Difference between revisions of "Getting started creating mods using GECK"

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== Overview ==
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The following information is primarily taken from the [https://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5165770-help-starting-out/ Help starting out] thread on the "Fallout New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum.  The information is preserved here as an alternative to searching through back posts in that forum for commonly asked questions.
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'''This is a Work In Progress (WIP), and not yet (and probably never will be) complete.'''
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If you have corrections or suggestions for improvement, either make them directly, post to the [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5528782-getting-started-creating-mods-using-geck-feedback/ Getting started creating mods using GECK feedback] thread in the "Fallout New Vegas Mod Troubleshooting" forum, or contact [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/User:Dubiousintent the current maintainer] by Private Message (PM).
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== <span id="Overview"></span>Overview ==
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The following information is primarily taken from the [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5165770-help-starting-out/ Help starting out] thread on the "Fallout New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum.  The information is preserved here as an alternative to searching through back posts in that forum for commonly asked questions.  Much of the information applies to "Fallout 3 (FO3)" as well, but the focus is on FNV.
  
This article provides a learning roadmap, a starting point and guide to progression; not a tutorial.  Consider it a collection of suggestions and links to more detailed tutorials, articles, videos, and tools.
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This article provides a learning roadmap, a starting point and guide to progression; not a tutorial.  Consider it a collection of suggestions and links to more detailed tutorials, articles, videos, and tools.  Just from the "Table of Contents" you should get a reasonable idea of the learning curve ahead of you.  Don't get discouraged.  Tackle things one at a time.  Just don't expect to learn everything quickly.
  
There is a lot of unique vocabulary related to creating mods in the following material, such as the distinction between "meshes", the 3d framework of objects (saved as Nif files); and "textures", the surface "skin" over the "mesh framework" (saved as DDS files). [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Main_Page The Elder Scrolls Texture Guide] (TESTG) site has a [http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Glossary glossary] and several pages devoted to explaining these to new mod creators and usersRather than explaining them here, please reference that site when you need clarification.
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">'Regional language' (i.e. "non-English") version mod creators and translators: PLEASE see the '[http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/Fallout_NV_Mod_Conflict_Troubleshooting#Issue:_Regional_.28non_English.29_version_has_different_FormIDs Issue: Regional (non English) version has different FormIDs]' entry in the wiki "Fallout NV Mod Conflict Troubleshooting" guide firstIt will save you a lot of grief and frustration.
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== Tools and Programs ==
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There is a lot of unique vocabulary related to creating mods in the following material, such as the distinction between "meshes", the 3D framework of objects (saved as '''Nif''' files); and "textures", the surface "skin" over the "mesh framework" (saved as '''DDS''' files).  [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Main_Page The Elder Scrolls Texture Guide] (TESTG) site has a [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Glossary glossary] and several pages devoted to explaining these to new mod creators and users. Rather than explaining them here, please reference that site when you need clarification.  (This article does a lot of that: referral to other existing resources. Why reinvent the wheel?)
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Garden of Eden Construction Kit (GECK)] (freeware.) The official "game editor" for Fallout 3 and New Vegas.  NOTE that when loading files, the plugin you designate with the "Start as Active" button becomes the one that gets edited and saved when you exit the editor.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/41642/? GECK 1.4 Powerup] (mod.)  Comes in a "standalone" version for the "vanilla" GECK functions, and one for GECK with NVSE functions. It fixes and improves some issues while providing the missing messages when the GECK compiler finds an error or warning, and lets you save a script without compiling it. Considered "essential" by experienced mod creators.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/12248/? Blender v2.49b] (freeware.) this download includes ALL related files and compatible versions.  This is the "complete" package for creating meshes for Bethesda games; including Python, the NIF scripts, and the "Noob to Pro" PDF tutorial.  Check out the "Optional" files section for some additional functionality.
 
* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifSkope NifSkope] (freeware.) A graphical program that allows you to open NIF files, view their contents, edit them, and write them back out again. You can use it to quickly make changes to specific properties of a NIF file such as changing the texture, adding translucency, and more. A 3D view of the contents of the NIF file allows you to preview your changes instantly. You can even create texture templates, and import & export OBJ files. (Note a fully compatible version of this tool is already included in the Blender v2.49b package linked here.)
 
* [http://www.autodesk.com/products/3ds-max/overview 3DS Max] (1 month free trial, $185/month or $1470/year subscriptions, 3 yr student/educator license.)  Commercial product by AutoDesk but the version that works with Nif files isn't free.  Versions after 2013 don't seem to work with at least Fallout 4 (according to [https://community.bethesda.net/thread/10364?tstart=0 this thread]) using the included official NIF exporter, though there is an unofficial [https://github.com/figment/max_nif_plugin/releases "Figment" exporter plugin fork on GitHub] which does seem to work.)
 
* [http://www.autodesk.com/products/maya/overview Maya] (1 month free trial, $185/month or $1470/year subscriptions, 3 yr student/educator license.)  Animation, modeling, simulation, and rendering software by AutoDesk.
 
* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifTools NifTools Wiki] (3D package plugins for "3ds Max", "Blender", and "Maya" modelling tools.
 
* [http://www.getpaint.net/index.html Paint.NET] (freeware.) Image and photo editing software for Windows, originally based upon the Paint program included as part of Windows, but with many enhanced features such as "layers", special effects, and unlimited history ("undo").  Require Microsoft's .NET Framework 4.6+.
 
* [https://www.gimp.org/ GIMP: GNU Image Manipulation Program] (freeware.) A cross-platform image editor available for GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows and more operating systemsProvides extensibility through integration with many programming languages including Scheme, Python, Perl, and more.  The result is a high level of customization as demonstrated by the large number of scripts and plug-ins created by the community.
 
* [http://www.cipscis.com/fallout/utilities/validator.aspx CIPSCIS Script Validator] Allows you to quickly indent your script while simultaneously checking it for several errors, many of which are not picked up by the GECK's compiler. It works with Skyrim, Fallout 3, and Fallout New Vegas. Includes it's own tutorials.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34703/? FNVEdit] (freeware.) a generic tool called 'xEdit' which is renamed for working with specific games.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? FNVEdit Training Manual] (PDF.) Generally applies to all 'xEdit' versions for other games.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] Extracts all the hair / eyes / races records from every plugin loaded in your load order - then, it rewrites the list of eyes and hairs for every race found. So, if you untick / unflag a hair mod from your load order, these records won't be loaded by the game itself and consequently won't be found by this mod because they don't exist.
 
* [http://www.audacityteam.org/ Audacity] (free.) Sound editor and audio format conversion.
 
  
== Details ==
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== <span id="Programs_and_Tools"></span>Programs and Tools ==
Basic advice is to start with the game Construction Set/Editor (this is usually a separate download, not included with the game installation). There is going to be a wiki page for it with tutorials to help get you started, but note that there are unspoken assumptions that you are familiar with concepts introduced on the "Construction Kit"/"game editor" wikis for earlier Bethesda games such as:  
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Note:  You are working with a 32-bit game.  It requires 32-bit FAT system compliant '''files''' and '''data''' in specific formats.  64-bit tools may not output 32-bit FAT files; they output 64-bit files which are NTFS compliant (strictly speaking about Windows).  You can't read 64-bit NTFS files with standard 32-bit tools, unless they both use the exact same '''data format''', '''file format''', and naming restrictions.  Overlooking this simple fact will cause you a lot of frustration and wasted time.  Use the right versions of tools for the job.  "Newest" does not always equal "most appropriate".
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=== <span id="GECK_Tools"></span>GECK Tools ===
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* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Garden of Eden Construction Kit ('''GECK''')] (freeware.) The official "game editor" for Fallout 3 and New Vegas.  NOTE that when loading files, the '''one''' plugin you designate with the "Start as Active" button becomes the one that gets edited and saved when you exit the editor.  ALL of the files loaded into the '''GECK''' at the same time will automatically become "master files" to the "active file" when it is saved.  In particular to this regard, see the [[#NAM files|NAM files]] entry.
 +
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64888/? GECK Extender] NVSE Plugin.  Project to extend '''GECK''' functionality and bug fixes.  Compatible with all NVSE script extender plugins.  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
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">(Do not use together with '''GECK Powerup''' (nor the '''Forked''' version), which it replaces.)</span>  Note the optional "Patcher" to make '''GECK''' 4GB aware and auto load NVSE is a separate file.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/41642/? GECK 1.4 Powerup] NVSE Plugin.  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
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">(Replaced by '''GECK Extender'''.  Do not use both together.)</span>  Comes in a "standalone" version for the "vanilla" '''GECK''' functions, and one for '''GECK''' with '''NVSE''' functions. It fixes and improves some issues while providing the missing messages when the '''GECK''' compiler finds an error or warning, and lets you save a script without compiling it. Considered "essential" by experienced mod creators.
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* There are now two wikis devoted to the '''GECK''': the official one by Bethesda, which is not very well supported and a major pain to update (Five CAPCHAs per post!), and a Modding Community '''GECKWiki''' site with everything from the official one but actively updated by the modding community.  While most links to the '''GECK''' wiki are to the official wiki, be sure to check out the Community one to see the latest info on your topic.  Anything related to "Script Extenders" like '''NVSE''' or '''JIP LN NVSE''' functions will be more current on the Community '''GECKWiki''' site.
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:* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Main_Page Community GECKWiki]
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::* [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Tutorials GECK: Tutorials]
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::* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Getting_Started#My_First_Vault_Tutorial_Series GECK: 'My first vault' tutorial series] Bethesda's intro to mod creation.
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::* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:FAQ GECK: FAQ] Simple questions with answers.
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::* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Advanced_Modding_Techniques GECK: Advanced Modding Techniques] Questions with tricky answers.
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:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Official Bethesda GECK Wiki]
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:* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Category:Solutions TES4 Construction Set Wiki] Older, more fundamental questions and answers.
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=== <span id="Image_Tools"></span>Image Tools ===
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* [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/Category:Tools Category:Tools on Nexus Mods wiki] has articles on various aspects of the primary tools you will be using.  Check it out as well.
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* [http://www.autodesk.com/products/3ds-max/overview 3DS Max] (1 month free trial, $185/month or $1470/year subscriptions, 3 yr student/educator license.)  Commercial product by AutoDesk but the version that works with Nif files isn't free.  Versions after 2013 don't seem to work with at least Fallout 4 (according to [http://community.bethesda.net/thread/10364?tstart=0 this thread]) using the included official NIF exporter, though there is an unofficial [http://github.com/figment/max_nif_plugin/releases "Figment" exporter plugin fork on GitHub] which does seem to work.
 +
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/5622/? 3DS Max Nif Importer-Exporter] by figment
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/12248/? Blender v2.49b] (freeware.) This download includes ALL related files and compatible versions.  This is the "complete" package for creating meshes for Bethesda games; including:
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:: '''Python''' 2.6.5
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:: '''Blender''' NIF Scripts 2.5.5
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:: '''NifSkope''' 1.0.22
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:: '''PyFFI''' 1.1.5
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:: "Noob to Pro" PDF tutorial.
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:: Check out the "Optional" files section for some additional functionality.  Recommended for FO3/FNV.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/42755 Blender v2.49b Portable] by '''Room207''' is also a "complete" package that is preferred by some for it's convenience.  Includes:
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::: Python 2.6.6
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::: Pyffi 2.1.11
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::: NIFscripts 2.5.9
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::: [http://home.comcast.net/~chronosphere/true-normals.htm True Normals] by '''Anthony D'Agostino'''
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::: Geom Plugin 0.5
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::: Mesh Ascii Plugin
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::: UDK Scripts
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::: Blender Tools 1.01 by Kormgar
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::: [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/45019/? Blender TRI file scripts and Tutorial] by '''Kapaer and Deedes'''
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:* [[Installation_of_Blender|Installation of Blender]] (Wiki article.)
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* [http://www.mwgfx.co.uk/programs/dxtbmp.htm DXTBmp Texture Tool] (freeware).  Images can be passed to any Paint program for editing in 24 bit and then re-imported and saved in any of the 16/24/32 bit formats.  Transparency (Alpha) channel of textures can be viewed and edited separately from the main image.
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* [http://www.gimp.org/ GIMP: GNU Image Manipulation Program] (freeware.) A cross-platform image (texture) editor available for GNU/Linux, OS X, Windows and more operating systems.  Provides extensions through integration with many programming languages including '''Scheme, Python, Perl,''' and more.  The result is a high level of customization as demonstrated by the large number of scripts and plug-ins created by the community.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] (Mod.) Extracts all the hair / eyes / races records from every plugin loaded in your load order - then, it rewrites the list of eyes and hairs for every race found. So, if you untick / unflag a hair mod from your load order, these records won't be loaded by the game itself and consequently won't be found by this mod because they don't exist.
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* [http://inkscape.org/ Inkscape Vector Graphics Editor] (freeware).  Open source flexible drawing tools, with broad file format compatibility, powerful text tool, and bezier and spiro curves.
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* [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB LOD/VWD Overview] TESTG site wiki.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562 FNVLODGen] "View While Distant (VWD)"/"Level Of Detail (LOD)" landscape ''object'' generation tool.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61035/? Ultimate resolution landscape LODs and generator TES4LL] landscape ''mesh'' and ''texture'' LOD generation tool.
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* [http://www.autodesk.com/products/maya/overview Maya] (1 month free trial, $185/month or $1470/year subscriptions, 3 yr student/educator license.)  Animation, modeling, simulation, and rendering software by '''AutoDesk'''.
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* [http://store.steampowered.com/app/441770/MindTex_2/ MindTex2] ($20) by '''Frozen Flame'''.  MindTex is a '''normal map''' generation utility for game developers and 3d professionals. Built to rival the competition in quality without the steep price, whether you want to generate a ''normal'', ''height'', ''specular'', ''gloss'', ''self-illumination'', ''occlusion'', or ''reflection map'', you can easily do it in seconds flat from a single source texture with MindTex.
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/66826 Mod Kit - Resource for Modders] by '''pixelhate'''.  Some nif & textures used as references in various Modding situations, including the "invisible activator".
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64746 NIF tangents and binormals updater] (freeware) by '''zilav'''.  A command line tool to batch update tangents/binormals in Oblivion, Fallout 3, New Vegas, Skyrim, Skyrim Special Edition and Fallout 4 format NIF meshes.  The one in '''NifSkope''' doesn't handle degenerate normals, such as if your NIF has a lot of texture tiling. It also gives all around better results especially for people who use '''Blender''' and cannot reset the normals and smooth them because it lacks the features to do so.
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* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifSkope NifSkope] (freeware.) A graphical program that allows you to open NIF files, view their contents, edit them, and write them back out again. You can use it to quickly make changes to specific properties of a NIF file such as changing the texture, adding translucency, and more. A 3D view of the contents of the NIF file allows you to preview your changes instantly. You can even create texture templates, and import & export OBJ files. (Note: This link is the latest release and may not be the best choice for FO3/FNV.  A fully compatible version of this tool (v1.0.22) is already included in the '''Blender v2.49b package''' linked here.)
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:* [http://github.com/niftools/nifskope/releases/tag/nifskope-1.1.3 NifSkope v1.3.3 (revision36efdd)] (freeware.) A later version than that bundled in the '''Blender v2.49b package''' (with EXE and features referred to in many tutorials that are missing in even newer (v2.0+) releases, such as "import/export '''.OBJ''' files").  Fully compatible with that '''Blender''' package, and more "shader flags" are identified.  While both versions of '''NifSkope''' can be installed, only one can be used at a time.  Recommended for '''FO3''' and '''FNV''' (along with the '''NifTools XML Format''' version 0.7.0.0, which has the essential "differentiated color for ''Collision''").  Recommended for FO3/FNV.
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:* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifTools NifTools Wiki] (freeware.) 3D package plugins for '''3ds Max''', '''Blender''', and '''Maya''' modelling tools.  Note: this link will have the latest release versions.  The versions bundled in the '''Blender v2.49b package''' are all mutually compatible.
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::* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NIF_Format/NifTools_XML_Format The NifTools XML Format] (documentation.) Used to extend '''NifSkope''' to open files from new games, or better understand files from games which it can already open.  Version 0.7.0.0 recommended for FO3/FNV.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/34626/? NifSkope: Mesh Tool N3 - Path Changer] (Mod) by '''Anton'''.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/19266/? NifSkope: NifTextures - Path Changer] (Mod) by '''Macoron'''.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63770/? NifSkope: Nifskope Testing Skeleton] (Mod) by '''clanky4'''.
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* [http://www.getpaint.net/index.html Paint.NET] (freeware.) Image and photo (texture) editing software for Windows, originally based upon the Paint program included as part of Windows, but with many enhanced features such as "layers", special effects, and unlimited history ("undo").  Require Microsoft's .NET Framework 4.6+.
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:* [http://forums.getpaint.net/index.php?/topic/8318-boltbaits-plugin-pack-for-v3511-updated-january-31-2015/ Paint: BoltBaits Plugin Pack] for Paint.NET.  It includes "Transparency" plugin that enables you to increase opaqueness of transparent pixels.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/6843/? Paint: The Normal Map Tools] by '''Goujosamma''' for Paint.NET.
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/57245/? Ptolemy Maps for New Vegas] by '''Rocketeer''' and '''Alan Broad''' is a robust suite of tools for creating and organizing 'world map' locations based on their type, faction, importance, etc.
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* [http://www.buckarooshangar.com/flightgear/tut_dds.html Working with DDS/DXT Files] (HTML article) by '''Gary "Buckaroo" Neely'''.
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=== <span id="Packaging_Tools"></span>Packaging Tools ===
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/4328/? BAIN Archive Tools - BAT] by '''Surazal'''
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64745 BSArch] (freeware) by '''zilav'''.  A command line tool for ''packing'' and unpacking Bethesda archives.  The most complete support setting the correct flags across the various games.
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/41042/? BSAOpt] (freeware) Tool for extracting the contents of BSA files.  Note this tool unpacks the entire BSA file.  It does not easily allow for unpacking a single file.
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: {{BSA Extraction Warning}}
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* [http://sourceforge.net/projects/bsaextractor/ BSAExtractor (BSAE)] (freeware) Tool for extracting just one or the entire contents of BSA files.  See warning above about unpacking an entire BSA.
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/65854 FNV BSA Decompressor] Mod by '''zilav'''. Decompresses the Fallout New Vegas BSAs and repacks them into BSAs without '''zlib''' compression for performance.  Also ''transcodes'' the ".OGG" sounds effects to ".WAV" format so they work. It also extracts any MP3 files to loose files because they will not play when in a BSA.
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/54991/? FOMM - Forked] (freeware) Mod Manager with built-in BSA file extraction and repacking.
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:* <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
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">Note that FOMM has several tools bundled with it.  The '''TESsnip''' tool in particular is obsolete and has been shown to cause "silent corruption" of save game files as a result.  The use of [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34703/? xEdit/FNVEdit] is recommended in it's place.</span>
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:* [http://zumbs.wordpress.com/2009/11/08/fomm-and-fomods-for-dummies-1/ FOMM and FOMODS for Dummies] article.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/75140/? FOMOD Validator] by Ganda
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=== <span id="Scripting_Tools"></span>Scripting Tools ===
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* [http://www.cipscis.com/fallout/utilities/validator.aspx CIPSCIS Script Validator] (freeware.) Allows you to quickly indent your script while simultaneously checking it for several basic errors, many of which are not picked up by the GECK's compiler. It works with Skyrim, Fallout 3, and Fallout New Vegas, but is not "script extender" aware. Includes it's own tutorials.
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* [http://nvse.silverlock.org/ New Vegas Script Extender (NVSE)] Site.
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:* [http://www.gribbleshnibit.com/projects/NVSEDocs/# NVSE Documentation] by '''gribbleshnibit'''.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58277/? JIP LN NVSE plugin] by '''jazzisparis''' and '''LuthienAnarion'''.
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:* [http://www.loverslab.com/files/file/553-nvse-extender-aka-nx/ NVSE Extender Plugin (NX)] by '''prideslayer'''.
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:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(JIP) GECK: JIP Functions] (Wiki.)
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:* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Category:Functions_(Lutana) GECK: Lutana (LN) Functions] (Wiki.)
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/39434/? NMM Installer Tutorial - FOMOD - FOMM] by XunAmarox
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/41440/? NMM ModuleConfig Creator] by Twilightassassin
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* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/33797/? NMM Tracelog Help] by Thorne67
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* [http://notepad-plus-plus.org/ Notepad++] (freeware.) Source code editor.
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:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/33271/? BAIN User Defined Language for Notepad++] by The_Catman
 +
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62793/? Notepad++ Syntax Highlighter] (freeware) by '''DoctaSax'''. "Language" Plugin for GECK editor syntax.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/67395 RuntimeScriptProfiler] by '''lStewieAl - shadeMe'''.  An NVSE plugin to profile script execution. Ported from '''shadeMe''''s '''Oblivion''' plugin.
 +
 
