ##" errors.  These are caused by missing ''BSShaderPPLightingProperty'' entries, and thus no ''BSShaderTextureSet''.
+
">So, you have an existing mesh that needs a light source added to illuminate only a portion of it.  How do you go about it?
 +
* Open your mesh in '''NifSkope''', and attach a "new node > ''bsvaluenode''" where you want the light source.
 +
* Now you'll have to open the '''GECK''', and find ''AddonNodes''.
 +
: ''AddonNodes'' are particle meshes that can use a light source.
 +
* ''AddonNodes'' have an '''Index number'''. You 'll need this '''Index number''' in '''NifSkope''', so make note of the one you want.
 +
* Now go to '''NifSkope''', and in the ''bsvaluenode'' entry you created, go to the "value" line and write the related '''Index number''' of the ''AddonNode'' you want the mesh to use.
 +
The thread [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/4522240-attaching-light-to-mesh/ Attaching light to mesh?] has an example of the before and after effect on an image.
 +
</div>
  
Generally speaking: "*.OBJ" files are for use importing into Blender, and should be exported as "*.NIF" files to work in NifSkope. Blender is a much better tool for this sort of thing.
+
<span id="TIP-FloatingHead"></span>
 +
==== TIP Body part is floating ====
 +
: Thanks to '''AusAllerWelt''' of the Nexus "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the folowing:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">This problem is sometimes seen with a "mashup" (such as placing a helmet from one plugin on a head from another). Sometimes you can fix it by "skinning" the body part and leaving the ''scene root'' where it is to have the result appear correctly.
  
When moving '''parts''' of meshes between "*.NIF" files in NifSkope, use the "Copy Branch" and "Paste Branch" functions.
+
There is a technique that allows a mesh to call for a bone without being skinned. (Details on how this works are "murky", but quite a lot of hats and headgear items use it in the game.)  For this the object needs to have its ''scene root'' in a specific position; or the bone "floats" at a distance from the rest of the body.
  
'''NifSkope''' does not display ''textures'' from BSAs by default.  You have to point '''NifSkope''' to the BSA files location in it's settings.  In the '''NifSkope''' UI, left click "Options".  In the drop down menu, choose "Settings | Resources".  In the panel that opens, you will have to add the path to the BSAs. It should be the complete path, starting with the drive letter.  When you open "Resources" you should see a complete path to (and including) the "Data" folder.  If not, click on "Auto detect game path".
+
There is a bit of information about it in the [[Nifskope:_NiStringExtraData_guide | Nifskope: NiStringExtraData guide]].
 
 
When using ''custom textures'', you need to set the texture ''relative path'' to the '''loose file''' in the NIF with '''NifSkope'''.  This is done under ''BSShaderPPLightingProperty/BSShaderTextureSet''.  ("Relative" meaning the path starts BELOW the game "Data" folder: as in "textures\<some sub-folder>\<some filename>.dds".  No drive letters or any path above "textures\"; without even "Data\".  See the wiki article [[How_to_fix_hard-coded_texture_paths_in_NIF_files|How to fix hard-coded texture paths in NIF files]] for specific instructions.)
 
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-ModelLighting"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-ConvertNIFHeader"></span>
  
====TIP Model Lighting====
+
==== TIP Convert NIF header ====
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Troubleshooting" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When you want to change the header of your custom mesh from "NiNode" to "BSFadenode" (because it prevents your object from moving, etc.) or vice versa:
 +
Select the '''NiNode''', <Right Click>, select "Block | Convert", and choose your node type.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip LightingPropertyFlags"></span>
 +
==== TIP Lighting Property Flags ====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The thread [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/1188259-bslightingshaderproperty-basics/ BSLightingShaderProperty Basics"] has a "quick reference" guide and some links to additional information.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-ModelMashups"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Merging parts from different source files ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''M48A5''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Sometimes you want to "mash up" parts of mesh (and texture) files from different sources.  You might think to export parts of models from the source files as "*.OBJ" files, and then import them into your "*.NIF" files as "*.OBJ" in NifSkope.  This is not how this is usually done, and will generally produce "array Shader Textures are invalid" and "device position incorrect after block number ##" errors.  These are caused by missing ''BSShaderPPLightingProperty'' entries, and thus no ''BSShaderTextureSet''.
 +
 
 +
Generally speaking: "*.OBJ" files are for use importing into Blender, and should be exported as "*.NIF" files to work in NifSkope.  Blender is a much better tool for this sort of thing.
 +
 
 +
When moving '''parts''' of meshes between "*.NIF" files in NifSkope, use the "Copy Branch" and "Paste Branch" functions.
 +
 
 +
'''NifSkope''' does not display ''textures'' from BSAs by default.  You have to point '''NifSkope''' to the BSA files location in it's settings.  In the '''NifSkope''' UI, left click "Options".  In the drop down menu, choose "Settings | Resources".  In the panel that opens, you will have to add the path to the BSAs. It should be the complete path, starting with the drive letter.  When you open "Resources" you should see a complete path to (and including) the "Data" folder.  If not, click on "Auto detect game path".
 +
 
 +
When using ''custom textures'', you need to set the texture ''relative path'' to the '''loose file''' in the NIF with '''NifSkope'''.  This is done under ''BSShaderPPLightingProperty/BSShaderTextureSet''.  ("Relative" meaning the path starts BELOW the game "Data" folder: as in "textures\<some sub-folder>\<some filename>.dds".  No drive letters or any path above "textures\"; without even "Data\".  See the wiki article [[How_to_fix_hard-coded_texture_paths_in_NIF_files|How to fix hard-coded texture paths in NIF files]] for specific instructions.)
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-ModelLighting"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Model Lighting====
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
Line 3,056: Line 3,909:
 
A: The model determines the lighting in this game.  I'm asking, in the vanilla game was it seamless?  I don't mean the 2D ".dds" texture file; I'm asking, did it look seamless in-game?  [No, it doesn't.]
 
A: The model determines the lighting in this game.  I'm asking, in the vanilla game was it seamless?  I don't mean the 2D ".dds" texture file; I'm asking, did it look seamless in-game?  [No, it doesn't.]
  
(For any unfamiliar graphics related terms, please see the [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Glossary TESTG Glossary].)
+
(For any unfamiliar graphics related terms, please see the [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Glossary TESTG Glossary].)
  
 
So, the way it works is an object is lit dependent upon several factors.  The first is the ''normal map'' and its ''alpha channel''.  Obviously, you're telling me these are all the same texture, so that's not the problem here but it is certainly something to be aware of.  The ''normal map'' behaves as you expect, and its ''alpha channel'' is used as the ''specular map''.  Generally, you want that ''specular map'' to be mostly dark, down to drawing distinctly different effects in-game from a portion of a ''specular map'' that is 5% bright and 8% bright, for example (that is, 0% is pitch black, and bringing the RGB values all up 5% from 0 is 5%).
 
So, the way it works is an object is lit dependent upon several factors.  The first is the ''normal map'' and its ''alpha channel''.  Obviously, you're telling me these are all the same texture, so that's not the problem here but it is certainly something to be aware of.  The ''normal map'' behaves as you expect, and its ''alpha channel'' is used as the ''specular map''.  Generally, you want that ''specular map'' to be mostly dark, down to drawing distinctly different effects in-game from a portion of a ''specular map'' that is 5% bright and 8% bright, for example (that is, 0% is pitch black, and bringing the RGB values all up 5% from 0 is 5%).
Line 3,124: Line 3,977:
 
:* [[#TIP-RandomNPCcomments|Tip: Random NPC Comments.]]
 