 +
=== <span id="Sound_and_Voice_Tools"></span>Sound and Voice Tools ===
 +
* [http://www.audacityteam.org/ Audacity] (freeware.) Sound editor and audio format conversion.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61248/? FonixData.cdf ( Easier .Lip Files ) by DingraThePishvaz] Mod. (Free) Alternative Lip-sync generator for FNV.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61265/? Latest Ogg Vorbis Libraries] by KaneWright. The game uses it for decoding OGG audio format.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63052/? Silent Voice Generator by Enter_77] Mod.
 +
 
 +
=== <span id="Misc_Other_Tools"></span>Misc Other Tools ===
 +
* [http://darnified.net/forums/community/ DarNified Forum Community] site.  Articles and questions on XML for the User Interface (UI) and Menus, primarily about the Oblivion version of DarNUI but there is a section for FO3.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62796/? Gamesettings profiler] Mod.  Adds intuitive, app-like, modding tool for debugging, testing, profiling, and dumping\printing to file any numeric GMST (gamesettings) records.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/60733/? Tree LOD billboard creator for xLODGen] by zilav
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34703/? xEdit/FNVEdit] (freeware.) A generic tool called '''xEdit''' which is renamed for working with specific games.  The latest "stable" release is on the Nexus, generally under the game name version or as "TES5Edit".
 +
:* [https://www.afkmods.com/index.php?/topic/3750-wipz-tes5edit/& xEdit discussion page] contains links to latest '''''UPDATES''''' "development/test" and '''''DOWNLOAD''''' "experimental (bleeding edge)" versions.
 +
:* [http://tes5edit.github.io/docs/index.html Tome of xEdit] Current Online manual for all games.
 +
:* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? xEdit/FNVEdit Training Manual] (PDF.) Older docs that generally apply to all '''xEdit''' versions for other games.
 +
:* [http://tes5edit.github.io/fopdoc/ Documentation for the xEdit Fallout plugin file formats]
 +
 
 +
== <span id="Details"></span>Details ==
 +
Basic advice is to start with the game Construction Set/Editor (this is usually a separate, free download, not included with the game installation). There is going to be a wiki page for it with tutorials to help get you started, but note that there are unspoken assumptions that you are familiar with concepts introduced on the "Construction Kit"/"game editor" wikis for earlier Bethesda games such as:  
 
* [http://www.uesp.net/wiki/Tes3Mod:Construction_Set TES3: Morrowind] (2002),
 
* [http://www.uesp.net/wiki/Tes3Mod:Construction_Set TES3: Morrowind] (2002),
 
* [http://www.uesp.net/wiki/Oblivion:Construction_Set TES4: Oblivion] (2006),
 
* [http://www.uesp.net/wiki/Oblivion:Construction_Set TES4: Oblivion] (2006),
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Garden of Eden Construction Kit (GECK)] for Fallout 3 (2008) and Fallout: New Vegas} (2010).
+
* [http://tesalliance.org/forums/index.php?/forum/81-the-enclave/ TESAlliance: The Enclave] for tutorials covering most subjects and tools that apply still to the Fallout series.
 +
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Main_Page Garden of Eden Construction Kit (GECK)] for Fallout 3 (2008) and Fallout: New Vegas} (2010).
 +
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Main_Page Community GECK Wiki] for Fallout 3 (2008) and Fallout: New Vegas} (2010).
  
 
(TES5: Skyrim came after all of those (2011) and uses a different variation of the game and script engine.)  So, don't neglect those older wikis as resources.  Where there appears to be a conflict, assume the later wiki or the one specific to your game is correct.
 
(TES5: Skyrim came after all of those (2011) and uses a different variation of the game and script engine.)  So, don't neglect those older wikis as resources.  Where there appears to be a conflict, assume the later wiki or the one specific to your game is correct.
  
In addition to the Construction Set/Editor, you'll probably want to get community created editor enhancement tools, like the "GECK PowerUp", "Oblivion Construction Set Extender", etc. These allow you to perform actions not included in the default editor, like edit ESM files without converting them to ESP first, and may also give you better debugging for scripts. These capabilities vary by the tool. On the negative side, such extensions may also annoy the heck out of you with error messages, many of which you don't need/understand and don't care about. But they are always worth looking into.  
+
In addition to the Construction Set/Editor, you'll probably want to get community created editor enhancement tools, like the '''GECK''' "Extender" or "PowerUp", "Oblivion Construction Set Extender", etc. These allow you to perform actions not included in the default editor, like edit ESM files without converting them to ESP first, and may also give you better debugging for scripts. These capabilities vary by the tool. On the negative side, such extensions may also annoy the heck out of you with error messages, many of which you don't need/understand and don't care about. But they are always worth looking into.
  
There are also conversion tools which are required to export the 3-D models from your modeling tool into the "NIF" format that Bethesda games use. It is very important to note that the import and export tools only work with certain versions of modeling programs. For Blender, you need version 2.49, which is older than the current version of Blender. The Nexus Oblivion mod Blender linked here is a package that has Blender v2.49 plus all of the NIF tools and includes NifSkope, all of which are the correct versions to use together. You will save yourself a lot of trouble if you install everything from this one package. If you don't, you can run into version problems and things will never work right. Instructions on the correct way to install this combination of tools can be found [http://wiki.tesnexus.com/index.php/Installation_of_Blender here]. (Note where there seems to be a discrepancy in version numbers, stick with the version included in the package.)  
+
There are also conversion tools which are required to export the 3D models from your modeling tool into the "NIF" format that Bethesda games use. It is very important to note that the import and export tools only work with certain versions of modeling programs. For Blender, you need version 2.49, which is older than the current version of Blender. The Nexus Oblivion mod Blender linked here is a package that has Blender v2.49 plus all of the NIF tools and includes NifSkope, all of which are the correct versions to use together. You will save yourself a lot of trouble if you install everything from this one package. If you don't, you can run into version problems and things will never work right. Instructions on the correct way to install this combination of tools can be found the wiki article [http://wiki.tesnexus.com/index.php/Installation_of_Blender here]. (Note where there seems to be a discrepancy in version numbers, stick with the version included in the package.)  
  
 
"Script Extenders" (SEs) are plugins to the game editors that provide additional functionality features, and were created by the gaming community to overcome perceived shortcomings.  Mods the use even one of those SE functions need to specify that the particular SE is now a requirement.
 
"Script Extenders" (SEs) are plugins to the game editors that provide additional functionality features, and were created by the gaming community to overcome perceived shortcomings.  Mods the use even one of those SE functions need to specify that the particular SE is now a requirement.
  
Item (armor, weapons, buildings, etc.) construction and customization requires learning 3D modelling, which is NOT a quick process.  You are going to invest a lot of time and patience in learning your tool of choice.  The three most common tools used are Blender, "3ds Max" (aka "Max"), and Maya.  There is very little discussion about Maya in the forums related to Bethesda games because while it is considered the better choice for ''animation'', "Max" is simpler to grasp and less daunting.  Both "Max" and Maya are considered "industry standard" tools, and both will do the job.  See these articles for more in depth comparisons if you are going to invest in learning either product:
+
Item (armor, weapons, buildings, etc.) construction and customization requires learning 3D modelling, which is NOT a quick process.  You are going to invest a lot of time and patience in learning your tool of choice.  The three most common tools used are '''Blender''', "'''3ds Max'''" (aka "'''Max'''"), and '''Maya'''.  There is very little discussion about Maya in the forums related to Bethesda games because while it is considered the better choice for ''animation'', "Max" is simpler to grasp and less daunting.  Both "Max" and Maya are considered "industry standard" tools, and both will do the job.  See these articles for more in depth comparisons if you are going to invest in learning either product:
 
* [http://blog.digitaltutors.com/3ds-max-vs-maya-is-one-better-than-the-other/ 3ds Max vs Maya: Is one better than the other?]
 
* [http://blog.digitaltutors.com/3ds-max-vs-maya-is-one-better-than-the-other/ 3ds Max vs Maya: Is one better than the other?]
* [https://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-AutoDesks-Maya-and-3DS-MAX What's the difference between AutoDesk Maya and 3DS Max?]
+
* [http://www.quora.com/Whats-the-difference-between-AutoDesks-Maya-and-3DS-MAX What's the difference between AutoDesk Maya and 3DS Max?]
 +
 
 +
The Nexus has the [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/forum/320-blender/ Software Programs - 3D Modelling - Blender forum], [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/forum/321-3ds-max/ Software Programs - 3D Modelling - 3ds Max forum], [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/forum/322-maya/ Software Programs - 3D Modelling - Maya forum], and [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/forum/335-miscellaneous-other/ Software Programs - 3D Modelling - Miscellaneous / Other forum] areas for discussion about those tools.
  
 
The "workflow" on Blender for Nif files is considered more complex than with the others because it often takes you into the Nifskope tool, but read about the Nif Exporter plugin for Max issues in that entry.  It is necessary to use the correct version and tools that work with that version of any of these products.
 
The "workflow" on Blender for Nif files is considered more complex than with the others because it often takes you into the Nifskope tool, but read about the Nif Exporter plugin for Max issues in that entry.  It is necessary to use the correct version and tools that work with that version of any of these products.
  
Because it is "free" and the others are quite expensive for most people, Blender is usually at least their first choice.  "Blender Noob to Pro" is a good resource for 3d modeling using Blender, and is included in that package linked above under [[#Tools and Programs|Tools and Programs]].
+
Because it is "free" and the others are quite expensive for most people, Blender is usually at least their first choice.  "Blender Noob to Pro" is a good resource for 3D modeling using Blender, and the compatible (not the latest) version is included in that package linked above under [[#Programs and Tools|Programs and Tools]].  Consequently, there is a long history of tutorials on all aspects of modelling with Blender.  It is well worth the time to refer often to the [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/234818-blender-read-this-1st/ Blender - Read this first] thread as you progress through the learning curve.  It has an extensive list of tutorials from Oblivion thru Fallout 3 and more generalized topics which still apply to the basics of modelling in Blender.
  
 
For texturing your 3D models, you'll need something that can handle ".dds" files. GIMP and Paint.Net (which is not the Paint that comes with Windows) can both handle ".dds" files. Paint.Net comes with ".dds" support built-in these days. GIMP still needs a plugin. Which program you use is more a matter of personal preference than anything else. Some find GIMP a bit more difficult to use but it also can do some things that Paint.Net can't do.  Paint.Net on the other hand is, in the opinion of many, more intuitive and easier to use.  Although, now that Paint.Net has a proper ''normal map'' generator that actually works available as an add-on, GIMP use tends to be even less frequent now. A lot of it is personal preference, though. Some folks just like GIMP better. Both programs work fine. You can also use Photoshop, but that's not free.
 
For texturing your 3D models, you'll need something that can handle ".dds" files. GIMP and Paint.Net (which is not the Paint that comes with Windows) can both handle ".dds" files. Paint.Net comes with ".dds" support built-in these days. GIMP still needs a plugin. Which program you use is more a matter of personal preference than anything else. Some find GIMP a bit more difficult to use but it also can do some things that Paint.Net can't do.  Paint.Net on the other hand is, in the opinion of many, more intuitive and easier to use.  Although, now that Paint.Net has a proper ''normal map'' generator that actually works available as an add-on, GIMP use tends to be even less frequent now. A lot of it is personal preference, though. Some folks just like GIMP better. Both programs work fine. You can also use Photoshop, but that's not free.
  