:* [[#TIP-RandomNPCcomments|Tip: Random NPC Comments.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-DialogTabs|TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 
:* [[#Tip-DialogTabs|TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 +
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Conditions GECK Category: Conditions] GeckWiki.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Tutorials GECK Category: Tutorials page] GeckWiki.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Adding_an_Options_Menu GECK: Adding an Options Menu Tutorial] GeckWiki.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Bethsoft_Tutorial_Basic_Quest GECK: Bethsoft Tutorial Basic Quest] GeckWiki.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? GECK: Companion] Mod by '''Caprius'''.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/List_of_Global_Variables GECK: Global Variables List] GeckWiki.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/3Bauvvmo31g GECK: Making a Counter] (for tracking scripts.) Video (9:57) by ''' by Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Notes GECK: Notes] GeckWiki.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDE4yHOz0cQ GECK: Script to Spawn/Enable NPCs at a Certain Time] Video (2:28) by ''' Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Scripting_for_Beginners GECK: Scripting for Beginners] GeckWiki.
 +
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19mppusqPzQ GECK Tutorial - Terminals]  Video (6:30) by ''' Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://nvse.silverlock.org/ New Vegas Script Extender (NVSE)] Site.
 +
:* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(FOSE) FOSE Functions] GeckWiki.
 +
:* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Complete_List_of_Functions_in_NVSE NVSE Functions] GeckWiki.
 +
:* [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(JIP) JIPLN NVSE Functions] GeckWiki.
 +
:* [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(JohnnyGuitar_NVSE) JohnnyGuitar NVSE Functions] GeckWiki.
 +
:* [http://www.cipscis.com/fallout/tutorials/detecting_keypresses.aspx Tutorial - NVSE: Detecting Keypresses] Wiki.
 +
* [http://fallout.fandom.com/wiki/Pip-Boy_3000 Pipboy Interface Tabs] Wiki.
 +
* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Performance_Problems TES: Script Performance Problems] Original TES Construction Set Wiki.  Some things on this site are obsolete information as regards the GECK.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63880/? Timescale Pacemaker] Mod.
 +
* [http://tesalliance.org/forums/index.php?/topic/2318-how-to-make-a-terminal/ Tutorial - How to Make a Terminal in Fallout 3 DO something] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLrV-R_0hnY Tutorial - Making something happen every day] Video (5:19) by '''Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APnz-qdQxfQ Tutorial - Scripting Notes] Video (9:43) by '''Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62777/? Unlocked MCM - Advanced MCM script templates] Mod by '''DoctaSax'''.
 +
* The following tutorials are found on an "Adult (18+) Only Access" site.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/33181-scripting-in-fallout-new-vegas-for-dummies/ Scripting in Fallout New Vegas for Dummies] by '''tomm434'''.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/4320-fallout-new-vegas-geck-scripting-help-101/ Fallout New Vegas GECK & Scripting Help 101] Thread.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/26749-tutorial-nvse4-part-1-syntax-and-expressions/ NVSE4+: Syntax and Expressions - Part 1] by '''DoctaSax'''.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/26802-tutorial-nvse4-part-2-user-defined-functions-udfs/ NVSE4+: User Defined Functions (UDFs) - Part 2] by '''DoctaSax'''.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/26963-tutorial-nvse4-part-3-string-variables/ NVSE4+: String Variables - Part 3] by '''DoctaSax'''.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27076-tutorial-nvse4-part-4-array-variables/ NVSE4+: Array Variables] by '''DoctaSax'''.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/39417-tutorial-nvse4-part-5-event-handlers-user-defined-events-udes/ NVSE4+: Event Handlers & User-Defined Events (UDEs) - Part 5] by '''DoctaSax'''.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/22270-fnv-scripting-nx-variables/?hl=nvse4 FNV Scripting: NX Variables] by '''DoctaSax'''.
  
 
Refer back to the section [[#GECK_Form-ID,_Base-ID,_Ref-ID,_and_Editor-ID|GECK Form-ID, Base-ID, Ref-ID, and Editor-ID]] as necessary until the different types of "IDs" become second nature.  The distinctions are crucial to getting various script functions to work correctly.  They will primarily work with either ''Editor-ID'' or ''Reference-ID'' values.  They seldom work with both, but if so the syntax must be read carefully to determine which type of value is used for each parameter.
 
Refer back to the section [[#GECK_Form-ID,_Base-ID,_Ref-ID,_and_Editor-ID|GECK Form-ID, Base-ID, Ref-ID, and Editor-ID]] as necessary until the different types of "IDs" become second nature.  The distinctions are crucial to getting various script functions to work correctly.  They will primarily work with either ''Editor-ID'' or ''Reference-ID'' values.  They seldom work with both, but if so the syntax must be read carefully to determine which type of value is used for each parameter.
Line 3,142: Line 4,030:
 
But merely existing in a saved/compiled form means nothing towards having that script tell the game engine what to do.  You must attach it to something (based upon which one of the 3 types it is) to then have the script code interact with the other dynamic game code.
 
But merely existing in a saved/compiled form means nothing towards having that script tell the game engine what to do.  You must attach it to something (based upon which one of the 3 types it is) to then have the script code interact with the other dynamic game code.
  
 +
==== Scripting Assistance ====
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64888/? GECK Extender] NVSE Plugin.  Project to extend GECK functionality and bug fixes.  Compatible with all NVSE script extender plugins.  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64888/? GECK Extender] NVSE Plugin.  Project to extend GECK functionality and bug fixes.  Compatible with all NVSE script extender plugins.  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
Line 3,150: Line 4,039:
 
* [http://www.cipscis.com/fallout/tutorials/beginners.aspx CIPSCIS: Scripting for Beginners] HTML Tutorial.  Does not support "script extender" syntax.
 
* [http://www.cipscis.com/fallout/tutorials/beginners.aspx CIPSCIS: Scripting for Beginners] HTML Tutorial.  Does not support "script extender" syntax.
 
* [http://code.tutsplus.com/tutorials/top-15-best-practices-for-writing-super-readable-code--net-8118 Top 15 Best Practices for Writing Super Readable Code] HTML.
 
* [http://code.tutsplus.com/tutorials/top-15-best-practices-for-writing-super-readable-code--net-8118 Top 15 Best Practices for Writing Super Readable Code] HTML.
 
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/67395 RuntimeScriptProfiler] by '''lStewieAl - shadeMe'''. An NVSE plugin to profile script execution. Ported from '''shadeMe''''s '''Oblivion''' pluginUse this to check how efficient your script is when running.
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 
* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Category:Conditions GECK Category: Conditions] Wiki.
 
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Tutorials GECK Category: Tutorials page] Wiki.
 
* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Adding_an_Options_Menu GECK: Adding an Options Menu Tutorial]
 
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Bethsoft_Tutorial_Basic_Quest GECK: Bethsoft Tutorial Basic Quest]
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? GECK: Companion by Caprius] Mod.
 
* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/List_of_Global_Variables GECK: Global Variable]
 
* [http://youtu.be/3Bauvvmo31g GECK: Making a Counter by Seddon4494] (for tracking scripts.) Video.
 
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Notes GECK: Notes]
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDE4yHOz0cQ GECK: Script to Spawn/Enable NPCs at a Certain Time] Video.
 
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Scripting_for_Beginners GECK: Scripting for Beginners] Wiki.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=APnz-qdQxfQ Tutorial - Scripting Notes] Video by '''Seddon4494'''.
 
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLrV-R_0hnY Making something happen every day] Video by '''Seddon4494'''.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62777/? Unlocked MCM - Advanced MCM script templates] Mod by '''DoctaSax'''.
 
* [http://nvse.silverlock.org/ New Vegas Script Extender (NVSE)] Site.
 
:* [http://www.gribbleshnibit.com/projects/NVSEDocs/# NVSE Documentation] by gribbleshnibit.
 
:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=MessageBoxEx NVSE MessageBoxEx function] Wiki.
 
:* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Con_SCOF NVSE: Con_SCOF]
 
:* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Debug_Dumps NVSE: Debug Dumps]
 
:* [http://www.cipscis.com/fallout/tutorials/detecting_keypresses.aspx NVSE: Detecting Keypresses] Wiki.
 
:* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/SetDebugMode NVSE: SetDebugMode]
 
* [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Pip-Boy_3000 Pipboy Tabs]
 
* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Performance_Problems TES: Script Performance Problems] TES Construction Set WikiSome things on this site are obsolete information as regards the GECK.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63880/? Timescale Pacemaker]
 
* The following tutorials are found on an "Adult (18+) Only Access" site.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/33181-scripting-in-fallout-new-vegas-for-dummies/ Scripting in Fallout New Vegas for Dummies] by tomm434.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/4320-fallout-new-vegas-geck-scripting-help-101/ Fallout New Vegas GECK & Scripting Help 101] Thread.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/26749-tutorial-nvse4-part-1-syntax-and-expressions/ NVSE4+: Syntax and Expressions - Part 1] by DoctaSax.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/26802-tutorial-nvse4-part-2-user-defined-functions-udfs/ NVSE4+: User Defined Functions (UDFs) - Part 2] by DoctaSax.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/26963-tutorial-nvse4-part-3-string-variables/ NVSE4+: String Variables - Part 3] by DoctaSax.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27076-tutorial-nvse4-part-4-array-variables/ NVSE4+: Array Variables] by DoctaSax.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/39417-tutorial-nvse4-part-5-event-handlers-user-defined-events-udes/ NVSE4+: Event Handlers & User-Defined Events (UDEs) - Part 5] by DoctaSax.
 
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/22270-fnv-scripting-nx-variables/?hl=nvse4 FNV Scripting: NX Variables] by DoctaSax.
 
  
 
==== '''TIP Best Practice'''  Do not begin EditorIDs with numbers ====
 
==== '''TIP Best Practice'''  Do not begin EditorIDs with numbers ====
Line 3,205: Line 4,061:
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">Do not get careless when choosing how you "group" ([http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Encapsulation Encapsulate]) expressions in FNV scripting.  For instance, some functions need to be "encapsulated" using "(parentheses)", aka 'parens', in order to return a single value.  "Parens" around complete expressions are almost always not harmful and can help the line parser in determining the order in which to process multiple expression combinations on the same line.  (See [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/NVSE_Expressions NVSE Expressions] on operator precedence and overriding the default precedence.)  However, "[square brackets]" are exclusively used for handling arrays and NVSE string vars.  "{Curly Braces}" encapsulate a function as an argument to another function. (i.e. ''"if eval (somefunc <span style="color: red;">'''{'''</span>someotherfunc arg1 arg2<span style="color: red;">'''}'''</span> arg3)"'' ).  Mixing up their use can allow a script to compile, but fail the first time it is run.  Their different uses can often be easily overlooked when trying to determine why things are going wrong.  Best practice is to use "parens" unless you know you need to use something else.
+
">Do not get careless when choosing how you "group" ([http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Encapsulation Encapsulate]) expressions in FNV scripting.  For instance, some functions need to be "encapsulated" using "(parentheses)", aka 'parens', in order to return a single value.  "Parens" around complete expressions are almost always not harmful and can help the line parser in determining the order in which to process multiple expression combinations on the same line.  (See [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=NVSE_Expressions NVSE Expressions] on operator precedence and overriding the default precedence.)  However, "[square brackets]" are exclusively used for handling arrays and NVSE string vars.  "{Curly Braces}" encapsulate a function as an argument to another function. (i.e. ''"if eval (somefunc <span style="color: red;">'''{'''</span>someotherfunc arg1 arg2<span style="color: red;">'''}'''</span> arg3)"'' ).  Mixing up their use can allow a script to compile, but fail the first time it is run.  Their different uses can often be easily overlooked when trying to determine why things are going wrong.  Best practice is to use "parens" unless you know you need to use something else.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Line 3,218: Line 4,074:
 
Using commas to separate function parameters is actually preferable, especially when you use advanced NVSE scripting (CO, arrays, UDFs with dynamically constructed parameters in the call line). Much like extensive use of parentheses, it not only keeps things more readable for yourself, but prevents errors at compile or at run time. It isn't usually needed for simple code, but it's a good practice to get into for when it is needed, so let's please not advise against doing it.</div>
 
Using commas to separate function parameters is actually preferable, especially when you use advanced NVSE scripting (CO, arrays, UDFs with dynamically constructed parameters in the call line). Much like extensive use of parentheses, it not only keeps things more readable for yourself, but prevents errors at compile or at run time. It isn't usually needed for simple code, but it's a good practice to get into for when it is needed, so let's please not advise against doing it.</div>
  
 +
<span id="Tip-ShareVariables"></span>
 +
==== '''TIP Best Practice''' Sharing Variables between Scripts ====
 +
: Thanks to  the contributors to the [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/4320-fallout-new-vegas-geck-scripting-help-101/ Fallout New Vegas GECK & Scripting Help 101] forum on the (Age 18+ gated) "LoversLab.com" site for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When you want to share variables across more than one script, create a simple "Quest" with a name indicating it's purpose (e.g. "<MyCurrentQuest>VAR").  It doesn't need to do anything (i.e. it can be completely empty), but you need to enable the "StartGame enabled" checkbox.
 +
 +
Then create a new script to be run when that Quest starts, so name it something related like "<MyCurrentQuest>VARScript", and use the "Script Type" drop down list at the top right of the "Script Edit" shortcut icons to designate it as "Quest" type.
 +
 +
Now define any variables you want to use across more than one script or permit others to read for other Mods.
 +
 +
Important points to remember:
 +
* As a general practice: Declare all your variables at the top. If you declare them all over the place when you need them, you'll eventually regret it.
 +
 +
* Variables declared OUTSIDE the BEGIN blocks retain their value between runs, and in save games. Variables declared INSIDE a BEGIN block will be reset to 0 each time the script is run.  In this "variable declaration script" you do not need or want any "BEGIN/END" blocks.
 +
 +
* Prefix your variable with their "function type" to avoid confusion when using them in other scripts.
 +
 +
* Use "floats" (floating decimal values) or "ints" (integer values), but never "shorts".  The less you have to type the better, and using a "non-int" alias in the '''GECK''' language will cause confusion among those who know another programming language.  Don't expect a "short" to roll over at 32767 or 65535; it will roll over at 2-billion-something just like a regular signed integer. 
 +
 +
* Use prefixes for ''usage'' and ''functionality'', not "datatype".
 +
 +
* All numeric vars in the '''GECK''' language are signed (can be negative).
 +
 +
* When naming variables, try to be consistent. You don't need to adhere to any naming scheme other than what you like but stay consistent with whatever you do choose to use. Many programmers are "Hungarian Camel Case" users (e.g. "int iMyCount", "short sTheValue", "ref rTheNPC", etc.) following [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hungarian_notation#Systems_vs._Applications_Hungarian Hungarian notation].
 +
 +
* Strive to always put constants on the LEFT. "if (0 == foo)" is preferable to "if (foo == 0)". This is more important in other languages, but it's because statements are evaulated from left to right across a line of code. The practice comes from the C languages, where the first time you write "if (foo = 0)" when you meant "if (foo == 0)" you'll understand why.
 +
 +
* Use parenthesis generously, but judiciously. You can almost never have too many.
 +
 +
* Indent your code consistently (makes bug hunting easier). Settle on using spaces or tabs (spaces are heavily preferred as tab stops can vary in spacing on the same line) and stick to it.  If you expect to indent a lot, try to use no fewer than two spaces for readability.
 +
 +
* Try to be ''explicit'' at all times rather than ''implicit''.  Assuming that version X treats something one way can burn you when version Y changes the default behavior.  A good example is using a function without prefacing it with "Player.". While this may be assumed to be true, it can easily not be true depending on situation. So if you mean to run something on the player, be explicit and say so... never trust implicit compiler/interpreter behavior.
 +
 +
* Just because you can change something doesn't mean you should. There are tons of globals and gamesettings that can be altered with almost no effort on your part ... with horrible side effects and consequences for everyone else. Try to ALWAYS consider what repercussions your changes could have for other scripters and other modders.  Always try to remember that your playstyle isn't more or less important than everyone else's playstyle. Be considerate in your choices whenever possible.
 +
 +
* If you've created a mod and find yourself whining about how many bugs your users complain about and you end up spending a ton of time on support ... well, stop putting so many bugs into your mods!  Just remember one word: testing, testing, testing, testing, testing, testing, testing, testing, testing, testing, testing, TESTING. Each hour spent testing will eliminate 5+ hours of support. Well worth the time and effort.
 +
 +
* Document your mod somewhere.  Maybe not in the scripts themselves (due to size limits), but somewhere. Coming back to a mod you made two years ago can be harder than writing it from scratch. The more documentation you have, the easier maintaining a mod will be.
 +
 +
* Understand the block types and what functions can and should and can't and should NOT be used in each one. You can easily block thread execution with the wrong function and freeze a quest. Always give your code time to actually work. Many functions take longer than 1 pass (1 frame) to run. If in doubt, create stages and allow your script time to breathe.  (See [[#TIP_Block_Types_Multiple_vs_Single_Frame_processing|TIP Block Types Multiple vs Single Frame processing]].)
 +
 +
* NEVER NEVER NEVER use a local variable in a '''result script''' if you plan on it retaining a value. That includes ''quest stages, dialogue or any other small fragment of code'' that isn't in a script file. All of these scripts erase their variables after execution.  Also, these fragment scripts act on top of other variables, replacing their scope. So if you have a global named '''iMyCount''' and you declare '''int iMyCount''' in a fragment, you are blocking the global and replacing it with your variable while that fragment is running.  Whenever possible, avoid using local variables in a fragment unless they're "fire and forget" variables that do not need to retain any information.
 +
 +
There are many more tips from experienced scripters in that thread.  Check it out.
 +
</div>
 +
 
<span id="Tip-VariablePrefixes"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-VariablePrefixes"></span>
 +
 
==== '''TIP Best Practice'''  Type prefixes for Variables ====
 
==== '''TIP Best Practice'''  Type prefixes for Variables ====
 
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 3,230: Line 4,136:
  
 
* b - A ''boolean'' (aka "''bool''") is a variable that can be only true (set to 1) or false (set to 0).  We don't have true ''bools'' in this '''GECK''' programming language, but variables that a programmer knows will only ever be set to true or false can be referred to as a ''bool'' and its name can be chosen accordingly for organizational purposes.  They are technically defined as the short/integer variety of '''type'''.
 