Once you have the 3-D model textured (UV mapped) and maybe have generated a normal map for it as well, then you need to export everything.  Blender and the NIF tools don't export a lot of things properly, so then you have to go into NifSkope (which comes with the NIF tools) and fix it. (The proper weight of "bones" in skeletons, along with "shader flags", is almost always wrong, for instance.) Be sure to check that the path given in the mesh to the texture file is in "relative" format. (See [[How_to_fix_hard-coded_texture_paths_in_NIF_files|How to fix hard-coded texture paths in NIF files]].) The default format of the mesh editor's paths may not be "relative".
+
Once you have the 3D model textured (UV mapped) and maybe have generated a ''normal map'' for it as well, then you need to export everything.  First, read the [http://www.buckarooshangar.com/flightgear/tut_dds.html Working with DDS/DXT Files] article by Gary "Buckaroo" Neely to understand the choices in DXT codec to choose among.  Blender and the NIF tools don't export a lot of things properly, so then you have to go into NifSkope (which comes with the NIF tools) and fix it. (The proper weight of "bones" in skeletons, along with "shader flags", is almost always wrong, for instance.) Be sure to check that the path given in the mesh to the texture file is in "relative" format. (See [[How_to_fix_hard-coded_texture_paths_in_NIF_files|How to fix hard-coded texture paths in NIF files]].) The default format of the mesh editor's paths may not be "relative".
  
 
Once that is done, then go into the game specific Construction Set/Editor and add your custom items to whatever mod you are working on.
 
Once that is done, then go into the game specific Construction Set/Editor and add your custom items to whatever mod you are working on.
  
Getting back to the GECK, there are a few things that are broken in it. It ships with a spell checker but doesn't include the dictionary, so that's just annoying. If you use the GECK Powerup you can uncheck the spell checker and disable all of that annoyance at least while you are editing your mod. Unfortunately it won't remember that setting and you'll have to uncheck it the next time you edit your mod as well.  
+
Getting back to the '''GECK''', there are a few things that are broken in it. It ships with a spell checker but doesn't include the dictionary, so that's just annoying. (But you can use the language resource files from Fallout 3 as the dictionary.) If you use the '''GECK''' "Extender" or "Powerup" you can uncheck the spell checker and disable all of that annoyance at least while you are editing your mod. Unfortunately it won't remember that setting and you'll have to uncheck it the next time you edit your mod as well.  
  
Another thing that is broken is the "lip generator" for dialog. If you have Skyrim or Oblivion you can copy their lip generator from the "sound\processing" folder to GECK's.  If you have all of your voice files in place and they work already, in the GECK all you need to do is bring up that dialog in the quest editor. Your wav file should show up down near the bottom, where it says voice type, mp3, wav, lip, ltf, and path. Click on that to select it, then click on the "from wav" at the bottom. The "generate lip file" option should now become active and you can click on it.  Note that the GECK will not update the information on the screen, so it will still have an N under ''lip'' file even after you have generated it. Close that dialog option and re-open it and then you should see a Y under both the ''wav'' and the ''lip''.  If you record the voice files directly into the GECK (using the record button at the bottom of the dialog window) then when you press save it will automatically generate both the ''wav'' and the ''lip'' files.
+
Another thing that is broken is the "lip generator" for dialog. If you have Skyrim or Oblivion you can copy their lip generator from the "sound\processing" folder to GECK's.  If you have all of your voice files in place and they work already, in the GECK all you need to do is bring up that dialog in the quest editor. Your WAV file should show up down near the bottom, where it says voice type: MP3, WAV, LIP, LTF, and "path". Click on that to select it, then click on the "from WAV" at the bottom. The "generate lip file" option should now become active and you can click on it.  Note that the GECK will not update the information on the screen, so it will still have an N under ''LIP'' file even after you have generated it. Close that dialog option and re-open it and then you should see a Y under both the ''WAV'' and the ''LIP''.  If you record the voice files directly into the GECK (using the record button at the bottom of the dialog window) then when you press save it will automatically generate both the ''WAV'' and the ''LIP'' files.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Common_Problems_with_GECK"></span>
 +
=== Common Problems with GECK ===
 +
{{GECK: Common Problems}}
 +
 
 +
<span id="GECK_and_the_Active_File"></span>
 +
=== GECK and the Active File ===
 +
 
 +
Ever since Windows version 3 on a 386, programs have standardized on "File | New" or "File | Open". But not the GECK. This is your first introduction in how un-intuitive the GECK is. It truly is a miserable toolset.
 +
 
 +
The "active file" is just the file that you are currently editing. Unfortunately, this gets confusing in the GECK.
 +
 
 +
The way you create a new plugin (ESP) file is you:
 +
* Open up the GECK,
 +
* Click "Data",
 +
* Select any "master files" you want for your new ESP file.
 +
 
 +
At this point you don't have an active file for editing. But if you are creating a new file, that's what you want to do (yes, it makes no sense). At a minimum you need to have '''Fallout.ESM''' selected as a master. The GECK will load the master files (which are usually but not always with an ESM extension), and then you can make your changes, and when you select SAVE, then the GECK will finally prompt you for the name of your new file (which will usually have an ESP extension). Now that you've created a new file, this is your "active file" for this session. Any more changes that you make will all be saved to the same file.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-Isolation"></span>
 +
====TIP GECK can isolate records in a particular plugin====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Suppose you want to only view content added by one particular plugin.
 +
 
 +
With the '''GECK''' open, click on "File" | "Data" to bring up the list of mods. Instead of selecting a mod to open, just "<Left+Click>" on the mod you are interested in to select (highlight) it. Now click "Details", and you'll see a list of records in the mod. By default, it will be sorted by type on the left, which is what you want, but for other types of searches you can sort by other columns. Armors will be a type of ARMO and since that starts with A they will be somewhere near the top of the list.
 +
 
 +
You can do this before loading a mod. You can also do it while you have a mod loaded and are working on it: but be warned!  Be very careful to hit "Cancel" when done and not "OK". If you accidentally hit "OK", the '''GECK''' will try to load the configuration you have selected which will probably screw up whatever you were working on.  You'll probably lose whatever changes you had that weren't saved.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-ModSize"></span>
 +
==== TIP Limit to Mod Size ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Note that there is a 16 MB limit (that no one ever tells you about) for references (i.e. "objects") in mods. If your mod gets larger than 16 MB and you add an object or an NPC, your mod will be permanently broken. It will crash the game and will crash the GECK if you try to load it.
 +
 
 +
Here's why: Ever notice that all objects in the game have a ref ID that is two digits to refer to the mod number (called the "mod index"), followed by six digits for the actual ref ID? In other words, the ref ID for water is "000151a3", where "00" is the mod index indicating it is from '''Fallout.ESM''' and "0151a3" is apparently the '''''offset''''' into the file. The largest six digit hex number you can have is FFFFFF, which is 16 MB (minus 1). That's where the 16 MB limit comes from.
 +
 
 +
The two digit "mod index" at the front means that you can theoretically have 256 mods, though this game breaks once you get to about 130-140 or so.  The "FF" mod index is reserved for "dynamically placed" objects in the game and these are preserved in the "save game" files.  You (as a "mod creator") cannot directly address these "FF" references as they only exist in game memory at run time.
 +
 
 +
Anything with a base/ref ID has to be under that 16 MB reference limit or it breaks. Things that don't have a ref ID (navmeshes, landscape textures, etc.) can be placed without regard to the 16 MB limit. Since your ambitious "overhaul" is likely going to be a fairly large mod, you might want to make all of your object/NPC changes first, then add dialog, navmesh, and similar non-reference changes last.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-SaveOften"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Save often====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">This brings up a major point: save early and often.  Where "often" is defined as after every change you make; and then make a copy of your ESP every few days or so, just in case.  Configure "compatibility mode" for "Vista SP2".  This seems to reduce how often it crashes.</div>
 +
 
 +
Still the GECK seems to crash if you breathe heavily on it.  It really sucks to open your plugin one day and find an entire town you spent a month on, gone: not a brick left and no aliens with probes in sight.
 +
 
 +
Once you have a file saved, if you want to edit that file later, you just select the files you want to load and make that your "active file" and start the GECK. When you save, all changes will go into the "active file" that you selected.
 +
Let's say you want to add resources from another master file to your plugin, like say, from '''Honest Hearts'''. If you are creating a new file, you'd check '''Fallout.ESM''' and '''HonestHearts.ESM''', but you wouldn't select any active file. Later, when you save, you will be prompted for a new plugin filename that will become your new active file.
 +
 
 +
Let's say you already created a plugin, but you didn't include '''Honest Hearts''' initially, and now you do want to include it. Open the GECK, select "Data", make your plugin the "active file", and also check the '''HonestHearts.ESM'''. Once the GECK is up and running, as soon as you save any changes, your plugin will now include '''HonestHearts.ESM''' as a "master file", which it will require to be loaded thereafter.
 +
 
 +
Once you've added a "master file" to your plugin, you can't easily delete it. Well, you can, all you need to do is right click and press "Delete" when you start up your plugin in the GECK, but if you aren't very careful about exactly how you do that, you will completely destroy your plugin and render it unusable. There are ways to remove "master file" requirements in your plugin, but since you are just beginning with the GECK, assume for now that any "master files" you add are needed there forever.
 +
 
 +
The GECK will let you load multiple ESP files, but where any ESM "master files" that become requirements for your plugin are loaded automatically, the same isn't true for ESP files your plugin becomes dependent upon. Don't add resources from a different esp to your plugin, because that doesn't work. You can only add things to your plugin that come from master files, or things that your plugin adds on its own. There are ways around this, but again, that gets pretty advanced.
 +
 
 +
<span id="GECK: Form-ID, Base-ID, Ref-ID, and Editor-ID"></span>
 +
=== GECK Form-ID Base-ID Ref-ID and Editor-ID ===
 +
An Editor-ID (sometimes called a GECK ID) is a text identifier used to reference ''persistent'' objects. It functions similarly to a Form ID, although it is not limited to 8 characters and a hexadecimal character set.  It exists for the human user of GECK.  The game engine itself is only concerned with Form-IDs.  There is a direct "one-to-one" correspondence between an EditorID and a Ref-ID, but for the human only.  (Editor-IDs are primarily used to identify objects in the Object window [the left pane of the GECK].)  The game engine needs and only recognizes the Form-ID in commands, but they can also be used in scripts along with Editor-IDs.  See the [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Reference GECK Reference page].
 +
 
 +
Whether you create your own new object or copy and rename an existing one, you want to give it an "Editor-ID" (the human consumption one) that will enable you to quickly locate yours in the Object window.<span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 20px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Refrain from beginning the Editor-ID with numbers.</span>  While this will tend to sort the name high in the list of objects, GECK will confuse such names with Form-IDs, which it won't find.  Most experienced mod creators use a short common prefix, such as their initials or those of the mod, as the way to group their objects.  Whatever naming convention you use, it must be unique and not too closely matching that of other mods to avoid confusion.
 +
 
 +
A Form-ID is anything specific to an object: whether it be Base or Ref.  It is a more general term for both.
 +
 
 +
"A BaseID (or Base ID) is a FormID assigned automatically to an object by the GECK when a new object is created in the Object window. The Form IDs listed in the Object window are Base IDs. A Base ID is only associated with an object template in the editor, never with an instanced object in-game" - GECK glossary. 
 +
 
 +
"Base ID is the number assigned to a template for an object that is used to create many instances of that object. For example all bottle caps in the game have exactly the same Base ID. This ID is used in scripts or the console with commands that create new instances of an object, like ''additem'' or ''placeatme''." - [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Form_ID Form-ID on The Vault wiki].  You could think of it as the "parent" of each "child reference".  Any change made to a Base-ID affects '''''every''''' reference back to that Base-ID.  Which is why you need to make a "copy" of a Base-ID and change it's Editor-ID (which forces a change to the Form-ID) when you need to make a variation of an object.  Otherwise you are changing ALL instances of that object in the game.  (Don't try to change a Form-ID directly yourself.  Let the GECK handle it.)
 +
 
 +
''Base forms'' (another way of referring collectively to "Base-IDs") are fine to use in scripts, by the way.  They're just used in different situations by various functions.  For example: The ''StopQuest'' function will always operate on the ''base form'' of the quest.  The same with anything involving [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Form_List Form Lists].  But you wouldn't want to use a ''base form'' when you only want to affect a specific instance ("reference") of an object.  AGAIN: Actions on a ''base form'' affect ALL instances of that form.
 +
 
 +
"A Reference ID is a FormID assigned automatically to a Reference [instance] by the GECK when an object is placed in the Render Window [in the right pane of the GECK].  Reference IDs are required to uniquely identify each instance of an object in-game. The Form ID column of the Cell View window lists Reference IDs" - GECK Glossary.
 +
 
 +
"The Reference ID is the unique ID of an individual object (unlike the Base ID, which is an ID for an object template). For example, all the bottle caps created from same Base ID will have different Reference IDs. This ID is used to manipulate existing objects with commands like ''kill'', ''move to'', or ''prid'', for example.
 +
 
 +
"Any item that is not created by pre-defined game scripts (either original or from mods) will have [a] Reference ID starting with FF to indicate that this item belongs to this particular save game. It is for dynamically generated items, like loot from containers, random encounters or trader's wares." - [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Form_ID Form-ID on The Vault wiki]
 +
 
 +
RefID's that mod creators input, are only of assistance in letting the humans know to what the reference applies.  You can actually use the FormID hex code value shown to the side in parentheses of the ref-ID field.
 +
 
 +
Note it is the ''persistent flag'' on the Reference that is mandatory in order for a RefID to become included in the search list for scripts/targets/whatever.  (See [http://geck.foesmm.org/index.php/Creating_a_New_Persistent_Reference GECK: Creating New Persistent Reference].)  Otherwise the list of refs to search through would be way too huge and cause engine lag.
 +
 
 +
<span id="MapIsNotTerrain"></span>
 +
====The Map is not the Terrain and the ID is not the Record Number====
 +
 
 +
It is common to refer to the text form of the "IDs" for records ("Editor-ID", "Rec-ID", "Form-ID", and "Base-ID") as if they were the record identifiers used by the engine.  These are "labels" given (or not) by each mod author when they create the record solely for the benefit of us "numerically challenged humans".  For this reason, it is assumed they must be unique between plugins.  While this is a good practice, and something to be encouraged for the benefit of those searching out records by those references in tools such as '''GECK''' or '''xEdit''', it is important to understand that, like a "map", the text labels for those records are not the actual "terrain"; nor the "record number" actually used by the game engine.  It can't afford to leave something that critical up to fallible humans.  The '''GECK''' automatically assigns "record numbers" sequentially when you create a new record, and the "mod index" hexadecimal pair at the beginning of that record, consisting of the "current load order index" of the plugin makes it unique between plugins.  (See [http://fallout.wikia.com/wiki/Help:Form_IDs Help:Form IDs] for an explanation of how to interpret the "mod index" from a Form-ID or record number.)
 +
 
 +
Think about that for a minute.  The '''GECK''' only knows about plugin files you chose to load for that editting session.  Typically that will consist of the "FalloutNV" EXE and ESM, possibly some DLC if your plugin requires assets from it, and the plugin you are working on.  How is it going to know what other plugin "ID" text labels there are to determine yours are unique?  From one session to another you might load a different series of plugins.  It can't predict that "load order" for certain, and the '''GECK''' itself doesn't care.  Which is why the "mod index" couplet at the beginning of the record number is so clever and crucial to ensure uniqueness between plugins. 
 +
 
 +
This is proven out by examining any record in '''xEdit''': the "ID" label is a text data field within the record, just like any other "value".  (For example: the "Script" record variable "SLSD - Local Variable Data" identifies each "variable name" based upon it's "index value" within an array of variables specific to that script with the "text name" stored as "SCVR - Name" data.  You have to identify the "record number" before you can determine the "text name"; and not the other way around.)  A test was conducted to confirm that the text "Ref-ID" label did not have to actually be "unique" between plugins.  The same "Ref-ID" label was given to the same object in two different plugins, and the game had no problems differentiating between the two.  Not even when one plugin removed the "persistent object" by the "Ref-ID" they had in common, the same object from the other plugin was unaffected.  It did not matter if one plugin was made dependent upon the other.  Because they were records from different plugins, the engine could tell them apart.
 +
 
 +
Consequently, always bear in mind that when someone is speaking in terms of one of the forms of "ID", they are often meaning "as a way of identifying the specific record number".
 +
 