* b - A ''boolean'' (aka "''bool''") is a variable that can be only true (set to 1) or false (set to 0).  We don't have true ''bools'' in this '''GECK''' programming language, but variables that a programmer knows will only ever be set to true or false can be referred to as a ''bool'' and its name can be chosen accordingly for organizational purposes.  They are technically defined as the short/integer variety of '''type'''.
 
: Example:
 
<pre>
 
short bFoundJohn
 
int bFoundJohn
 
</pre>
 
* f - a ''float'' is a variable that can store numbers that are in between integers.  Essentially, numbers that can have decimal values (e.g. "1.001").  Some functions will return a number that is in between two integers, and if you want to store that value as a variable for use in your script, it generally must be declared as a ''float'' variable.  A popular one is '''GetSecondsPassed''' for example.
 
 
: Example:
 
<pre>
 
float fTimer
 
</pre>
 
* i - an ''int'' variable is the same as a ''short'' variable, but we only use the 'i' prefix so that we can use the 's' prefix to denote a ''string'' variable, which we'll talk about in a minute.  ''Int/short'' variables can only be integers, or whole numbers.  If you try to use one to store a value that should be a ''float'', it may round down (truncate) to the nearest whole number or it may just not work.  These are the most common variables for our use.
 
  
 
: Example:
 
: Example:
Line 3,254: Line 4,147:
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
">
 
">
int DoOnce<br>
+
short bFoundJohn
int iDoOnce<br>
+
int bFoundJohn
int bDoOnce<br>
 
short DoOnce<br>
 
short iRaidersKilled ; (probably the number of raiders player killed)<br>
 
int bRaidersKilled  ; (probably if the player's killed all the designated raiders, or if they've killed at least one, depending on what you want)
 
 
</div>
 
</div>
* s - a ''string'' variable is a weird oneIt's text, and requires special treatmentIt tends to be stuff the scripting language doesn't really understand and just takes on faith that you do.  You probably won't work with these for a while.  In general, the content of a ''string'' variable is for "human consumption"(such as a message or note) rather than use by the script/program.
+
* f - a ''float'' is a variable that can store numbers that are in between integersEssentially, numbers that can have decimal values (e.g. "1.001")Some functions will return a number that is in between two integers, and if you want to store that value as a variable for use in your script, it generally must be declared as a ''float'' variable.  A popular one is '''GetSecondsPassed''' for example.
  
:Example:
+
: Example:
 
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"  
 
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;"
 
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word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
">
 
">
string_var sDogName ; whatever the player typed for a dog's name at some point in your quest, so that it can appear in notes<br>
+
float fTimer
string_var sBone    ; whatever bone/node in the .nif model is relevant to the script for whatever reason
+
</div>
 +
* i - an ''int'' variable is the same as a ''short'' variable, but we only use the 'i' prefix so that we can use the 's' prefix to denote a ''string'' variable, which we'll talk about in a minute.  ''Int/short'' variables can only be integers, or whole numbers.  If you try to use one to store a value that should be a ''float'', it may round down (truncate) to the nearest whole number or it may just not work.  These are the most common variables for our use.
 +
 
 +
: Example:
 +
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;"
 +
/* Remove the next four 'white-space' lines to restore default white-space processing. */
 +
white-space: pre-wrap;      /* css-3 */
 +
white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  /* Mozilla, since 1999 */
 +
white-space: -pre-wrap;      /* Opera 4-6 */
 +
white-space: -o-pre-wrap;    /* Opera 7+ */
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
int DoOnce<br>
 +
int iDoOnce<br>
 +
int bDoOnce<br>
 +
short DoOnce<br>
 +
short iRaidersKilled ; (probably the number of raiders player killed)<br>
 +
int bRaidersKilled  ; (probably if the player's killed all the designated raiders, or if they've killed at least one, depending on what you want)
 +
</div>
 +
* s - a ''string'' variable is a weird one.  It's text, and requires special treatment.  It tends to be stuff the scripting language doesn't really understand and just takes on faith that you do.  You probably won't work with these for a while.  In general, the content of a ''string'' variable is for "human consumption"(such as a message or note) rather than use by the script/program.
 +
 
 +
:Example:
 +
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;"
 +
/* Remove the next four 'white-space' lines to restore default white-space processing. */
 +
white-space: pre-wrap;      /* css-3 */
 +
white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  /* Mozilla, since 1999 */
 +
white-space: -pre-wrap;      /* Opera 4-6 */
 +
white-space: -o-pre-wrap;    /* Opera 7+ */
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
string_var sDogName ; whatever the player typed for a dog's name at some point in your quest, so that it can appear in notes<br>
 +
string_var sBone    ; whatever bone/node in the .nif model is relevant to the script for whatever reason
 
</div>
 
</div>
 
* a - ''array'' variables are incredible, but an "advanced" technique.  It's a steep learning curve but they're easy once you've passed that.  They are basically like form lists, but they are made dynamically at run-time via script.
 
* a - ''array'' variables are incredible, but an "advanced" technique.  It's a steep learning curve but they're easy once you've passed that.  They are basically like form lists, but they are made dynamically at run-time via script.
Line 3,294: Line 4,216:
 
: <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">WARNING: Mixing up ''references'' and ''base objects'', especially when assigning them to arrays, is one of the most common and lethal mistakes in '''Gamebryo''' scripting.  Always double check what the '''''type''''' of value any function you are using to assign them to an array is returning.  Unfortunate results can become baked into save game files, causing bloat.  The only remedy in such cases seems to be deletion of the ".nvse" file for the "save game" when it occurs, which will affect other mods which depend upon information saved in it with unpredictable results.</span>
 
: <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">WARNING: Mixing up ''references'' and ''base objects'', especially when assigning them to arrays, is one of the most common and lethal mistakes in '''Gamebryo''' scripting.  Always double check what the '''''type''''' of value any function you are using to assign them to an array is returning.  Unfortunate results can become baked into save game files, causing bloat.  The only remedy in such cases seems to be deletion of the ".nvse" file for the "save game" when it occurs, which will affect other mods which depend upon information saved in it with unpredictable results.</span>
  
* r - ''reference'' variables store a reference to an instance of an object placed in the game world.  This is often an actor or a specific object that you'll need to refer to later in your script.
+
* r - ''reference'' variables can store either a ''reference form'' or a ''base form''.  ''Base forms'' are the original "template" form as it was created in '''GECK''', BEFORE placing it in the game world.  ''Reference forms'' are specific instances of a ''base form'' AFTER they have been placed in the game world.  (There can be many ''reference forms'' of the same ''base form''.)  Their relationship to ''reference variables'' is that of a specific actor or object that you'll need to refer to later in your script. (See the [[#GECK_Form-ID_Base-ID_Ref-ID_and_Editor-ID|GECK Form-ID Base-ID Ref-ID and Editor-ID]] section.)
  
 
: Example:
 
: Example:
Line 3,309: Line 4,231:
 
ref rTarget  ; often the choice for functions like '''GetOwnerLastTarget'''
 
ref rTarget  ; often the choice for functions like '''GetOwnerLastTarget'''
 
</div>
 
</div>
: Note you can use a different prefix with the same variable name (e.g. see the various "DoOnce" definitions under "i - integer"), and the '''GECK''' will treat them as distinct, separate entities. (But note "short DoOnce" and "int DoOnce" are not unique variable names.  They are defining the same variable name to the same type.)  However, that can get very confusing after awhile and is not recommended as a casual practice.  But it can have it's place.
+
Note you can use a different prefix with the same variable name (e.g. see the various "DoOnce" definitions under "i - integer"), and the '''GECK''' will treat them as distinct, separate entities. (But note "short DoOnce" and "int DoOnce" are not unique variable names.  They are defining the same variable name to the same type.)  However, that can get very confusing after awhile and is not recommended as a casual practice.  But it can have it's place.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-CheckVariables"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-SaveBloat"></span>
  
==== TIP Assigning and Testing variables ====
+
==== Tip '''Best Practice''' Avoiding Save Game Bloat ====
: Thanks to '''Mktavish''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
 