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-refVar"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Reference Variables explained====
 +
: Thanks to '''vforvic''' of the Nexus "Fallout 3 Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Sometimes confusion arises from the terms: a '''Reference''' compared to a '''Reference Variable'''.
 +
 
 +
A '''Reference''' (Reference Editor ID, aka "Ref-ID") is a unique name you give a '''GECK''' object (Base Object). This is done so that when you put (for example) a vanilla 10mm pistol (Base Object name "Weap10mmPistol") ''instance'' in the game, you can subsequently identify in a script that one specific 10mm pistol if needed. For example: Actor '''Colonel Autumn''', which has a Base Object name of "ColonelAutumn" is in the game world twice with two different '''Reference''' names. This way the game can manipulate each ''instance'' of these '''References''' of the same Object separately.
 +
 
 +
Think of a '''Reference Variable''' as a dynamic placeholder in a script. It is used in scripts to make reference to something that is not named specifically. One thing to keep in mind is that they can be set to almost anything; including set to nothing at all (which is 0). The name used for a '''Reference Variable''' can be almost anything as long as you declare it (give it a name) at the start of the script. So you can name (declare) a '''Reference Variable''' "MyLightRef" or can name it "yadayadayada" and it does not matter. The only thing is: you should normally not start a Ref Name with a number, some special characters or some names which are reserved.
 +
 
 +
As an example: I make a new Raider Actor in the GECK called "EscapingRaider" (Base-ID). I put 50 of these Raiders at the end of a long large room with the Player at the other end by a door. The Player has to kill one specific ''instance'' of "EscapingRaider" before it reaches the door, but the Player does not know which one and there is no time to kill them all. In this case I give one of the Raiders I have put in the room a Reference (Ref-ID) name of "EscapingRaiderREF". I then give them all an AI ''Travel Package'' to run to the door. Right before the door I put a ''Trigger Box'' with the following Script attached. If this specific Raider ("EscapingRaiderREF") reaches the door then the mission fails.
 +
<pre>
 +
scn EscapingRaiderTrigger
 +
 
 +
;This script is attached to a Trigger Box (Primitive) in the game world
 +
;Anything that move into the box activates the script.
 +
 
 +
ref actionRef  ;Here is where I tell the script that actionRef is a Reference Variable (ref)
 +
              ;I could have said "ref action" or "ref stuff" and it would be ok.
 +
              ;You can name this almost anything as long as it makes sense to you.
 +
 
 +
Begin onTriggerEnter  ;When something enters the Trigger Box this part of the script runs
 +
    set actionRef to getActionRef  ;Get the Reference Name of whatever entered the box
 +
                                    ;Whenever the script sees actionRef in the script it
 +
                                    ;will substitute this Reference Name in its place.
 +
    if actionRef == EscapingRaiderREF  ;If the Reference Name of the Object that walked
 +
                                        ;into the Trigger is EscapingRaiderREF then the next
 +
                                        ;line will also run.
 +
showmessage MissionFailed  ;Pops up a message saying the mission has been failed
 +
    endif
 +
End
 +
</pre>
 +
Granted this might not normally be how I would do this specific event, but it could be done this way.
 +
 
 +
I could also use a '''Reference Variable''' in conjunction with a FormList I have populated with NPC's which placed a ''Nuclear Explosion'' at the Players location if an NPC in the FormList reached a particular location.
 +
<pre>
 +
scn NukeTrigger
 +
 
 +
ref obj  ;Once again I could have named this almost anything.
 +
 
 +
Begin onTriggerEnter  ;Runs when something enters the Trigger Box.
 +
    set obj to GetActionRef  ;Sets the Ref Variable "obj" to what ever entered the Trigger
 +
    if obj.isInList NukeList == 1  ;If whatever entered the Trigger is in the FormList NukeList then run below.
 +
        showmessage NukeSuccess
 +
        Player.placeatme smallnukeexplosion  ;Player has a bad day.
 +
    endif
 +
End
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
The following example code would be used somewhere you wanted to find out in what container (and remember an NPC or the Player can be considered a container), an object is located. (This has mostly been used for custom weapons where a script would be attached to the weapon for a custom reload animation.) The following script would be attached to that specific weapon.
 +
<pre>
 +
Scn FancyRifleReloadAnimationScript
 +
ref rContainer
 +
 
 +
begin gamemode
 +
;The following line says to set the Variable "rContainer" to whatever Container has the weapon.
 +
;Let’s assume a Talon NPC "Talon1GunAM" has the weapon and is firing it.
 +
set rContainer to GetContainer  ;essentially says to set rContainer to Talon1GunAM
 +
;From this point anytime the script reads rContainer it will really use Talon1GunAM.
 +
;Which means the following line really says “if TalonGunAM is reloading do the following”
 +
if rContainer.GetAnimAction == 9
 +
;The following 3 lines show the custom reload stuff.
 +
if rContainer.GetEquipped FancyRifle == 1
 +
PlaySound FancyReload
 +
rContainer.CastImmediateOnSelf FancyRifleReloadActorEffect
 +
endif
 +
endif
 +
end
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
The '''Base Object ID''' (aka '''Base-ID''') is what you name an Object when you make it in the '''GECK'''. Whether your making a NPC, a Weapon, a Door, a Rock or anything, it has a '''Base-ID''' name.
 +
 
 +
For example:
 +
 
 +
In the '''GECK''' you make a new "Bandit" Actor. In the first line you see ''ID'' which is the '''Base Object ID''' and you put "MissionEssential".  ("MissionEssential" is now the '''Base-ID''' of this "form".) The second line you see ''Name'' which is the name you see in the game (e.g. "Lucas Simms", "Allistair Tenpenny", "Amata", etc.), and you put "BANDIT".  ("BANDIT" is now the '''Editor-ID''' of this form.) Now every NPC of "Bandit" Actor that you just made and you drag or spawn into the world will be named "BANDIT". In the '''GECK''' you drag two of those "Bandit" Actors into the middle of the "Megaton" cell. You double-click on each of those two Bandits and you see identical boxes with the ''Reference Editor ID'' field empty on each. Here is where you would put (for example) '''BanditGoodEndingREF''' and '''BanditBadEndingREF'''. Now you could use those two Ref ID's in scripts to make your good or bad ending occur. There is actually more than one way to do this type of thing. You could have a Quest Script that monitored when one of those Refs died or you could use a Trigger Box or all kinds of Functions depending on exactly what type of thing you were scripting.
 +
 
 +
Keep in mind that spawning objects in a cell using the Console is not the same as placing them in the GECK because you can't "spawn in" things with Ref-ID's.  Ref-IDs are '''always''' assigned automatically by the '''GECK''' when form records are placed in "the world".
 +
 
 +
But not everything within the "object tree" can then be put into the "Render window" and become a Ref-ID.  Hence the difference between Base, Ref & Form ID: a Ref-ID always has a Base-ID, and conversely a Base-ID means it can create "references" that rely on it.  "Message" objects are something outside of that relationship.  A "message" is its own kind of object; like a "sort of" note, with it's own Form-ID.  (The GECK distinguishes between "notes" and "messages", and so should you.  In the same way, GECK does some things one way, and addons such as the "New Vegas Script Extender" (NVSE) can do them differently.)  The GECK command "ShowMessage" needs a Form-id to point to. You can't just use the message text directly as a parameter.  There are 2 kinds of messages though.  Read up on [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Message Message] in the GECK wiki.  The [http://nvse.silverlock.org/ New Vegas Script Extender (NVSE)] and [http://rd.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58277 JIP LN NVSE Plugin] mods add several additional "message" functions that facilitate passing message text directly as a parameter.  (See [[#Tip-Notes|TIP: Passing a 'Note' to the player.]])
 +
 
 +
"Load order of modules (ESMs and ESPs) will affect the ID number of modules. The first two digits of a ID number [i.e. "Form-ID"] corresponds to its load order (in hexadecimal, like the rest of the number). One must use a utility like FO3Edit [or FNVEdit, aka '''xEdit'''] to ascertain the load order of a module. [The '''Fallout ESM''' file's] ID number is 00, as it will always be the very first module to load. The ID number series in the FF (decimal equivalent: 255) range is reserved by the game engine for objects created and saved in the gamesave file (such as PlaceAtMe'd objects, projectiles, dropped inventory, or list-spawned actors).
 +
 
 +
"According to the layout of this system, the maximum number of additional modules that can be loaded by the game is 254 (256 load order ranges, - 1 for the Savegame FF range, - 1 for the always-mandatory Fallout3.esm/FalloutNV.esm)." - [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Form_ID Form-ID on The Vault wiki]
 +
 
 +
: '''FiftyTifty''' added the following advice:
 +
Let's suppose you have a number of Actors you don't want active until your quest reaches a certain "stage".  Then you want a script for them to [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=OnLoad Begin OnLoad].  But "OnLoad" will not run on anything "disabled".  (See the "Notes" on that page and also [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Running_an_OnLoad_block_on_a_disabled_item Running an OnLoad block on a disabled item].)  You need some sort of "switch" to enable them.
 +
 
 +
Rather than enabling each actor individually, set the placed ''actor references'' to have the same ''parent reference'': a dummy trigger object you place in the cell. Then when you want the actors to be enabled, just enable the ''parent reference'' object in your script (as in:
 +
<pre>
 +
actorrefParent.Enable()
 +
</pre>
 +
 
 +
See the GECKWiki page [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Reference#Enable_Parent Enable Parent] entry.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-GlobVar"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Global ref variables '''Player''' and '''PlayerREF''' ====
 +
: Thanks to '''DoctaSax''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#333333; padding:3px;
 +
/* Remove the next four 'white-space' lines to restore default white-space processing. */
 +
white-space: pre-wrap;      /* css-3 */
 +
white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  /* Mozilla, since 1999 */
 +
white-space: -pre-wrap;      /* Opera 4-6 */
 +
white-space: -o-pre-wrap;    /* Opera 7+ */
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">According to the Community GECK site, "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Player Player] is used to describe several things, sometimes simultaneously."  Among them is: "A scripting keyword that is effectively a global [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Reference_variables reference variable] that resolves to the Actor reference described above."
 +
 
 +
The [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Ref_Variable Ref Variable] page only uses "'''PlayerREF'''" for checking that a locally defined ref variable is that specific Actor "formid" reference.  It cautions regarding using a base form reference: "Beware that this is still a base form and may not be used as the [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Calling_reference calling reference] to functions that allows this syntax, although it may be passed as the target if the function permits this.
 +
 
 +
The combination of those statements suggest that it is a poor practice to assume the variable "'''Player'''" refers to the PC Actor formid at any given moment without checking first.  And "[PlayerRef].< function >" syntax implies that "[PlayerRef]" is an abstraction of a locally initialized (e.g. "set myPlayerRef = '''PlayerREF'''") variable.  The following hopefully clears this up.
 +
 
 +
On the surface, the relation between the Global Ref Variables "'''Player'''" and "'''PlayerREF'''" is the same as that between any "base form" and a reference of it. An instance of the NPC base form with EditorID "'''Player'''" ('''formID 00000007''') was placed in the world (albeit in a NULL cell if you can believe it - literally in the world but not in any part of it), becoming a reference and receiving '''formid 00000014''', and given the EditorID string "'''PlayerREF'''". Everything that happens to the PC happens to the "'''PlayerREF'''". The base form is really just a container of some information, a "template", most of which is still subject to change during gameplay and "character generation" (chargen).
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#ffffff;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">'''PlayerREF''''s formid cannot be found using '''xEdit''', but can be found by using any console/script function on it that returns the formid.  A script example would be:
 +
<pre>
 +
GetFormIDString playerref
 +
printc "%i" playerref
 +
</pre>If you open the GECK, load up '''FalloutNV.esm''', and open the "Find Text" window in the "Edit" menu, type in "playerref" and check the results in the "Objects" tab, you'll find this:
 +
<pre>
 +
"REFR Form 'PlayerRef' (00000014) to NPC_form 'Player' (00000007) in Cell (null)"
 +
</pre></div>Because there can be only one, "'''Player'''" is indeed a shortcut to mean "'''PlayerREF'''" in many vanilla scripts and scriptlets where a reference function is used on it, which in any other case would cause a script to fail. In addition, "'''Player'''" is still the EditorID of the base form; so it is used to refer to the base form when functions demand a base form, such as "GetIsID" condition checks. It's not quite clear why that is done. Using "'''PlayerREF'''" instead of "'''Player'''" is just as easy, and keeps things clear. People make enough mistakes confusing forms and refs as it is, and ref vars being called that but still being able to hold base forms, and "'''Player'''" being sometimes the base form and sometimes the reference variable doesn't help.
 +
 
 +
On the whole, in practice, it's simply best to use "'''PlayerREF'''" for the reference variable, and only use "'''Player'''" for the base form.  Because all vanilla "GetAV" variants are reference functions, "'''PlayerREF'''" is preferable, and definitely doesn't cause "GetBaseAV" to not work. "GetBaseAV" cannot be called on a base form variable at all, including "'''Player'''" (00000007). The only reason "'''Player'''.GetBaseAV" will work is because it's interpreted as the shortcut to "'''PlayerREF'''" there. If you were to pass the "'''Player'''" base form to a ref var ("rSomeRef") and then call "rSomeRef.GetBaseAV", your script wouldn't work.
 +
</div>
  
 
=== Custom items ===
 
=== Custom items ===
  
Plan to start by making simple mods: like maybe adding a house somewhere. Then make simple retextures of existing objects. If you get that far, then you are ready to start making your own "mesh" models.
+
On the other hand, loading in multiple ESP files can be a quick and easy way to copy resources from another plugin into your plugin. Just go into the '''GECK''' with the other plugin loaded (as well as yours as the "active file"), make a change to whatever resource you want (you can literally change something and then change it back to what it was, just so you make sure that entry gets flagged as changed), and save your plugin. The changed resource will now be saved to your plugin. You have to be careful with this, as it won't work if the entry you are trying to copy depends on other things in the plugin that you didn't copy. Generally, as someone new to the '''GECK''', you should probably try to avoid doing this, but if you are trying to copy items from another plugin, this is the fastest and easiest way to do it.
 +
 
 +
The '''GECK''' only includes a file as a resource if it's a "master file". If you load an ESP, the '''GECK''' won't treat it as a "master file". The '''GECK''' will automatically add any "master files" that the other ESP loaded since those will all be loaded into your new editing session when you load both ESP files.
 +
 
 +
One word of warning. If you want to copy a piece of armor or some other resource from another plugin, load that ESP without making it active, then make a change to the item you want, then save it, and DON'T DO ANYTHING ELSE. Exit out of the '''GECK''', load it with the resource only in your plugin and WITHOUT the other (original) esp loaded, and then use the modified resource in your plugin. If you try to use the resource while the original plugin is still loaded, that can get the '''GECK''' confused and it may end up scrambling your plugin as a result.
 +
 
 +
This copy from one ESP to another will end up including "master files" from the original ESP in your new plugin; so if you don't want them, DON'T just delete them from the '''GECK''' data screen when you select your plugin. If you accidentally left something in your plugin from one of those masters in your copied cell, deleting the master will screw up your plugin, so first ensure you have a saved copy and then clean up the "master files" list early. Instead of using '''GECK''' for this, load your plugin into '''xEdit''' and use the "Clean Masters" function by right-clicking on your plugin and selecting that option from the resulting "context menu". If all your references to those other masters have been removed, it will safely remove those masters. If not, you can use the '''xEdit''' script "List records referencing specific plugin.pas" on that plugin to list them in the log window so you can fix them.
 +
 
 +
Make sure that the item you want is in a loose file (both mesh and texture) and isn't packed into a '''BSA''' file. If it is, you'll need to unpack it to properly reference it in your plugin. {{BSA Extraction Warning}} Sometimes these extracted textures appear to be almost transparent. This is because their color (aka "diffuse") maps are transparent instead of opaque. You may need to adjust the opaqueness to make things visible.
 +
 
 +
Plan to start by making simple mods: like maybe adding a house somewhere. Then make simple re-textures of existing objects. If you get that far, then you are ready to start making your own "mesh" models.
 +
 
 +
If you are making armor or a weapon, the most commonly suggested advice is to start with an existing version that is similar to what you want. That way you'll have an existing model to base your 3D model on that is close to the right size so you can scale your new model appropriately. Depending on what is desired, for armor it is suggested to often start with just a body model instead. Once you've created your model, you will have to "parent it" to the appropriate armature (aka "skeleton") in order for it to work. If words like "parent" and "armature" in this context don't mean much to you, then you need to do more reading about 3D modeling (again, "Noob to Pro" is a good resource for Blender).
 +
 