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word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
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">Assigning a value to a variable and then attempting to use that variable immediately afterwards usually doesn't work reliably. This is because the game engine appears to need at least one frame between the assignment and then being able to have that assigned value available in the variable in the same "action block" (e.g. "GameMode", etc. block).
+
">'''LuthienAnarion''' (of the '''JIP LN NVSE Plugin''') reports the game saves data about every reference in every cell you have ever visited.  Save files are supposed to get larger and larger as you explore more and more locations (called "bloat"), and their size is something the player should not normally concern themselves with.  (Save Files in the tens of MB are common.)  Bloat is less of a problem for '''FO3/FNV''' than it is for '''Skyrim''' because scripts are not included in the save game files.  However, script authors should still try to avoid adding to it wherever possible using the following '''best practices'''.
 +
 
 +
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Ar_Null Ar Null]: As of '''NVSE 4.6.2''', arrays defined in [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=User_Defined_Function UDF] scripts are cleaned up automatically, '''but those held in other scripts are not'''. Therefore it is essential to use ''Ar_Null'' to clear any local array variables when other scripts terminate to avoid save game bloat.
 +
 
 +
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Sv_Destruct Sv_Destruct] the local string variables or they can cause save game bloat.
 +
 
 +
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Disable Disable] does not remove references from the game, just stops them from rendering. Do not rely on ''Disable'' to prevent savegame bloat by removing references.
 +
 
 +
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=MarkForDelete MarkForDelete] should be used to remove '''temporary references''' from the game.  '''GECK''' Editor placed objects cannot be deleted.
 +
 
 +
Excessive use of ''repeatable quest stages'' causes load time problems in some cases. The effect should be apparent after only a few hours of play. Low quest delays seem to affect it. '''Roy Batterian''' (of '''TTW''', '''4GB Patcher''', and 30+ mods) has never been able to determine the exact circumstances under which it occurs so he has just quit using them and uses functions instead. ''Quest stages'' are "save baked", so perhaps this is behind it.
  
The solution is to first check if the variable is set to other than it's default, and if not to then set the variable, and process the "true" condition the next frame.  For example:
+
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=PlaceAtMe PlaceAtMe] and [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=PlaceLeveledActorAtMe PlaceLeveledActorAtMe] should be used sparingly, as they do create '''temporary references''', so once the player leaves the loaded cell and they are unloaded they will still remain in the save file as scripts cannot run on them to delete or reference them.
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
+
 
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+
Actors should be ''spawned'' with '''spawn markers'''; having them initially disabled and then enabled will cause them to spawn immediately. If you want to do "waves of enemies" you can disable the '''spawn marker''' again and run resurrect on it (provided the spawned actor is dead and the marker is persistent), and then re-enable it.
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
+
 
 +
''PlaceAtMe'' can also cause various '''havok''' problems like invincible creatures that have '''effect shaders''' and other weirdness: the '''Reavers''' in the "presidential metro" of '''Fallout 3''' is a good example of this bug.  It can also cause crashing due to memory problems and other stuff.  (See any mods with waves of enemies created this way; e.g. '''Someguy2000''''s '''The Better Angels''' exhibits this issue).
 +
 
 +
Tons of lootable items also cause save bloat as the state of the items is "baked" when they are taken.
 +
 
 +
Dropped items get "save baked" too, so it's best to put them in a container.
 +
 
 +
There is also the '''GECKWiki''' article [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Causes_of_CTDs Causes of CTDs] authors should be aware of as well.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-CheckVariables"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Assigning and Testing variables ====
 +
: Thanks to '''Mktavish''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
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style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Assigning a value to a variable and then attempting to use that variable immediately afterwards usually doesn't work reliably.  This is because the game engine appears to need at least one frame between the assignment and then being able to have that assigned value available in the variable in the same "action block" (e.g. "GameMode", etc. block).
 +
 
 +
The solution is to first check if the variable is set to other than it's default, and if not to then set the variable, and process the "true" condition the next frame.  For example:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
">short DoOnce
 
">short DoOnce
 
Begin GameMode
 
Begin GameMode
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==== TIP Adding Items to Actors ''aka Leveled Lists'' ====
 
==== TIP Adding Items to Actors ''aka Leveled Lists'' ====
: Thanks to '''Ladez''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
+
: Thanks to '''Ladez''', '''EDPGaffney''', and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
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Note that by default it takes 72 hours in-game for an Actor's "inventory" to get recalculated (updated from a "leveled list").  You can force the inventory to "reset" by calling the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ResetInventory ResetInventory] function on the container reference, but remember that "all previously added, removed, or calculated objects will be lost".  See the GECK Wiki entry on "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Force_an_actor_to_equip_new_stuff Force an actor to equip new stuff]" as well.
 
Note that by default it takes 72 hours in-game for an Actor's "inventory" to get recalculated (updated from a "leveled list").  You can force the inventory to "reset" by calling the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ResetInventory ResetInventory] function on the container reference, but remember that "all previously added, removed, or calculated objects will be lost".  See the GECK Wiki entry on "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Force_an_actor_to_equip_new_stuff Force an actor to equip new stuff]" as well.
  
The vanilla GECK function is "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/AddItemToLeveledList AddItemToLeveledList]". As the wiki says: <blockquote>
+
The vanilla GECK function is "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/AddItemToLeveledList AddItemToLeveledList]". As the wiki says:  
 +
<blockquote>
 
"This should be used in the RARE case where we want to add an item to a Leveled Item list that already exists in the ESM. Its primary use is for modifying lists from the base game in downloadable content. In most cases you should add items to form lists in the editor object windows. This is for those special cases where you want to alter the contents of a list at runtime or want to change it without putting it in your ESP/ESM file. Once altered using this function, it will persist in the save game data.
 
"This should be used in the RARE case where we want to add an item to a Leveled Item list that already exists in the ESM. Its primary use is for modifying lists from the base game in downloadable content. In most cases you should add items to form lists in the editor object windows. This is for those special cases where you want to alter the contents of a list at runtime or want to change it without putting it in your ESP/ESM file. Once altered using this function, it will persist in the save game data.
  
Line 3,390: Line 4,345:
 
</blockquote>
 
</blockquote>
  
The "Lutana" extension to NVSE (now part of the "JIP LN NVSE" plugin) has the following "leveled list" functions which are preferred as overcoming the drawbacks of the vanilla GECK functions.
+
The "Lutana" extension to NVSE (now part of the "JIP LN NVSE" plugin) has the following "leveled list" functions which are preferred as overcoming the drawbacks of the vanilla GECK functions. But first read the '''Notes ''' on the [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:List_Functions Category:List_Functions] page regarding important cautions.  According to '''Roy Batterian''' per '''jazzisparis''' in the "JIP LN NVSE Plugin" comments [https://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58277?tab=posts thread]: "They should only be used on new empty lists, and never to remove any items with them. They just are not safe to use that way.  Kind of defeats the purpose of the functions, but it is what it is. However you can always create new lists via script, and then change the list that things are pointing to. You can do that with '''AddFormToFormList''' as well.  But change the lists things use at runtime, [then] it's still safe to remove mods, and probably a better solution anyway, as just changing that will cause a lot less startup lag."
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/LeveledListAddForm LeveledListAddForm]
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/LeveledListAddForm LeveledListAddForm]
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/LeveledListRemoveForm LeveledListRemoveForm]
 
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/LeveledListRemoveForm LeveledListRemoveForm]
Line 3,398: Line 4,353:
 
So, scripting added items with functions such as ''LeveledListAddForm'' needs to be done every time the game is started.  Most do it at "launch", but it can be done at every "reload" instead.  The vanilla function ''AddItemToLeveledList'' by contrast will save in the "save game" data.  It's not necessarily a bad function if you know how to use it (with a ''bDoOnce'' condition check most likely).  But likewise, modders need to know that the '''Lutana''' functions must be done each session/game load.  Items already spawned will of course remain in inventories if the '''Lutana''' function is called just once, but the items will never turn up anywhere else once the game is closed unless the function is called again next time.
 
So, scripting added items with functions such as ''LeveledListAddForm'' needs to be done every time the game is started.  Most do it at "launch", but it can be done at every "reload" instead.  The vanilla function ''AddItemToLeveledList'' by contrast will save in the "save game" data.  It's not necessarily a bad function if you know how to use it (with a ''bDoOnce'' condition check most likely).  But likewise, modders need to know that the '''Lutana''' functions must be done each session/game load.  Items already spawned will of course remain in inventories if the '''Lutana''' function is called just once, but the items will never turn up anywhere else once the game is closed unless the function is called again next time.
  
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word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">'''madmongo''' contributes: Here is an example using vanilla code. Create a quest called, let's say: "MyWeaponsModQuest" and check the box to have it ''enabled at startup''. Then create the following script, check the box to make it a ''quest script'', and in "MyWeaponsModQuest" change the quest to be this script. This will add a custom weapon with the "editor ID" of "MyWeaponID1" to the two form lists shown in the script (basically the two "Holdout" weapon form lists).
 +
<div style="margin:0px 10px 10px 50px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;">
 +
scn MyWeaponsModQuestScript<br>
 +
int MyWeapModStartupDone<br>
 +
begin GameMode
 +
: if MyWeapModStartupDone != 1
 +
:: AddFormToFormList NVHoldoutWeapons MyWeaponID1
 +
:: AddFormToFormList NVImprovedHoldoutWeapons MyWeaponID1
 +
:: set MyWeapModStartupDone to 1
 +
:: StopQuest MyWeaponsModQuest
 +
: endif
 +
end
 +
</div>
 +
So the way this works is the quest is enabled at startup, so it's going to run through its quest script. The quest script adds the weapon to the two "Holdout" form lists then sets a flag (MyWeapModStartupDone) so that it will only run through that code in the script once. Then it stops the quest so that the script doesn't keep running in the background and doing nothing except wasting some CPU time.
 +
 +
Copy/paste the above script as needed, changing the quest name and "editor IDs" to match your names.
 +
</div>
 
Always test from a "new game" file instead of a save game from a play session.
 
Always test from a "new game" file instead of a save game from a play session.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-Conditionals"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-Conditionals"></span>
 +
 
==== TIP Basic '''conditional test''' syntax ====
 
==== TIP Basic '''conditional test''' syntax ====
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
Line 3,439: Line 4,416:
  
 
Indenting the beginning and ending statements of "blocks" to the same level helps ensure you have correctly matched them up.  (This is one of the most common syntax errors preventing a script from compiling, and hard to track down otherwise.)
 
Indenting the beginning and ending statements of "blocks" to the same level helps ensure you have correctly matched them up.  (This is one of the most common syntax errors preventing a script from compiling, and hard to track down otherwise.)
 +
 +
An "if / elseif /else" structure is a way of handling a series of specific situations where only one condition can be true (or false) and you want to ensure you have covered all the possibilities.  So think of it conceptually as:
 +
<pre>
 +
If ("test condition1" is "true") then
 +
  take action1
 +
ElseIf ("test condition2" is "true") then
 +
  take action2
 +
ElseIf (as many "test conditions" as needed)
 +
  ...
 +
Else ;no anticipated conditions are true
 +
  take some alternative action indicating "no anticipated result"
 +
EndIf ;this test block is done
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
You should always consider what to do if your initial "condition test" fails.  This is where the other statements ("ElseIf" and "Else") come into play.  (They are considered to be part of the same "If / EndIf" block at the same level of nesting, and cannot appear on their own.)  Even if you decide to "do nothing", it is helpful to both yourself and others to employ either an explicit or implied "Else" statement which either displays a message to that effect or simply has a comment just so you know what you anticipated at that point when reviewing the code at a later point in time when you may have forgotten details.
 +
 +
Use an "ElseIf" only if you want to "test" before you do something in the case where that "condition" may have alternate values.  Otherwise use a simple "Else".
 +
 +
If you do not want to take any action if none of those "test conditions" are true, but don't need to do something when they all fail, then you don't need an "Else" at all.  However, it is often a good idea to place a "debug" message in an "Else" section to indicate that the tests all failed, at least until you know that part of the script is working as intended.  Otherwise the tests all fail and the "EndIf" terminates the test block with no actions or message and "falls through" to the next line of code; which can give a false impression of "success".
 +
 +
The main point is that an "ElseIF" requires another test condition.  An "Else" will only process if no other "If" or "ElseIf" statements were true.  It is a "failsafe" for indicating that the test section was processed.
  
 
Finally, note that ''"let < var > :="'' is '''NVSE''' syntax.  (Vanilla uses ''"set < var> to < value >"'' syntax.)  You must have '''NVSE''' loaded when running the GECK (use the '''GECK Extender''': link under [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]]) to use it, (and specify '''NVSE''' as a requirement for your mod if you publish it) or you will get a ''compiler error'' and your users will not be able to get the mod to function correctly without it.  Don't let that stop you as almost everyone has '''NVSE''' installed anyway, but it is important to realize.
 
Finally, note that ''"let < var > :="'' is '''NVSE''' syntax.  (Vanilla uses ''"set < var> to < value >"'' syntax.)  You must have '''NVSE''' loaded when running the GECK (use the '''GECK Extender''': link under [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]]) to use it, (and specify '''NVSE''' as a requirement for your mod if you publish it) or you will get a ''compiler error'' and your users will not be able to get the mod to function correctly without it.  Don't let that stop you as almost everyone has '''NVSE''' installed anyway, but it is important to realize.
Line 3,444: Line 4,442:
  
 
<span id="BlockTypeProcessing"></span>
 
<span id="BlockTypeProcessing"></span>
 +
 
==== TIP Block Types ''Multiple vs Single Frame processing'' ====
 
==== TIP Block Types ''Multiple vs Single Frame processing'' ====
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
Line 3,470: Line 4,469:
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="Tip-CompilingScripts"></span>
+
<span id="Tip-CompanionInvenotry"></span>
 
+
==== TIP Companion Inventory Weight ====
==== TIP Compiling Scripts ====
+
: Thanks to '''user826''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"  
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">You may notice error messages that report "script is not compiled".  This may cause some confusion, so to clarify the situation:<br>
+
">When attempting to use a hidden Actor as a storage container, it was discovered that calling "[ActorREF].GetAV InventoryWeight" always seemed to return zero, even if the hidden Actor was marked as a "companion".  The inventory can be accessed just fine but the weight cannot be determined.
The GECK ''compiles'' a script when saving it.  This means it turns the "human readable" instructions into binary "machine code".  This is more efficient for the game engine to process.  Editing and saving a script individually is the preferred method of ''compiling''.  A script that is not ''compiled'' will still run as long as it is properly constructed; without any errors.  But ''compiling'' is usually the only way to ensure the script is error free.<br>
+
 
 +
The underlying problem is that (according to the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Inventory_Reference Inventory Reference] page of the '''GECKWiki''') "objects stored inside of the inventories of actors or containers are not ''references''".  As explained in that discussion, you are going to need '''NVSE''' to approximate them as temporary references within a loop which is iterating over the inventory.  "The temporary nature of inventory references require some extra care in their use. The contents of the source container should not be modified within the loop."
 +
 
 +
Note that Lutana added the function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetInventoryWeight GetInventoryWeight] that "Returns the total weight of items in the inventory of a reference."  Try that instead of "GetAV" or the loop in the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Inventory_Reference Inventory Reference] page.
 +
 
 +
For those who want a "purely vanilla" based solution to limiting the inventory '''CarryWeight''' of the Actor, you can use "[ActorREF].ForceAV CarryWeight <amount>" to set their maximum carry capacity.  This causes the builtin engine process for an "overburdened" companion to be automatically triggered when their inventory exceeds their '''CarryWeight''' value.  In addition to playing their '''FollowersOverburdened''' dialog topic, a message pops up in the corner of the screen that says, "<Follower Name> can't carry any more" and the engine prevents you from placing any items into the follower's inventory that would put them over their '''CarryWeight''' limit.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-CompilingScripts"></span>
 +
==== TIP Compiling Scripts ====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">You may notice error messages that report "script is not compiled".  This may cause some confusion, so to clarify the situation:<br>
 +
The GECK ''compiles'' a script when saving it.  This means it turns the "human readable" instructions into binary "machine code".  This is more efficient for the game engine to process.  Editing and saving a script individually is the preferred method of ''compiling''.  A script that is not ''compiled'' will still run as long as it is properly constructed; without any errors.  But ''compiling'' is usually the only way to ensure the script is error free.<br>
 
If you can't exit your GECK session, it's usually because you failed to actually save/compile a script due to an error.  If you are not using the '''GECK''' '''Extender''' or '''Powerup''' plugin (see the [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]] section), this can happen without any error message being displayed to indicate it failed.  You may find yourself forced to revert to a backup or remove the script which refuses to compile.  Take precautions.<br>
 
If you can't exit your GECK session, it's usually because you failed to actually save/compile a script due to an error.  If you are not using the '''GECK''' '''Extender''' or '''Powerup''' plugin (see the [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]] section), this can happen without any error message being displayed to indicate it failed.  You may find yourself forced to revert to a backup or remove the script which refuses to compile.  Take precautions.<br>
 
<span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px; border:1px solid #cc3333; color: red;
 
<span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px; border:1px solid #cc3333; color: red;
Line 3,611: Line 4,625:
 
Just give this script, or rather your modified version of it, to your NPC in the dialog box where you define the NPC, under the ID and name. You probably know this already, but just making sure.
 