 +
Things like buildings and clutter items are also created with '''Blender''' (or '''3dsMax'''), but they don't have armatures. They do have collision though. You'll have to make a collision mesh in '''Blender''' when you create your model.
 +
 
 +
When creating custom meshes for things with different materials, just create individual collision meshes ("bhkcollisionobjects") for each material and let '''Blender''' and the '''NifTools''' figure it out. When creating something like a log cabin with a stone base, for example, create one collision mesh for the stone base and another collision mesh for the wooden parts. The stone part would have a string property of HAV_MAT_STONE and the wood part would have a collision of HAV_MAT_WOOD under the "hkPackedNitriStripsData".
 +
 
 +
Primitive collisions (box, sphere, capsule) can be created in '''NifSkope''' as well as convex shapes. The nature of your object will sometimes require you to create them in '''Blender''', though.
 +
 
 +
It is interesting to know that a collider will relate to an object part when it encompasses it, not by the child/parent relation inside a '''Nif'''.
 +
 
 +
*[http://rd.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64390 Different emission Vault Signs tutorial] by '''munnibha'''. Tutorial covering the following points:
 +
 
 +
:
 +
:*Getting '''NIF''' and '''DDS''' textures out of '''BSA'''s. (See BSA Extraction Warning above.)
 +
:*Importing, editing and exporting into/from Blender (2.49 and latest)
 +
:*Creating new texture files as '''DDS''' in '''Photoshop'''.
 +
:*Adjusting new object in '''NifTools''' for correct projection.
 +
:*Making various ''emission colors'' for signs, like green, red, yellow and non-glowing.
 +
:*Importing new model mesh into '''GECK''' for use in game. 
 +
 
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-BodySlots"></span>
 +
==== TIP Biped and Equipped Objects ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The GECKWiki page [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetEquippedObject GetEquippedObject] lists the 20 "Equipment Slot IDs" (which are the equivalent of the "Biped Objects" in '''NifSkope''') that return the "base object" of the item equipped in the specified slot, for the calling reference.  The function returns "0" (nothing) if no object is equipped there.
 +
 
 +
According to the [http://tes5edit.github.io/fopdoc/FalloutNV/Records/Subrecords/BMDT.html TES5EDIT fopdoc] these "body slots" are stored as "Biped Flags" found in a hexmask (starting at a value of "1") in the "BMDT Subrecord" of FNVEdit, used in the '''ARMO''' and '''ARMA''' record types.  There are 8 "General flags" which accompany that subrecord.)  The function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetEquipmentSlotsMask GetEquipmentSlotsMask] returns the slots used by the biped form as a bitmask int, for the specified object or calling reference.
 +
 
 +
(Note how in FO3/FNV there are far fewer (20) than the 44 in the following list of '''Fallout 4'''  "[http://www.creationkit.com/fallout4/index.php?title=Biped_Slots Biped Slots]" and the 32 (17 "named", and 15 "unnamed" but unofficially, community designated) "[http://www.creationkit.com/index.php?title=Biped_Object Biped Object]" slots of '''Skyrim''' from the "Creation Kit" site.)
 +
 
 +
FO3/FNV mods usually use the "upper body" slot for armor and clothing (collectively "garments").  This includes both arms down to but excluding the hands (which have their own individual slots), and both legs to include the feet/footwear.  There is no "lower body", "arms", or "legs" slot, and there does not appear to be any community agreed "standard" assignment for the three "body addon" slots.  (The general "head area" actually has more related slots (11) than the body.)  Consequently these "addon" and nominally "head related" slots might be used by other mods in a conflicting manner (e.g. for implants, holsters, or other accessories).
 +
 
 +
The article [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/articles/54639/ Mixing and Matching Items from Diffrent Mods to get the Look You Want] (sic) describes how these slots can be repurposed to create a "unique" look, but without regard for compatibility with other mods.  This "merging" of various parts of other mods into a new "garment" is called by some "mashing up meshes & textures" or simply "mashing" for short.  What it doesn't mention is that if you don't "mash" the garment onto a body mesh and texture that is compatible with your "body replacer" mod (if any), it will have the shape and texture of the original source body instead of your preferred "replacement".  Any exposed skin is part of the "garment" and not from the "body replacer".  If you attempt to remove the "exposed skin" mesh, you end up with "invisible" or "missing" parts of the limb.
 +
 
 +
'''Mustaches, beards, eye patches, cyborg eyes,''' etc. can be added to the '''GECK''' by selecting ''Character'' (at the top of the '''GECK''' ''Objects'' list) and selecting ''Head Parts''. This will bring up a form where you can add new head parts, similar to how you add new hair and eye parts. Make sure you select the ''playable'' check box if you want the player to be able to use the part.
 +
 
 +
The new head parts can then be added to '''NPCs''' on the '''NPC''''s form. Select the ''Head Parts'' tab, then add the new part by selecting ''New'' in the ''Head Add Ons'' at the bottom of the tab (the same way you select existing facial hairs).
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-RadiusSetting"></span>
 +
==== TIP Flickering on added item Radius Setting ====
 +
:Sometimes when adding an item to another (such as a hat on a Mr Gutsy) it seems to flicker out of sight depending on the player's camera angle or distance. This is a classic symptom of a problem with the model's "Radius setting". The following is courtesy of '''Prensa''' in a specific reply to a question about this issue with general application.
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning_Notice" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: white;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  white-space: pre-wrap;  white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  white-space: -pre-wrap;  white-space: -o-pre-wrap;  word-wrap: break-word">
 +
The "Radius setting" in the "NiTriStrips' NiTriStripsData" tells the game how big the model is. If this Data is incorrect than the game can end up thinking the model is a different size than it really is. If it's told the model is smaller than it really is, it will cull it when it thinks it's out of view at the edge of the screen.
 +
 
 +
Normally this happens when a "NiTriStrip" is enlarged in '''Nifskope''' without going to "Radius" & right clicking it, and then "Mesh | Update Center/Radius".
 +
 
 +
In this case the "Radius" is being messed up because the NiTriStrip's of the hat top & bottom are "Scaled" 17x larger but their "Radius" is still set tiny. You probably enlarged them to size in '''Blender''' & did not update the objects before export.
 +
 
 +
Normally you could fix it in '''Nifskope''' with right clicking the affected "NiTriStrip" & "Transform | Apply". Then updating the "Radius" as mentioned above but because these have "BSDismemberSkinInstance" that would be messed up so you must use '''Blender'''.
 +
 
 +
Easy fix still. Import the hat parts into '''Blender''', right click the hat part to select & press <Ctrl+A>, then from the menu select "Scale & Rotation to ObData".
 +
 
 +
Export the piece out & repeat for the other hat part.
 +
 
 +
You'll notice in '''Nifskope''' they are no longer "Scale" 17x & that their "Radius" is much larger (correct to their size).
 +
 
 +
Don't forget to select "Skinned" in the shaders again as this is lost on export from '''Blender'''.
 +
</div>
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-FloatingObjects"></span>
 +
==== TIP Floating objects ====
 +
:Thanks to '''Stonedturtle26''' and '''baduk''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">You created a custom weapon but find that if you "drop" it, it floats and you cannot pick it up. To fix:
 +
*Open the weapon in question in '''NifSkope'''.
 +
*Locate ''bhkCollisionObject'', and <LClick> the little arrow next to it.
 +
*<LClick> ''bhkRigidBody'' so the dialog at the bottom of '''NifSkope''' populates with information.
 +
*Now change the following values;
 +
 
 +
:
 +
:*Set "Layer" to "OL_WEAPON".
 +
:*Set "Layer Copy" to "OL_WEAPON".
 +
:*Set "Motion System" to "MO_SYS_BOX".
 +
:*Set "Deactivator Type" to "DEACTIVATOR_SPATIAL".
 +
:*Set "Solver Deactivation" to "SOLVER_DEACTIVATION_LOW".
 +
:*Set "Quality Type" to "MO_QUAL_DEBRIS".
 +
:*Set "Max Linear Velocity" to "1068".
 +
:*Set "Max Angular Velocity" to "31.5700". 
 +
:The weapon should now drop to the ground.  NOTE: If you don't see these options either you are looking under the wrong '''node''' or are using a version of '''NifSkope''' other than the one recommended up under the [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]] section.
 +
:''Mopp shapes'' are used for '''static collisions''' (i.e. anything that doesn't move: like fences, walls, etc.). They can be used for movable objects, but are far more performance intensive (depends on the collision poly count) than '''convex''' or '''box''' shapes.
 +
 
 +
:The ''BSXFlags'' entry is crucial to this behavior.  It must be found / placed under the '''BSFadeNode''' in '''NifSkope'''.  You need to have the '''Use BSFadeNode Root''' option checked in your "paint" type program when exporting the NIF. (It's on the upper right area of the '''NIF Export''' options of '''Blender'''.)
 +
 
 +
:For other object types, look in NIF.XML located in the '''Blender foundation\blender\.blender\scripts\bpymodules\pyffi\formats\nif\''' folder or the '''NifSkope''' documentation files in the "Doc" folder of it's installation folder. Search for ''bhkRigidBody''. It has a good listing and some simple explanations of the options.
 +
</div>
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-HeadPartsRotated"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Head Parts Rotated ====
 +
It's not known why head parts changed between FO3 and FNV, considering that so much else in the game engine is identical, but they did. If you port a head part (hat, glasses, facemask, etc) from FO3 to FNV or from FNV to FO3, or make a new open helmet/hat/head accessory that uses a existing mesh, whether it's a simply a clone or a retexture, it tends to equip sideways (rotated by 90 degrees).
 +
 
 +
:Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following fix using '''NifSkope''':
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">The easiest way to fix it is to edit the model with '''NifSkope''' and rotate it by 90 degrees to get it pointing the way it should be.
 +
:Summary from [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvitRKEa1X0 How To Rotate A Mesh In Nifskope] 2 minute video by Zylice Liddell.
 +
:*< Right-click > the object in the '''NifSkope''' "viewport", then "transform | edit | R (rotate in +/- 1-180 degrees)".
 +
:*After you have it positioned correctly: < Right-click >, "transform | apply". 
 +
</div>
 +
:Thanks to '''masternetra''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following fix using '''FNVEdit''' ('''xEdit'''):
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">Make sure to save your ESP/ESM plugin in question and exit the '''GECK'''. Then open up '''FNVEdit'''.
 +
*Load up your plugin in '''FNVEdit''' and locate the item(s) in question.
 +
*Go down to "Male Biped Model", and at the empty section next to "MODD - FaceGen Model Flags" - <right-click> and select "Add".
 +
*Select "Head" or, if you using a older version of FNVEdit (for some reason), replace the default zeros with a "1".
 +
*Repeat for the "Female biped model" section if applicable.
 +
*Exit '''FNVEdit''' (with it saving the plugin of course).
 +
</div>
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-Substitutions"></span>
 +
==== TIP Item Substitution ====
 +
:Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''Jokerine''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning_Notice" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  white-space: pre-wrap;  white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  white-space: -pre-wrap;  white-space: -o-pre-wrap;  word-wrap: break-word">Suppose you have created a unique Service Rifle with a custom mesh that you want to use to replace the vanilla Service Rifle that Private Halford can reward the Player with for completing the unmarked quest "Help for Halford." How do you find where the quest/dialogue reward is given in the GECK so you can replace the vanilla weapon with your unique custom version?
 +
You can just select "Weapons" on the left side of the GECK "Objects" window and enter "service" in the filter box, and the Service Rifle will show up. Most of the time this is faster than searching out the item's "base ID" (FormID) code. However, sometimes the item's EditorID (human reference name) in the GECK is a lot different than the item name (as seen in the game), so filtering different parts of the name won't find it. For example, "This Machine's" EditorID is "WeapNVBattleRifleUnique", which doesn't contain the words "this" or "machine" in it anywhere. How do you find it if you have no idea as to it's actual EditorID?
 +
 
 +
Jokerine provides a step-by-step more generalized alternative approach of looking for the item you need based on using a wiki or clicking on the object in the game console to get the "base ID" (hex FormID).
 +
 
 +
*In this case the item is listed in a wiki as [http://fallout.wikia.com/wiki/Service_rifle Service Rifle], and its "base ID" is "000e9c3b".
 +
 
 +
[[File:Jokerine-01.png|Jokerine Fig-01]]
 +
 
 +
*Paste that "base ID" number in the GECK's Object window filter with "ALL" selected and the weapon will show up...
 +
 
 +
[[File:Jokerine-02.png|Jokerine Fig-02]]
 +
 
 +
:This gives us an idea already - "Count" field is the amount of these items that exist in the world (only 7), and "Users" field is the amount of objects in the game that reference it - in this case, 23.
 +
 
 +
*Then, right-click the desired result and select "Use Info"...
 +
 
 +
[[File:Jokerine-03.png|Jokerine Fig-03]]
 +
 
 +
*A window will show up showing everywhere this item is used. As you scroll thru it you'll see the quest/dialog topics among a bunch of other stuff.
 +
 
 +
[[File:Jokerine-04.png|Jokerine Fig-04]]
 +
 
 +
*Then, you can just double-click on whatever you want to look at. Here's one of the dialogue topics, where you can see the reward being given in the end script.
 +
 
 +
[[File:Jokerine-05.png|Jokerine Fig-05]]
 +
And now you know where to change the vanilla "Service Rifle" item reference to that of your custom unique item as the new reward.</div>
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
<span id="MashingMeshes"></span>
 +
==== TIP Mashing Meshes ====
 +
:Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''M48A5''', and '''RoyBatterian''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Troubleshooters" forum for the basis of the following:'''
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">Suppose for example you want to place the model of a particular pistol into a holster for display purposes. (This "pistol" will not be usable. It's for aesthetic purposes only.) Some call this process "mashing" two meshes together (e.g. mashing the pistol into the holster). The process is similar for other sorts of "mashing".
 +
The basic procedure is first go into '''NifSkope''' and remove all of the unneeded "animations" and "collision" and such so that you are left with just the (in this instance: "weapon") source mesh. Save that to some new nif (you can delete this temporary nif later).
 +
 
 +
(If instead you are intending to actually be able to use the "weapon" you exported with any existing animations it already contains: don't save it without copying the ''NiTriStripsData'' into the temporary mesh nif, as the ''transforms'' for the parent nodes are baked into the animation. If you have to fix it later you'll have to re-weld/re-smooth the mesh and move the vertices themselves rather than move the mesh as a whole so the transforms don't change.)
 +
 
 +
Now open up your handy-dandy 3-D modeling program (e.g. '''Blender''' or '''3DSMax''', etc. We'll assume '''Blender''' for this example). Import your target (e.g. "holster") mesh. Next, import your modified, stripped down source (e.g. "weapon") temporary nif.
 +
 
 +
I find it easiest to just join all of the weapon meshes together into one mesh at this point, since that makes moving it around and weight painting it much easier. Once it is joined into one piece, edit the "pistol" mesh and move it to where you want it to be in the "holster". (This is likely to be the most difficult step.) When you are satisfied with the positioning, join the "pistol" and "holster" meshes into one single mesh again.
 +
 
 +
Then you need to parent the source ("pistol") mesh to the human skeleton ("armature"), and weight paint it so that it matches the weighting on the target ("holster"), so that it moves with the "holster". Since something solid like a pistol doesn't deform when you move, unlike say a piece of clothing, chances are you will weight the entire mesh 100 percent to a single bone. Having the entire pistol & holster as a single mesh means that you can assign the same bone weight to every vertex in the mesh very quickly and easily in '''Blender'''.
 +
 
 +
Once that is done, export everything (armature, holster, and pistol) to your new "final, mashed" nif. It's a good idea to save everything in '''Blender''' before exiting that as well, in case there is a problem (such as with your export settings). After exporting, go into '''NifSkope''' and fix up all of the ''shader flags'' (because '''Blender''' never seems to set the ''shader flags'' properly when you export items) and correct any unweighted vertex.
 +
 