Just give this script, or rather your modified version of it, to your NPC in the dialog box where you define the NPC, under the ID and name. You probably know this already, but just making sure.
  
{The "kill" command is a shorthand name for the [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/KillActor KillActor] function.  You could use the "[ActorRef].command" syntax to make it explicitly clear who is the object of the command (being affected by it).  When the script is attached to an NPC via dialog, they become the implied "ActorRef".  Think of the "[ActorRef].command" syntax as "[subject].action [parameters]".  The "[]" are used to indicate it is an "optional" component of the function.}
+
{The "kill" command is a shorthand name for the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=KillActor KillActor] function.  You could use the "[ActorRef].command" syntax to make it explicitly clear who is the object of the command (being affected by it).  When the script is attached to an NPC via dialog, they become the implied "ActorRef".  Think of the "[ActorRef].command" syntax as "[subject].action [parameters]".  The "[]" are used to indicate it is an "optional" component of the function.}
  
'''zzMongoCrucDead1REF''' is one of the beheaded NPCs. Basically, by using him as the killer, he gets blamed for all of the deaths and not the player or anyone else (prevents any factions from getting angry at the player or with other factions). "1" is the dismembered part, which in this case is the head. You'll want to change this for your exploded NPC. "-1" is the cause of death, which you will want to change to "0" for {an} explosion. The documentation for {the function} [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/GetCauseofDeath GetCauseofDeath] has a list of values for the cause of death.
+
'''zzMongoCrucDead1REF''' is one of the beheaded NPCs. Basically, by using him as the killer, he gets blamed for all of the deaths and not the player or anyone else (prevents any factions from getting angry at the player or with other factions). "1" is the dismembered part, which in this case is the head. You'll want to change this for your exploded NPC. "-1" is the cause of death, which you will want to change to "0" for {an} explosion. The documentation for {the function} [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetCauseofDeath GetCauseofDeath] has a list of values for the cause of death.
  
 
There are ready-to-use scripts available for several combinations of dismemberments in the GECK already.  To use them, drop a new cubic activator in the cell where you want to use it and point it to one of the "GenericDismembermentXXX" base forms. Then set its linked reference to the corpse that you want to dismember.
 
There are ready-to-use scripts available for several combinations of dismemberments in the GECK already.  To use them, drop a new cubic activator in the cell where you want to use it and point it to one of the "GenericDismembermentXXX" base forms. Then set its linked reference to the corpse that you want to dismember.
Line 3,625: Line 4,639:
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
">A [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Dispel Dispel] function call often doesn't take effect immediately.  There is also a risk the spell will stick on any creature for which the code doesn't apply (depending upon the type of duration set, of course).  The following is a "good practice" trick for scripted spells (aka [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Actor_Effect Actor Effect]) to keep in mind.
+
">A [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Dispel Dispel] function call often doesn't take effect immediately.  There is also a risk the spell will stick on any creature for which the code doesn't apply (depending upon the type of duration set, of course).  The following is a "good practice" trick for scripted spells (aka [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Actor_Effect Actor Effect]) to keep in mind.
  
 
At the end of your ''ScriptEffectStart'' Block:
 
At the end of your ''ScriptEffectStart'' Block:
Line 3,649: Line 4,663:
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 
">
 
">
When you want to do something affecting multiple Actors, such as providing a particular dialog option or behavior, instead of editing their scripts directly consider using an '''NVSE''' [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Event_Handling Event Handler] instead (functionality added by '''NVSE 4.6+''').
+
When you want to do something affecting multiple Actors, such as providing a particular dialog option or behavior, instead of editing their scripts directly consider using an '''NVSE''' [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Event_Handling Event Handler] instead (functionality added by '''NVSE 4.6+''').
 +
 
 +
'''EventHandlers''' provide the very powerful ability to "trick" the game engine into supplementing or overriding the limitations of the standard GECK "On<Event>" functions such as "OnAdd", "OnActivate", or "OnEquip" into running a script to emulate something else in a "User Defined Function" (UDF).  A simple example of this is the "Note EventHandler" script and UDF in [[#Tip-Notes|TIP: Passing a 'Note' to the player]], which is using this technique to "trick" the engine into running a script as if the note had been triggered by an "OnEquip" or "OnActivate" function without ever using either command. In this example instance: by a mouse click or key press in a menu instead.  See also [[#Tip-HotKeyEventHandler|Tip: EventHandler-HotKey]].
 +
 
 +
An '''EventHandler''' is basically a '''UDF'''.  As such, local variables are reset every time you call a UDF again. It's a one-frame only script, and when it's done, it's done.  They do not "carry over" locally defined variable values between instances.  By the same token, each time it is called, it is "reset" automatically so you don't have to worry about "re-initializing" variables, parameters, and triggers.
 +
 
 +
Once an '''EventHandler''' has been registered in the game, it remains in the save game files until a "new game" is started.
 +
 
 +
An '''Eventhandler''' needs to be registered in '''GameMode''' because ''actor events'' are flushed every game load to avoid problems with temporary references.  Avoid using "MenuMode 4" to register your EventHandlers.  Many mod authors are used to registering general event handlers only once at game restart (MenuMode 4), but are not aware the player can start the game before this mode runs, especially if several mods are using it and they cause some delay ... which can sometimes leading to breaking other handler registrations.
  
'''EventHandlers''' provide the very powerful ability to "trick" the game engine into supplementing or overriding the limitations of the standard GECK "On<Event>" functions such as "OnAdd", "OnActivate", or "OnEquip" into running a script to emulate something else in a "User Defined Function" (UDF).  A simple example of this is the "Note EventHandler" script and UDF in [[#Tip-Notes|TIP: Passing a 'Note' to the player]], which is using this technique to "trick" the engine into running a script as if the note had been triggered by an "OnEquip" or "OnActivate" function without ever using that command; in this example instance by a mouse click or key press in a menu.  See also [[#Tip-HotKeyEventHandler|Tip: EventHandler-HotKey]].
 
  
Note that just using an '''EventHandler''' isn't sufficient.  The normal activation event will still need to occur. You have to disable interaction with the target Actor first if you want to prevent dialog, somehow.  With '''JIP LN NVSE''' you can use the "SetInteractionDisabled" function.
+
Note that just using an '''EventHandler''' isn't sufficient.  The normal activation Event will still need to occur, usually by way of the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Activate Activate] function in your UDF. You have to disable interaction with the target Actor first if you want to prevent dialog, somehow.  With '''JIP LN NVSE''' you can use the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetInteractionDisabled SetInteractionDisabled] function.
  
'''EventHandlers''' on objects are invoked ''before'' the actual event happens; hence the different timing for them compared to script blocks like "OnEquip".
+
'''EventHandlers''' on objects are invoked ''BEFORE'' the actual Event happens; hence the different timing for them compared to normal script blocks like "OnEquip" or "OnAdd".  Pay particular attention to any "Notes" on the function description pages for those Events, such as "OnAdd" requiring ''"an item to remain in the new container for at least one frame after it is added in order for the block to trigger"''.  You may need to use the '''JIP LN NVSE''' function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetGameMainLoopCallback SetGameMainLoopCallback] (aka ''Callback'') to delay the execution of the Event trigger block by the number of frames you specify. (From experience, you need at least 2 frames of delay between taking an item and running a script on that item.  You will need to use [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Auxiliary_Variables Auxiliary Variables] (aka ''Aux Vars''), by way of [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/AuxVarSetRef AuxiliaryVariableSetRef] to pass the Reference to the ''Callback'' function.)
  
The mod creator should not be concerned about using "script extenders" and their plugins.  Other than providing notice to the downloader of their mod that such are required, there are no "downsides" to using them as far as the game engine is concerned; and they provide fixes to some deep level engine bugs that can only be provided by something working at that level (which mods can't).  Almost any load order with more than a dozen mods is likely to already require their use.  They are a mod creator asset, providing enhanced capabilities.  Utilize them.
+
The mod creator should not be concerned about using "script extenders" and their plugins.  Other than providing notice to the downloader of their mod that such plugins are required, there are no "downsides" to using them as far as the game engine is concerned; and they provide fixes to some deep level engine bugs as well as needed functionality that can only be provided by something working at that level (which mods can't).  Almost any load order with more than a dozen mods is likely to already require their use.  They are a mod creator asset, providing enhanced capabilities.  '''Utilize them.'''
  