 +
If the target (e.g. "holster") is not part of an existing item, you will need to go into the '''GECK''' and create a new item with your "mashed" (armature, holster, and pistol) nif, and you're done. (See [[#Spawning_modded_items|Spawning modded items]].) If you want to get fancy, you can make a world model in Blender and use that for when someone drops the mashed "hostler with pistol" item. Or you can get really fancy and have a script swap out the different holsters depending on whether or not you have the pistol equipped.
 +
 
 +
(You can do the same basic thing to make a wearable rifle slung over your back. Just edit the rifle's mesh so that it is located on the back where you want it, and weight it 100 percent to the spine bone. If I recall correctly, the spine bone you want is just the one called spine, not spine1 or spine2.)
 +
 
 +
'''aghjax''' adds:
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#666666;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">
 +
When your '''NifSkoped''' mashup CTDs: "You very likely broke some branch dependencies. You have to compare them to a working NIF preferably from the [sources] you used to see what is out of place. And make sure you don't have duplicate ''Scene Roots''."
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
&nbsp;
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-MovableObjects"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Movable or Static custom objects in cell ====
 +
:Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''davidlallen''', and '''Tefnacht''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice_Box" style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;  border:1px dashed #DAA520;  color: lightgray;  background-color:#333333;  padding:3px;  word-wrap: break-word">You create a custom object and place it in a cell. But then you can no longer move it simply by clicking and dragging. Why not?
 +
There are a couple of possible causes. Please see the first 7 posts in the thread "[http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/376987-cant-pick-up-custom-objects/ Can't pick up custom objects]". But in summary check the following:
 +
 
 +
*Try zooming or rotating the view so no other object is in the way (such as large cubic triggers or lightbeams). When you click on your object, check the ''cell objects list'' to see if something else is selected instead.
 +
*Make sure your object NIF file has a ''bhkCollisionObject''. Without this, you cannot "Activate" to pick up the object in game.
 +
*Ensure that the root node of the NIF file has a ''BSFadeNode''. Armor models and animated objects use a "normal" ''NiNode'' as their root node. The GECK will accept such a model when placed into the world but you will not be able to select it ("Activate"). The FO3 GECK was nice enough to give a warning about this, the one for New Vegas doesn't bother.
 +
 
 +
:Should this be the case, you can use '''NifSkope''' to convert the root node. Right click on it, select "Block | Convert | Bethesda | BSFadeNode". Only the root node (the one at the very top with the index zero ("0")) needs to be a ''BSFadeNode''.
 +
 
 +
To convert a "movable" object into an "immovable" one, what you really want to do is create a ''static'' out of a ''usable'' item.
 +
 
 +
*If this is a standard '''Fallout''' item, it's model is going to be in one of the BSA files. The first thing you need to do is extract the model from the BSA file.
 +
 
 +
{{BSA Extraction Warning}} You can do this with the any of the tools listed in the [[#Packaging_Tools|Packaging Tools]] section. If it's a standard vanilla fallout item, then it will be in '''Fallout - Meshes.bsa'''. If it's from one of the DLCs, then it will be in that DLC's bsa file ('''Old World Blues - Main.bsa''', for example, if it's from that DLC). If the item is in another mod, then the NIF could be loose or it could be packed into a BSA file; however that mod author chose to do it. You may need to go into the GECK to see what the file name of the NIF is, but the file names usually match up fairly closely to the item names in the GECK.
 +
 
 +
*Now that you've got your NIF extracted, you may want to put it somewhere where it is clear that this belongs to your mod, like in '''\meshes\MyModName\''' (where obviously you create a folder with your actual mod name and not "MyModName").
 +
 
 +
*The final step is just to go into the GECK and make a static item and make its model be the NIF that you just extracted.
 +
 
 +
If the NIF was a usable item then it should already have collision and textures and everything that you need. All you need to do is make a static out of it then place it somewhere. Since it's a static, you won't be able to move it or pick it up in-game.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-InjectedRecs"></span>
 +
==== TIP Plugins can not override injected records ====
 +
: Thanks to '''luthienanarion''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">You cannot modify a form record that has been injected into an ESM.  The game engine will not load any record overrides from any plugins for injected records (e.g. those from the "Pre-Order Packs/Couriers Cache", aka "POP" ESMs). It loads the record data once and then fails to resolve the FormID each time that an overriding record is loaded from a subsequent plugin.
 +
 
 +
This means, for example, you cannot alter a POP unique weapon to enable it to utilize a "weapon mod" from either the vanilla game or a mod such as "Weapon Mods Expanded (WMX)".  It's a design choice that cannot be overcome.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-Repairability"></span>
 +
==== TIP Repairability ====
 +
: Thanks to '''slippyguy''' for his informative description in the mod [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/52510 Alternative Repairing] listing a number of potential problems he identified/resolved.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">A "repair kit" (either weapon or armor) is one of the most common methods of restoring/repairing the condition of an item.  However, they have the limitation that the item must have a DT (for armor) or "condition" (for weapons) greater than zero, and be "equippable", as the kits only work on the currently equipped item(s) of that category.  The only alternatives are to pay a "vendor" to repair the item, or have sufficient "repair skill" along with the correct mix and quantity of "ingredients" to do so by the player.  (NOTE: A mod like "[http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58743 Workbench Repairs]" may need to be recommended to enable the player to utilize that "repair skill" generally.  Search the Nexus on keyword "repair".)
 +
 
 +
If you make a custom or unique item that is intended to be repairable by other than a "repair kit", you need to ensure it has a couple of things.
 +
 
 +
* For the player to be able to repair using "found items" (as enabled by some mods), you have to create (or utilize an existing) "recipe" that specifies which items and quantities are "ingredients" (inputs) and "outputs".  (See the [[#.3E_Recipes|Recipes]] entry in the [[#Misc_Topics|Misc Topics]] section.)  If you wish to limit the ability to repair that item to only those with particular skill levels or "catalyst" items, those need to be set as "conditions" in the "Requirements" tab of the recipe.  (A "catalyst item" is one which appears in both the "inputs" and "outputs" tabs in the same quantity (i.e. "is not consumed").  Most commonly these are a "tool".)  <span style="color: red;background-color:#fff5f5">NOTE: Due to a limitation of the game engine, any "breakdown" recipe has to produce at least '''three different''' items as "outputs" to display correctly.  "Catalysts" are a way to circumvent this.</span>
 +
 
 +
* The game does not support 'OR' item ingredients: it's all or nothing. 'Dummy' recipes (as "notes": see also [[#Tip-Recipes|TIP: Passing a 'Recipe' to the player]]) can be shown instead to bypass this game limitation and provide all the relevant information without cluttering the crafting interface. Once all the required material has been obtained, the real recipe for that set of ingredients can appear and be functional.
 +
 
 +
* For a vendor to be able to repair a "new item" in exchange for cash, the item must be added to a "leveled list" used by that vendor.  (See [[#Tip-LeveledLists|TIP: Adding Items to Actors (Leveled Lists)]] under the [[#Scripting|Scripting]] section.)  The recommended method is to create your own list, and add that list to those the vendor(s) in question use by way of a script.  (Vendors don't all use the same lists or even generic ones.)  It is possible to add your items directly to an existing list, but that runs the risk creating problems if your mod is uninstalled or another mod rebuilds the list without considering the possibility it was modified by others.
 +
 
 +
* In order for a "vendor" to be able to repair something for cash, the item must have a value greater than zero.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== Custom Creatures ===
 +
Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Troubleshooting" forum for the basis of the following.
 +
 
 +
Let's assume you want to add an "albino radscorpion" to the game.
 +
 
 +
An "albino" version of the radscorpion would just be a re-texture. What you are going to want to do is export all of the meshes related to the radscorpion (everything in '''\meshes\creatures\radscorpion''') into your own custom directory, and do similar for the textures.  Let's assume you are using '''\meshes\creatures\albinoscorpion''' (you can of course change the names to match your real directory names).  Edit your custom texture using GIMP or Paint.Net or Photoshop or any other texture editor that can handle DDS files and save it with a new name.  Then go into '''NifSkope''' and edit '''radscorpion.nif''' so that it will use your new texture, and save the modified mesh Nif as something unique like '''albinoscorpion.nif'''.
 +
 
 +
Since this is just a re-texture, the easiest thing to do is copy the existing radscorpion creature in the GECK and modify it.  So open up one of the radsorpions under the "creatures" section of the GECK like '''CrRadscorpion2Large''' and select the "ModelList" tab.  Change the skeleton to the skeleton in your new directory.  Now your custom Nif should show up along with the standard radscorpion Nifs.  Uncheck '''radscorpion.nif''' (if it's still checked) and check your new '''albinoradscorpion.nif''', and change the ID for the creature from '''CrRadscorpion2Large''' to something like '''AlbinoRadscorpion''' or whatever you want to call it, and hit "OK" to save it. You can edit the stats or traits or anything else in there that you like if you want too, of course.
 +
 
 +
Remember: in the GECK, save early and often.
 +
 
 +
If you want to make a custom model in Blender that uses the same skeleton as an existing creature, the procedure is basically the same, except that you have to know how to create meshes in Blender and parent them to skeletons.  You'll end up with a custom Nif that will already have a custom texture that you applied to it in Blender when you created the model, and the idea is basically the same.  Export the meshes and textures of the creature whose skeleton you are using, then edit that creature to use your new Nif (and your Nif will tell it to use the new textures), and save it with a new ID.
 +
 
 +
To create a completely new creature (one not based upon any existing creature already in the game), you will have to build the mesh and texture files from scratch, and also provide it with animations.  If it is based upon an existing skeleton, then you can use that as the "armature".  Otherwise you will need to create a specialized one from scratch along with weighting the bones appropriately or by adapting an existing one with a new editor-ID.  As you might guess, this is a much more involved process than merely re-texturing an existing creature.  Save it for after you have mastered the basics.
  
If you are making armor or a weapon, the most commonly suggested advice is to start with an existing version that is similar to what you want. That way you'll have an existing model to base your 3d model on that is close to the right size so you can scale your new model appropriately.  Depending on what is desired, for armor it is suggested to often start with just a body model instead. Once you've created your model, you will have to "parent it" to the appropriate armature (aka "skeleton") in order for it to work. If words like "parent" and "armature" in this context don't mean much to you, then you need to do more reading about 3d modeling (again, "Noob to Pro" is a good resource for Blender).
+
=== Spawning modded items ===
 +
The following overview is taken from [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5472687-how-do-i-add-modded-items-to-the-spawn-list-so-they-spawn-normally/#entry48620932 a thread reply] in the "Fallout New Vegas" Nexus forum by '''Hexrowe''':
  
Things like buildings and clutter items are also created with Blender (or 3dsMax), but they don't have armatures. They do have collision though. You'll have to make a collision mesh in Blender when you create your model.
+
In GECK, there's a category titled ''Leveled Item'' (under ''Items''). It contains a whole bunch of lists that tell the game what items should be spawned in randomly filled loot containers, vendor inventories and enemies. These are usually called "leveled lists" because much of their contents are affected by player level (which is why you tend to find more powerful items in better condition the higher your level is). Adding your items to these lists causes them to appear randomly in the game like any other non-unique items, and is what is meant when mod descriptions mention "leveled list integration" or some such.
 +
 
 +
The sheer number of these lists can look daunting at first, but if you use filters with some fairly obvious keywords and look around a bit you should get the hang of it. Lists starting with "Cond" are used for randomly determining the condition of spawned items, and are usually referenced by other lists; lists starting with "Vendor" are used to randomly fill vendor inventories; lists starting with "Loot" are used to spawn random loot on enemies and in containers; and so on.
 +
 
 +
In order to add an item to a list, you can double-click on the list to open it in its own window and EITHER go back to the ''Object Window'', find the item you want to add and physically drag-and-drop it into the list, OR right-click on an empty spot on the list (to create a new default list entry) or on an existing entry (to create a copy of that entry) and select "New" from the context menu.  Then you have to edit the new entry into what you actually wanted to add. (Drag-and-drop is required for adding items into ''Form Lists'', but ''Leveled Item Lists'' can also use the right-click menu. GECK is kind of a mess like that.)
 +
 
 +
ALTERNATELY, if you want to place an item in a specific location in the game as is often done with unique weapons, creatures, and such, there's a list of world spaces in the ''Cell View'' window; find the one you want to place the object in (note that there are several lists; Interiors seems to be displayed by default, but if you want to place the object in an open air location go to '''WastelandNV''' instead), double-click it to open it in the ''Render Window'', then find the object in the ''Object Window'' and drag-and-drop it into the ''Render Window''. The item will now appear in the list of objects on the right side of the ''Cell View Window'', and double-clicking it there allows you to edit it's exact location and rotation, ownership, whether it can be picked up by wandering AI, and so on. You can also use a "X Marker" and define a radius from the marker at which a script will place an item or creature when certain conditions are met.  See [[#TIP-RandomNPCcomments|Tip: Random NPC Comments]] for an example of this technique.
 +
 
 +
Common practice is to put the ''items'' in an owner-less container, just to be safe. For this you'll have to create the container in the ''Object Window'' (they're found in the ''Container'' category, under ''World Objects'') and add it into the world space by drag-and-dropping it into the ''Render Window'' just like any other item. The easiest way to create a new container is to double-click on an existing one that uses whichever world model you want (fridge, gun cabinet, briefcase, etc.), change its Editor-ID and name, and click OK; at this point GECK will ask whether you want to create a new form instead of renaming the old, so click "Yes" and you'll have your new container. Now just edit its contents and attributes (remember to remove any owners, unless you specifically want the player to have to steal the goods) and add it to the world space of your liking. Done!
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-PlantBug"></span>
 +
====TIP Respawning Plant bug fix====
 +
: Thanks to '''masternetra''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
"> If you add plants (usually ones that can be harvested) that start off as ''disabled'' and are later ''enabled'' via a script or whatever, pretty much every time you leave the cell and come back (e.g. enter and then exit a interior cell), the plant instantly respawns.  (This also occurs if you simply hide the plant below the terrain initially to later move it back up to the surface via script.)
 +
 
 +
Fortunately it seems the plants produced by the ''placeatme'' command don't seem to suffer from this bug if you just place it (and at worse change it's angle and scale).  (Don't know about the impact of enable/disabling ''placeatme'' items or changing their position.)
 +
 
 +
Here a bit of example code to help explain how this works:
 +
<pre>
 +
set PlacedRef to GFMaize1.placeatme MaizePickable
 +
set RefAng to GFMaize1.getangle z
 +
set RefScale to GFMaize1.getscale
 +
PlacedRef.setangle z RefAng
 +
PlacedRef.setscale RefScale
 +
</pre>
 +
In that scenerio: placed a disabled version of the plant ('''GFMaize1''') to work out placement, angles, and scaling.  Then just give the ''placeatme'' plant '''PlacedRef''' (='''MaizePickable''') the disabled one's angle ('''RefAng''') and scale ('''RefScale''') information.
 +
</div>
  
 
=== Worldspaces ===
 
=== Worldspaces ===
 +
If you want to create your own worldspace, then you must be a real glutton for punishment, because this gets you into the buggiest parts of the GECK.  For example. you create a worldspace, then go and edit its heightmap, and when you save your heightmap and exit out of it, the GECK will crash. The only way to avoid this is to create your worldspace, save your mod, exit the GECK, reload your mod, and then edit the heightmap. This isn't explained anywhere in the GECK, but if you create a heightmap that is too low, the GECK will crash. One modder used to create heightmaps with a general offset of about 6000, but then found there's another bug that when you do that: trees don't generate LOD properly. So your heightmap really needs to be above something like 20-25,000 or so.  If your landscape doesn't have trees (or objects that are defined as having tree LOD in the GECK) then you don't need to worry about it and 6000 offset works fine, BUT: the default LOD water height is 10500.
  
If you want to create your own worldspace, then you must be a real glutton for punishment, because this gets you into the buggiest parts of the GECK. For example. you create a worldspace, then go and edit its heightmap, and when you save your heightmap and exit out of it, the GECK will crash. The only way to avoid this is to create your worldspace, save your mod, exit the GECK, reload your mod, and then edit the heightmap. This isn't explained anywhere in the GECK, but if you create a heightmap that is too low, the GECK will crash. I used to create heightmaps with a general offset of about 6000, but then I found there's another bug that when you do that, trees don't generate LOD properly. So your heightmap really needs to be above something like 20,000 or so. The list of bugs that you run into with worldspace generation goes on and on like this. Worldspace generation is MISERABLE. There's a reason you don't see many worldspace mods and many of the ones you do see use a flat worldspace with landscape objects like cliffs and rocks instead of a true heightmap to generate the landscape.
+
At some point you will try to navmesh your entire new worldspace. It's a really big worldspace with lots of cells, so it's a royal pain to navmesh each cell. Here you find out that the default settings for generating navmeshes will typically navmesh right across a fence, but will block on a piece of road. (Hey GECK, isn't it supposed to be the other way around? Arrgghh.) (As an aside, using heightmap generation mode works a LOT better). Oh, but wait, there's an automatic navmesh generator under the Regions section. Except that it is THE MOST BUGGY THING IN THE ENTIRE GECK. People have had it navmesh the entire area OUTSIDE of the area you want it to navmesh, completely leaving the area you wanted to navmesh untouched. Oh, and by the way, it completely rips out whatever navmeshing you had before in your mod, so hope you saved a backup somewhere because otherwise it's gone. Oh again, but don't worry. The auto navmesher doesn't always navmesh outside where you want it to. No, more often it just completely locks up with an infinite "Get Jean" popup error box that you can't get rid of because it just pops up again. Seriously, the error box just says "Get Jean". After some googling it was learned that "Jean" was the pathing coder and this was a debug message that was never removed from the GECK. The auto-navmesher also completely hangs up when it encounters an SCOL (static collection).  The auto navmesher managed to navmesh a large (and very simple) landscape for a modder once. And only once. These days it's recommended you don't even bother to try and use it.  Just navmesh cell by cell. It's quicker and less frustrating.
  
New worldspace creation is pretty much the same from FO3 to FNV, so tutorials for FO3 are okay for you to use. there don't seem to be any good tutorials.  Most have pieced together bits and pieces from various tutorials and just plugged through it until they figured it out by trial and error.
+
The list of bugs that you run into with worldspace generation goes on and on like this. Worldspace generation is MISERABLE. There's a reason you don't see many worldspace mods and many of the ones you do see use a flat worldspace with landscape objects like cliffs and rocks instead of a true heightmap to generate the landscape.
 +
 
 +
Many consider duplicating an existing worldspace and removing unwanted elements.  This is fraught with it's own problems as well.  Please see the Nexus forum thread [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/516626-duplicating-a-world-space-tutorial/ Duplicating a world-space tutorial] first, for an idea of the difficulties involved.  Be aware that deleting objects from the world means you are removing references used by the game and possibly other mods.  When you delete static objects like vehicles, the navmesh for that cell is typically done so that NPCs will avoid walking into the vehicle. If you don't fix the navmesh, you can walk right through where the vehicle used to be, but your companion NPC won't. It's a bit odd when you are walking down the road and your companion suddenly does a left turn and goes out of their way to avoid nothing, just because the navmesh says they can't walk there. Similarly, if you are being chased by a creature, it will also avoid the holes in the navmesh where the vehicles and other statics used to be.
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: red;
 +
background-color:#ffffff;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Note that there is a '''16 MB''' limit for '''''objects''''' in plugins.  (Terrain painting and navmeshes can go above the 16 MB boundary.) If your plugin gets larger than 16 MB and you add an object or an Actor (NPC or Creature), your plugin will be permanently broken '''''without any warning'''''. It will crash the game and will crash the GECK if you try to load it. Since your overhaul is likely going to be a fairly large plugin, you might want to make all of your object/NPC changes first to determine if you need to split things up into multiple files, then add dialog and navmesh changes.</div>
 +
 
 +
New worldspace creation is pretty much the same from FO3 to FNV, so tutorials for FO3 are okay for you to use. There don't seem to be any good tutorials.  Most have pieced together bits and pieces from various tutorials and just plugged through it until they figured it out by trial and error.
 
      
 
      
 
Some tutorials make it sound a lot easier than it is. If you are making a very small worldspace, it can be done fairly quickly. But if you are making a larger worldspace, it becomes a very slow and tedious thing.
 
Some tutorials make it sound a lot easier than it is. If you are making a very small worldspace, it can be done fairly quickly. But if you are making a larger worldspace, it becomes a very slow and tedious thing.
  
Also, the worldspace parts of the GECK are among the buggiest and most difficult to use parts of the toolset. Save often, and make backup files often just in case the GECK totally trashs your mod and you need to revert to an earlier version.
+
Also, the worldspace parts of the GECK are among the buggiest and most difficult to use parts of the toolset. Save often, and make backup files often just in case the GECK totally trashes your mod and you need to revert to an earlier version.
 +
 
 +
Here are some tips on getting past the first initial problems, which will give you an idea of how frustrating this can be.  However, if all you need is the basic game worldspace but empty of content, you might consider [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62703/? The Community Wasteland Project] which is an ESM file that has safely removed all NPCs, Creatures and scripted triggers from the game and its DLCs instead as an alternative to "rolling your own".
 +
 
 +
Assuming you want to make your own landscape from scratch, the first step is just creating the world space. Click on "World | World Spaces" in the GECK, and when that form comes up, just click "New" on the left hand side to give your new region a name, and fill in the blanks. Exit out of that, and save your mod, because the next step will usually crash the GECK.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-WorldspaceHiLites"></span>
 +
==== Highlights of the Worldspace ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">This is a summary of various points raised elsewhere in this section for quick reference.  Some details may vary.  Be conservative.
 +
 
 +
* If I remember correctly, the maximum map size is 128x128 cells. It might be 128x64. Weird things start to happen if you go over that size.
 +
 
 +
* Keep all land height above 14,000 or you can have LOD issues.
 +
 
 +
* If you are using the landscape editor, be gentle. If you try to shape the landscape too quickly, you tend to create landscape tears.
 +
 
 +
* If you have water, don't forget to add a water texture in your worldspace. "Data\Textures\Water\wastelandwaterpotomac.dds" tends to work well for many different water types (river, lake, etc). I've never tried to make ocean water with it though.
 +
 
 +
* If you ever get an error where it says that part of the landscape height is out of bounds, the '''GECK''' will helpfully tell you that it can fix it. It can't. Your landscape is totally hosed at that point. Hopefully you saved an earlier version of your mod to go back to.
 +
 
 +
* If you make an ESP larger than 16 MB and you add something with a reference ID number of some sort to it, you will break your mod. The '''GECK''' will NOT give you any error whatsoever when you do so. When you try to load your mod, you'll crash the game. When you try to load the mod in the '''GECK''' to fix it, you'll crash the '''GECK'''. Hope you saved an earlier version of your mod somewhere that you can go back to.
 +
 
 +
* There are several ways to avoid the 16 MB bug.
 +
 
 +
:* The first is to create your landscape first, then place all objects into the worldspace, create all interiors, etc. After all that is done, then paint your landscape, add navmeshes, conversations/quests, etc. Landscape, navmeshes, and quest things can all be safely added above the 16 MB boundary. This works well enough for fairly simple mods.
 +
 
 +
:* The second way involves setting your '''GECK''' up in networked developer mode, which is not how most people set it up.  This has instructions for setting your '''GECK''' up in networked mode. There are some errors in these instructions, but as far as I am aware, they are the best instructions you'll find anywhere on the net:
 +
::* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Version_Control Version Control].
 +
 
 +
:* In networked mode, the 16 MB bug still applies. So create your worldspace, check that in to version control, then add stuff, and check those changes in. When you do this, the '''GECK''' will automatically place ID values below the 16 MB boundary. I'm sure there are still size limits in there somewhere, but I have yet to hit them using this method, even in mods that contain multiple worldspaces.
 +
 
 +
* The '''GECK''' tends to crash when working with larger mods anyway, so keeping the bulk of your mod checked in to version control and only working on small bits of it helps fairly dramatically in preventing '''GECK''' crashes.
 +
 
 +
* In the regions section of the '''GECK''', there is an option to automatically navmesh the entire region. You may find this tempting, but DO NOT EVER USE THIS FEATURE. It is the most broken thing in the '''GECK''' that I have found yet to date. I did actually get it to correctly navmesh a region once. And only once. It was a fairly simple landscape and there wasn't much on it yet. SCOLS make the navmesher crash. Sometimes it will navmesh inside the region boundaries, sometimes, for no reason whatsoever, it will navmesh OUTSIDE your region boundaries instead of inside. Either way, if it screws up, it completely borks your entire navmesh for the entire worldspace. It also tends to crash in an endless loop constantly popping up a box with the error message "Get Jean!" over and over until you kill the '''GECK''' in the task manager.
 +
 
 +
* Instead, the best you can do with navmeshing is to use the automatic navmesher for a single cell. When you click on the navmesh toolbar to bring it up, the cell auto navmesher is the first question mark from the left, just to the right of the finalize checkmark button. In the navmesh dialog, click the check box to enable height map generation mode, uncheck remove overlapping and remove thin areas, and you'll get about the best performance that you can out of it. A 64x64 worldspace is 4,096 cells. If you can use the auto navmesher to do 4 cells per minute, that's 1,024 minutes, or a bit over 17 hours just clicking on the navmesh button over and over and over and over. If you don't use heightmap generation mode, the navmesher has a tendency to fail to navmesh across bumpy roads and easily walkable surfaces.  (If you set the auto navmesher to '''Height Map Only''' mode, it works a lot faster and a lot better, and will usually navmesh across roads just fine. It will still navmesh across fences though.)
 +
 
 +
* The '''GECK''' will not render your worldspace unless there is something in it. But it's really hard to put something in it if you can't see anything. It's kind of a catch 22. I usually drop the little airplane into it, which I delete later. After that, go to an interior cell so you can get the render window to work properly again, then go to your little plane, and now finally you can see your new landscape. When editing your new landscape, always go to a part of your worldspace that has something in it first. If the first thing the '''GECK''' has to render is a section of worldspace with no objects in it, it goes right back to the render bug where you don't see anything except a gray blob (I think it's actually rendering water everywhere, stupid '''GECK'''...).
 +
 
 +
* If you paint your landscape or use the raise/lower tool in the render window (not the worldspace height editor), you can end up with black squares just outside of the area you were editing. Those black squares will be persistent, in that you can move away from them and they'll still be there when you come back, but they aren't really there. It's just yet another '''GECK''' bug.
 +
 
 +
Welcome to the buggiest parts of the '''GECK'''. Save often. Keep backups.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-CenterOn"></span>
 +
====TIP Center_On_Cell '''COC''' Markers====
 +
: Thanks to '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Keep in mind when navigating:
 +
* '''COC <InteriorCellName>''' (Center on Cell) is a Console command that will bring you ("Player") inside a ''Interior'' cell at the spot where the '''CocMarkerHeading''' (a GECK [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Markers Markers] reference) is placed.<br>
 +
* '''COCMarkerHeading''' defines the placement and direction when the player COCs to the cell. You can only place one '''COCMarkerHeading''' per cell. If one is already in the cell, you won't be able to place another one.
 +
* '''COW <WorldspaceName> <X, Y coordinates>''' (Center On World) is a Console command that will place you in the named ''WorldSpace'' at the coordinates specified.  It doesn't use any GECK '''Marker''' references.
 +
* '''COCMarkerHeading''' is a special '''Marker''' that (in GECK) when dragged into a cell defines the placement and direction of the Player when they use a "COC" command into the cell.
 +
* '''North Marker''' placed in a ''Worldspace'' defines that direction as cell '''North'''.</div>
 +
 
 +
There's an auto navmesher, but that is buggy as all heck. Some have found that it works reasonably well on wilderness landscapes containing simple objects like trees and cactuses. It often completely fails when the cell contains SCOLs ("static collections") and doesn't work well at all if there are a lot of complex objects inside the cell. That means that you end up having to hand navmesh a lot of cells. If your new worldspace only has a few usable cells, this isn't a big deal, and you can navmesh all of them in a few hours easily. A worldspace has basically 64x64 cells, which is 4096 total cells. You can auto navmesh three or four cells per minute, and once you get experienced at navmeshing, you can probably finish a fairly complex cell in a few minutes. If you figure an average of one cell per minute (being a mix of hand navmeshed and auto navmeshed), that's 4096 minutes to navmesh the entire worldspace. That works out to a bit over 68 hours. If you navmesh for three hours per day (because you have a job or go to school or do something that takes up the rest of your day) then it will take you roughly 23 days to navmesh the entire worldspace.
 +
 
 +
The auto navmesher will often not navmesh across roads.  If you set the auto navmesher to "Height Map Only" mode, it works a lot faster and a lot better, and will usually navmesh across roads just fine.  However, it will usually navmesh through fences. So be prepared to hand navmesh any cell that contains a road or a fence.
 +
 
 +
Use the "b" key in your "render window" to show "cell boundaries". You'll want to arrange buildings and structures and other things so that you can easily do the navmeshing. You wouldn't want a building's door to be straddling a cell boundary, for example.
 +
 
 +
There's also an "auto generate navmesh" button under "regions". Don't use it. It is very very very very broken. Some have made it work under some circumstances but it is incredibly buggy.
 +
 
 +
LOD generation is similar. It's not too bad if you only have a few cells, but for a large worldspace it takes darn near forever.
 +
 
 +
This is why you need to decide ahead of time if you want to create a tiny worldspace that you can finish in a short amount of time, or if you want to create a major sized worldspace that will take you a huge chunk of time to complete.
 +
 
 +
There's a reason that you don't see too many mods with worldspaces on the nexus. It's difficult to figure out, and buggy as all heck. It also takes a huge amount of time, which is why the few worldspaces that you do see tend to be small and simple.  It is not uncommon for a single mod creator to spend so long working on a mod with a new worldspace that the vast majority of that game community has moved on to another game.
 +
 
 +
One other thing. If you do try to make a huge worldspace, you can use the regions to add a lot of landscape items like cactuses and trees. This is a huge time saver, but be forwarned. If you have ever clicked on an object in debug mode, you'll notice that the object has an 8 character ID, something like 4100D236 (a completely made-up number). This is a hexidecimal number. The first two digits will be the number of your mod (41 in this case), aka its mod index. Fallout gets 00, and the different mods are assigned numbers as you add them into your mod list. On a system with the official DLC, "Dead Money" is 01, "Honest Hearts" is 02, "Old World Blues" is 03, etc. You can see the mod index in most mod managers. So if you add another mod and it ends up loading before this one, that 41 could get bumped up to 42, for example. Now here's the important part. That xx00D236 part means that you have a six digit hex "form" number for the ID. This corresponds to the file offset in your mod. The largest 6 digit hex number you can have is FFFFFF, which is 16,777,215.  (The FF mod index is reserved for "save game" file changes to the environment, such as inventory and moved objects.)  A worldspace will take 10 to 12 megs just for the heightmap and landscape, not including navmesh and texturing. If you go over the 16 meg limit and add an ''object'', you brick your mod. The GECK will give you no errors at all when it saves your mod, but when you try to load it again, it will lock up the GECK. That means you can't use the GECK to fix it. Hope you have a backup of your mod from earlier somewhere, because that's the only way out of it.
 +
 
 +
This is important enough to put it another way: What this means to you is that you need to watch your file size. Once you get over 16 megs, you can't add any more ''objects'' or you will break your mod. If this happens, the game can't load your mod and the GECK can't load it either, so if you didn't save an earlier copy of your mod somewhere, it's forever broken. '''Fallout.esm''' is significantly larger than 16 megs, so Bethesda obviously has some way of packing the data in so that they don't get this problem. But the GECK that you and I get to use can't add objects to a mod that is more than 16 megs in size. You can paint landscapes and add navmeshes and such which can take your mod well beyond the 16 meg limit, but as soon as you add an ''object'' to a mod that is larger than 16 megs and save your mod, you just broke it. The GECK won't tell you that it is broken, either. You won't find out until you try to reload your mod in the GECK or if you try to use it in the game.  Authors have had to split mods into multiple files to get around this.
 +
 
 +
(Repeat the mantra: save early, save often, keep backups.)
  