Please see the article [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/39417-tutorial-nvse4-part-5-event-handlers-user-defined-events-udes/ NVSE4+: Event Handlers & User-Defined Events (UDEs) - Part 5] by DoctaSax for details.
+
Please see the article [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/39417-tutorial-nvse4-part-5-event-handlers-user-defined-events-udes/ NVSE4+: Event Handlers & User-Defined Events (UDEs) - Part 5] by '''DoctaSax''' for details.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-HotKeyEventHandler"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-HotKeyEventHandler"></span>
 +
 
==== Tip EventHandler for HotKey ====
 
==== Tip EventHandler for HotKey ====
 
: Thanks to '''FiftyTifty''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''FiftyTifty''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 3,796: Line 4,818:
  
 
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetSelf GetSelf] returns a Ref-ID that you can store in a reference variable, referring to the specific instance of it in-game.  ''GetSelf'' is only useful when this information is accessed externally, or when the scripted reference's Ref-ID needs to be passed as a parameter to a function like [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/PushActorAway PushActorAway].  This can be a problem with inventory objects because they are destroyed regularly.
 
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetSelf GetSelf] returns a Ref-ID that you can store in a reference variable, referring to the specific instance of it in-game.  ''GetSelf'' is only useful when this information is accessed externally, or when the scripted reference's Ref-ID needs to be passed as a parameter to a function like [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/PushActorAway PushActorAway].  This can be a problem with inventory objects because they are destroyed regularly.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="TIP-LLNesting"></span>
 +
==== TIP Level Lists Nesting ====
 +
: Thanks to '''FiftyThifty''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">While it's known that you can "nest" a '''Level List''' inside of another "hosting" '''Level List''', it is less well known that the engine has a problem with nested lists added to lists which have individual items in "Fallout 3" [or "Tale of Two Wastelands (TTW)" merchants in the "District of Columbia" (DC) area].  So if you have (where "+>" means "hosting a nested"):
 +
<pre>
 +
Levelled List +> Levelled List +> Levelled List +> Items
 +
</pre>
 +
Adding items to the last one would be fine. But if you have:
 +
<pre>
 +
Levelled List +> Levelled List +> Levelled List + Items +> Levelled List (your added list)
 +
</pre>
 +
Your added Levelled List won't be processed.  This structure works as expected in other FNV circumstances.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
Line 3,834: Line 4,874:
 
">When the game starts you may want to check for items introduced in DLCs (e.g. "HonestHearts") and store the results in a list.
 
">When the game starts you may want to check for items introduced in DLCs (e.g. "HonestHearts") and store the results in a list.
  
'''NVSE''''s ''[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/IsModLoaded IsModLoaded] "HonestHearts.esm"'' and ''[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/GetFormFromMod GetFormFromMod] "HonestHearts.esm" "xxxxxx"'' can't go wrong for such a thing.  (The quotation marks around the ''pluginName'' and ''hexFormID'' strings are required.)  Where "xxxxxx" are the last 6 digits of the FormIDs of the records you are concerned about.  The GECK displays them in a minimized column that you can stretch.
+
'''NVSE''''s ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=IsModLoaded IsModLoaded] "HonestHearts.esm"'' and ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetFormFromMod GetFormFromMod] "HonestHearts.esm" "xxxxxx"'' can't go wrong for such a thing.  (The quotation marks around the ''pluginName'' and ''hexFormID'' strings are required.)  Where "xxxxxx" are the last 6 digits of the FormIDs of the records you are concerned about.  The GECK displays them in a minimized column that you can stretch.
 +
 
 +
See also [[#ESM_and_ESP_Files| ESM and ESP Files]] entry about whether your mod should be a "master file" (ESM) or an ESP.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-ModAdditionsList"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-ModAdditionsList"></span>
 +
 
==== TIP Mod Additions list ====
 
==== TIP Mod Additions list ====
 
: Thanks to '''DoctaSax''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''DoctaSax''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 3,846: Line 4,889:
 
">Sometimes you want to know about all the additions of a particular type (such as 'weapons' for example) that a specific mod adds to the game.
 
">Sometimes you want to know about all the additions of a particular type (such as 'weapons' for example) that a specific mod adds to the game.
  
With the '''JIP LN NVSE''' plugin (which now since v40 incorporates the "Lutana" extensions) this is quite easy.  Use a combination of the [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/GetModIndex GetModIndex] and [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/GetLoadedTypeArray GetLoadedTypeArray] functions with [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Form_Type_IDs Form Type IDs] code '40' ('Weapons'):
+
With the '''JIP LN NVSE''' plugin (which now since v40 incorporates the "Lutana" extensions) this is quite easy.  Use a combination of the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetModIndex GetModIndex] and [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetLoadedTypeArray GetLoadedTypeArray] functions with [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Form_Type_IDs Form Type IDs] code '40' ('Weapons'):
 
<pre>
 
<pre>
 
array_var aWeapons
 
array_var aWeapons
Line 3,854: Line 4,897:
 
let aWeapons := GetLoadedTypeArray 40, iIndex
 
let aWeapons := GetLoadedTypeArray 40, iIndex
 
</pre>
 
</pre>
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="TIP-MultipleScriptEffects"></span>
 +
 +
==== TIP Multiple Script Effects  ====
 +
: Thanks to '''FiftyThifty''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
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">Problem: when multiple ingestible items are used, that call their own script effect, only the first one is processed properly. Subsequent ingestibles used without closing the Pipboy and re-opening it after using a single ingestible, causes the item to be used and the menu to appear. But no actor is spawned.
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Solution: Use JIP LN NVSE function [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=MessageBoxExAlt MessageBoxExAlt] at the ''ScriptEffectStart'' block to create the menu, which calls back to a [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=UDF User Defined Function (UDF)] script.  And it automatically passes the selected button to your script.
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Example:
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<pre>
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scn SampleScript
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Begin ScriptEffectStart
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  Print "Starting script effect"
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  MessageBoxExAlt MyUDFMenuChoiceScript "^Multiple Effects Menu^ |Effect-1|Effect-2|Effect-3"
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End
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</pre>
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And the UDF has the button pressed to select a particular choice (passed as the  ''iButton'' parameter in the UDF function call example) checks block in it.
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Now you have a menu without needing to use the Pipboy.  (Of course it needs to be dressed up a bit more with a way to exit the effect script.)
 
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</div>
  
 
<span id="Tip-NPCWpnChoice"></span>
 
<span id="Tip-NPCWpnChoice"></span>
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==== TIP NPC Weapon Choice ====
 
==== TIP NPC Weapon Choice ====
 
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
Line 3,865: Line 4,936:
 
">When trying to force an NPC to use particular combat tactics (such a choice of Weapon) under specific circumstances, remember that the higher cyclic "Damage Per Second" (DPS) rate of the Weapon is what governs their choice; not the base "Damage" inflicted per shot.  {For Armor, it's "Damage Resistance" (DR) that governs.}  This is hard-coded into the game engine.
 
">When trying to force an NPC to use particular combat tactics (such a choice of Weapon) under specific circumstances, remember that the higher cyclic "Damage Per Second" (DPS) rate of the Weapon is what governs their choice; not the base "Damage" inflicted per shot.  {For Armor, it's "Damage Resistance" (DR) that governs.}  This is hard-coded into the game engine.
  
Consequently, in order to force the NPC to switch weapons, you may need to temporarily remove their current weapon and any alternative choices you don't want them to use, saving both the baseform of the removed weapon(s) and any timer using either a [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Tokens Token] or JIP's [https://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Auxiliary-Variable_Functions_(JIP) Auxvars] on the NPC in order to restore them after circumstances change again.  (Essentialy this is the same as the "reverse pickpocket" trick to cause an NPC to switch gear so you can steal what they had been wearing.)  See [[#TIP:_Timers|TIP: Timers]] regarding limitations which necessitate this "Token" or "AuxVars" approach.
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Consequently, in order to force the NPC to switch weapons, you may need to temporarily remove their current weapon and any alternative choices you don't want them to use, saving both the baseform of the removed weapon(s) and any timer using either a [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Tokens Token] or JIP's [https://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Auxiliary-Variable_Functions_(JIP) Auxvars] on the NPC in order to restore them after circumstances change again.  (Essentialy this is the same as the "reverse pickpocket" trick to cause an NPC to switch gear so you can steal what they had been wearing.)  See [[#TIP:_Timers|TIP: Timers]] regarding limitations which necessitate this "Token" or "AuxVars" approach.
 
</div>
 
</div>
  
<span id="TIP-MsgVariable"></span>
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<span id="Tip-Transformations"></span>
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==== TIP Object Transformation ====
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: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
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