Here are some tips on getting past the first initial problems, which will give you an idea of how frustrating this can be.
+
If you are making a small worldspace, then you probably don't have to worry about this at all. If you are making a large worldspace and are adding tons of landscape objects (cactuses, trees, etc) then you can run into this limit and it will break your mod. So if you are going to do a worldspace, do the landscape first, then add all of your objects, NPCs, creatures, etc. to it, and THEN do the navmeshing and texturing last as those don't care about the 16 meg boundary issue.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-North"></span>
 +
====TIP Finding cell North in GECK====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When you first open a cell in the GECK, the camera defaults to pointing '''North'''.  You can place a [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Markers North Marker] in a ''Worldspace'' to set that direction as '''North''' instead.
 +
 
 +
If you have rotated your view of a cell around and you aren't sure which way you are facing, the "<Up cursor>" key will always move you '''North''', the "<Down cursor>" '''South''', the "<Left cursor>" '''West''', and the "<Right cursor>" '''East'''. So just moving around a bit with the cursor arrow keys can help you re-orient yourself.
 +
</div>
  
The first step is just creating the world space. Click on "World | World Spaces" in the GECK, and when that form comes up, just click "New" on the left hand side to give your new region a name, and fill in the blanks. Exit out of that, and save your mod, because the next step will usually crash the GECK.
 
   
 
 
The next step is to create a "heightmap". A lot of people skip this and make small, completely flat world spaces, and use things like cliff objects to do the majority of their landscaping. That's okay for things like a small base surrounded by mountains or something like that, but if you are trying to create a town or something it looks amateurish.
 
The next step is to create a "heightmap". A lot of people skip this and make small, completely flat world spaces, and use things like cliff objects to do the majority of their landscaping. That's okay for things like a small base surrounded by mountains or something like that, but if you are trying to create a town or something it looks amateurish.
  
Warning - If you basically default the heightmap settings, it will crash the GECK. Seriously, sometimes it seems like the GECK is a Vault-tec experiment designed to test modder frustrations. The reason for this is that the GECK doesn't like it if the landscape is too low. So the first thing some do is create a random landscape that doesn't have much randomness to it, so that what it ends up doing is creating a basically flat landscape. The settings successfully used under the random generator are a frequency of 100, an amplitude of 50, and a base offset of 6000. The base offset is extremely important since if you don't set it high enough, the GECK crashes.
+
<span style="color: red;background-color: #fdd;">Warning - If you basically default the heightmap settings, it will crash the GECK.</span> Seriously, sometimes it seems like the GECK is a Vault-tec experiment designed to test modder frustrations. The reason for this is that the GECK doesn't like it if the landscape is too low. So the first thing some do is create a random landscape that doesn't have much randomness to it, so that what it ends up doing is creating a basically flat landscape. The settings successfully used under the random generator are a frequency of 100, an amplitude of 50, and a base offset of 6000 if there will be no "tree LODs" or 25,000 if there will be. (Though bear in mind the default LOD "water level" is 10500 if you are planning on any underground structures.  It seems the "Default Water Height" and the "Default LOD Water Height" need to be the same.  The "Default Land Height" is -2048.0 and that appears to be sensitive to changes, and is best left alone.) The base offset is extremely important since if you don't set it high enough, the GECK crashes.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-GeneratingLOD"></span>
 +
==== TIP Generating Worldspace LOD ====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When either creating or editing a worldspace, you need to generate LOD ("Level of Detail") mesh and textures to reflect those changes.  But first you need to be sure you understand the difference between VWD (View While Distant) and LOD (Level of Detail).  See the [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB LOD/VWD Overview] page on "The Elder Scrolls Texture Guide (TESTG)" site.  (The "FNV" version of "TES4LODGen" mentioned there is [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562 FNVLODGen], and along with [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61035/? Ultimate resolution landscape LODs and generator TES4LL] can be used as an alternative to creating LODs in the '''GECK'''.  The "LOD/VWD Overview" page provides a TES4LL process sequence.)
 +
 
 +
The following articles provide guidance on using the '''GECK''' to generate LOD files:
 +
* [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/LOD_Generation_For_New_Vegas_and_Fallout_3 LOD Generation For New Vegas and Fallout 3] (Wiki article).
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/World_LOD World LOD] GECKWiki page.
 +
* [http://www.truancyfactory.com/tutorials/fallout3/fallout_lod.html Generating LOD Data for Custom Worldspaces in Fallout 3]
 +
 
 +
Make sure your "ground level" is above the "water heightmap" or your LODs will be "gray blobs".  (See [[#TIP_Static_Water_goes_into_Interior_cells_only|TIP Static Water goes into Interior cells only]].)
 +
 
 +
The folders used for LOD output files are laid out on the description page of "FNVLODGen".  The key to finding those for yours would be looking for subfolders with the name of "''yourworldspace''".
 +
 
 +
If you add any VWD/LOD textures (such as NMC or Ojo Bueno or your own custom ones) to your game, please see the 'Checklist Item #15 & 16' entries in the wiki [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/Fallout_NV_Mod_Conflict_Troubleshooting Fallout NV Mod Conflict Troubleshooting] guide regarding the need to run both TES4LL and FNVLODGen.  Also recommend you read the 'LOD/VWD Texture Packs' section of the wiki [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/FNV_General_Mod_Use_Advice FNV General Mod Use Advice] article first.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-StaticWater"></span>
  
Some folks use things like "geological survey data" to generate their heightmaps. If you poke around on the forums you'll find the basic procedure for it.
+
====TIP Static Water goes into '''''Interior''''' cells only====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''SnakeSlippers''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Don't ever place ''static water'' in '''exterior cells'''.  Even after deleting, the water is still there. Use that in '''interior cells''' only.
 +
 
 +
You can change the water ''heightmap'' of individual '''exterior cells''', but ALWAYS make a backup copy of your mod first as this can be buggy and can totally screw up the water heights for your entire mod.  Name or store your backup copies so you know what you did in each one.  Don't rely solely upon timestamps.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
Some folks use things like "geological survey data" to generate their heightmaps. See the last couple of threads in the list of tutorials below or poke around on the net.
  
 
If all is well so far, save your heightmap and save your mod. If you didn't restart the GECK earlier, chances are that right here is where the GECK will crash. The second time through this it usually works.
 
If all is well so far, save your heightmap and save your mod. If you didn't restart the GECK earlier, chances are that right here is where the GECK will crash. The second time through this it usually works.
Line 94: Line 888:
 
Buggy buggy buggy. That's the GECK.
 
Buggy buggy buggy. That's the GECK.
  
There's an auto navmesher, but that is buggy as all heck. Some have found that it works reasonably well on wilderness landscapes containing simple objects like trees and cactuses. It often completely fails when the cell contains SCOLs ("static collections") and doesn't work well at all if there are a lot of complex objects inside the cell. That means that you end up having to hand navmesh a lot of cells. If your new worldspace only has a few usable cells, this isn't a big deal, and you can navmesh all of them in a few hours easily. A worldspace has basically 64x64 cells, which is 4096 total cells. You can auto navmesh three or four cells per minute, and once you get experienced at navmeshing, you can probably finish a fairly complex cell in a few minutes. If you figure an average of one cell per minute (being a mix of hand navmeshed and auto navmeshed), that's 4096 minutes to navmesh the entire worldspace. That works out to a bit over 68 hours. If you navmesh for three hours per day (because you have a job or go to school or do something that takes up the rest of your day) then it will take you roughly 23 days to navmesh the entire worldspace.
+
<span id="Tip-TerrainEditor"></span>
 +
==== TIP Terrain Editor missing texture ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When you have the '''GECK PowerUp''' tool installed, you may encounter the following error message upon selecting the ''terrain editing tool'':
 +
<pre>
 +
Icon file "Textures\Landscape\Default.dds" not found.
 +
</pre>
 +
You can safely ignore this message.  There is no such file, and it does not appear to cause any problems.
 +
</div>
  
The auto navmesher will often not navmesh across roads. However, it will usually navmesh through fences. So be prepared to hand navmesh any cell that contains a road or a fence.
+
=== Copying interior or exterior cells between plugins ===
 +
Reusing cells from one plugin to another is a great time saver, but you have to bear some things in mind.
  
Use the "b" key in your "render window" to show "cell boundaries". You'll want to arrange buildings and structures and other things so that you can easily do the navmeshing. You wouldn't want a building's door to be straddling a cell boundary, for example.
+
:* The Trick is to make your new ESP first, only dependent on the main master file.  Save and close it.
 +
:: Best way to make a new ESP file is to drop something in the "Render" window, then save and name the file.  So loading a cell first is needed.  Suggest "Wasteland cell / Good Springs" if you don't have any in particular in mind. You can of course delete that cell later from your ESP if it's not needed for your purposes.
 +
:* Then open your preferred tool adding the other files from which you want to use assets, (with your new .ESP as the "active file" in GECK).
  
There's also an "auto generate navmesh" button under "regions". Don't use it. It is very very very very broken. Some have made it work under some circumstances but it is incredibly buggy.
+
At the moment we don't know of any way to duplicate exterior world spaces in GECK. You can copy cell records between plugins in FNVEdit. In order to change the FormID of the duplicated Worldspace, you need to work from the bottom up: changing the FormIDs of the children cells before the parent.
  
LOD generation is similar. It's not too bad if you only have a few cells, but for a large worldspace it takes darn near forever.
+
You can use either FNVEdit or GECK to duplicate interior cells, but this is how to use the GECK. In the GECK, load up the ESP with the cell you want but don't make it "active", while loading the ESP that you want the cell to end up in (i.e. your new ESP) as the "active file". Then just right click on the desired cell in the "source" plugin and select "Duplicate Cell". It will give the duplicate a name of whatever the cell name is plus COPY (or something like that). '''If there are any objects in the source cell that are unique to the mod you are copying it from or come from one of its masters that you don't want to include, delete those out of the copied cell.''' Then save your "active file" ESP. Do not add items to the cell or do anything else other than duplicate it or the GECK can sometimes get confused and it will mess everything up. Just duplicate the cell, remove anything you don't want in your "active file" ESP, and save. That's it. Exit and reload, and maybe rename the cell so that it doesn't have the word COPY in it, and then edit it to your heart's desire.
  
This is why you need to decide ahead of time if you want to create a tiny worldspace that you can finish in a short amount of time, or if you want to create a major sized worldspace that will take you a huge chunk of time to complete.
+
The GECK only includes a file as a resource if it's a "master file". If you load an ESP, the GECK won't treat it as a master (unless you have configured the GECK PowerUp to allow ESPs to be "masters"). The GECK will automatically add any master files that the other ESP loaded since those will all be loaded into your new editing session when you load both ESP files.
  
There's a reason that you don't see too many mods with worldspaces on the nexus. It's difficult to figure out, and buggy as all heck. It also takes a huge amount of time, which is why the few worldspaces that you do see tend to be small and simpleIt is not uncommon for a single mod creator to spend so long working on a mod with a new worldspace that the vast majority of that game community has moved on to another game.
+
This will end up including "master files" from the "original ESP" in your "new ESP", so if you don't want them: just delete them from the GECK data screen when you select your mod for loading. However, if you accidentally left in something dependent upon one of those masters in your copied cell, deleting the master will screw up your mod.   
  
One other thing. If you do try to make a huge worldspace, you can use the regions to add a lot of landscape items like cactuses and trees. This is a huge time saver, but be forwarned. If you have ever clicked on an object in debug mode, you'll notice that the object has an 8 character ID, something like 4100D236 (a completely made-up number). This is a hexidecimal number. The first two digits will be the number of your mod (41 in this case), aka its mod index. Fallout gets 00, and the different mods are assigned numbers as you add them into your mod list. On a system with the official DLC, "Dead Money" is 01, "Honest Hearts" is 02, "Old World Blues" is 03, etc. You can see the mod index in most mod managers. So if you add another mod and it ends up loading before this one, that 41 could get bumped up to 42, for example. Now here's the important part. That xx00D236 part means that you have a six digit hex "form" number for the ID. This corresponds to the file offset in your mod. The largest 6 digit hex number you can have is FFFFFF, which is 16,777,215.  A worldspace will take 10 to 12 megs just for the heightmap and landscape, not including navmesh and texturing. If you go over the 16 meg limit and add an object, you brick your mod. The GECK will give you no errors at all when it saves your mod, but when you try to load it again, it will lock up the GECK. That means you can't use the GECK to fix it. Hope you have a backup of your mod from earlier somewhere, because that's the only way out of it.
+
Here loading your new ESP with the copied cell(s) in FNVEdit first will enable you to safely see if there are any unexpected "master files" in the "File Header" record list of masters. It's "Clean Masters" command won't remove a "master file" as long as some record depends upon it, which is not true for the GECK.
 +
* Check for errors in FNVEdit by Right-clicking on your plugin, and selecting "check for errors" from the context menu that then appears.
 +
: If there are any remaining dependent records (evidenced by a master you expected to be dropped still being present in the plugin's "File Header" record) you can use the FNVEdit script "'''List records referencing specific plugin.pas'''" on that plugin to list them in the log window so you can remove them.
 +
* Once that is done, Right-click on your plugin and select "Clean Masters" from the context menu.
 +
* "Sort Masters", which will order them in the plugin according to your current "load order".
 +
* Check the plugin's "File Header" record for any remaining unexpected "master files".
 +
: If there are any, repeat the process. Otherwise, exit and save.
  
If you are making a small worldspace, then you probably don't have to worry about this at all. If you are making a large worldspace and are adding tons of landscape objects (cactuses, trees, etc) then you can run into this limit and it will break your mod. So if you are going to do a worldspace, do the landscape first, then add all of your objects, NPCs, creatures, etc. to it, and THEN do the navmeshing and texturing last as those don't care about the 16 meg boundary issue.
+
There are a lot of things that FNVEdit and the GECK can both do, they just do it differently. Which one you choose to use is a matter of personal preference, but sometimes one has capabilities the other lacks.
  
 
== Additional Material ==
 
== Additional Material ==
 
The following is not intended to be a complete list, but rather a starting point on articles and videos specific to FNV to assist new mod creators in getting started.  Bear in mind that articles in older games may also be of assistance with basic concepts as long as you adjust to the peculiarities of the syntax in the GECK.
 
The following is not intended to be a complete list, but rather a starting point on articles and videos specific to FNV to assist new mod creators in getting started.  Bear in mind that articles in older games may also be of assistance with basic concepts as long as you adjust to the peculiarities of the syntax in the GECK.
  
These articles are not intended as "tutorials", but do convey useful information to the mod creation process.
+
Rather than "reinventing the wheel", your life will be a lot simpler if you take advantage of resources made available for your use by the modding community.  They also provide useful examples of correctly created elements which can supplement tutorials.  These are generally listed on the Nexus in the [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/searchresults/?src_cat=104 Modders resources and tutorials] category.  Check back often.  Please respect the various authors usage permissions, and give credit where due.
 +
 
 +
These articles are not necessarily intended as "tutorials", but do convey useful information to the mod creation process.
 +
 
 +
* [[GECK:_Tips_and_Tricks|GECK: Tips and Tricks]] Wiki.
 +
* [[Effect_Shaders:_definitive_guide|Effect Shaders: definitive guide]] Wiki. (WIP, not updated since Mar 2012.)
 +
* [[Fallout_3/NV_Game_Units|Fallout 3/NV Game Units]] Wiki.
 +
* [[How_to_fix_hard-coded_texture_paths_in_NIF_files|How to fix hard-coded texture paths in NIF files]] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow] Mod. (includes at least 4 tutorials)
 +
* [[Nifskope:_NiStringExtraData_guide|Nifskope: NiStringExtraData guide]] Wiki.
 +
* [[Video_capture_and_edit_tools|Video capture and edit tools]] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
=== Game Time===
 +
Time in the game is tracked in "Global Variables" (type: GLOB).  The use of "Global Variables" (e.g. '''GameHour''') and GameTime functions such as '''GetGamesDaysPassed''' can get tricky.  (Using this '''GetGamesDaysPassed''' function is preferable to using the '''GameDaysPassed''' global variable, which is highly unreliable.)  It is necessary to carefully examine the descriptions and examples to understand how each works.  They are not as "obvious" as one might think.
 +
 
 +
The game engine originally stored "time" values as type "float" (i.e. "single precision") values.  But when returned in various functions they were often converted into type "short" (i.e. "integer") values.  This caused problems, which made it necessary for "New Vegas Script Extender" (NVSE) to intercept and implement as "double precision" values and it's own functions to correct;y deal with returning the proper values.  So you need to be aware of these differences when choosing how you deal with time.
 +
 
 +
(It's "Game Engine fixes" such as these that make NVSE essentially a requirement.  As many of the plugins essential to a stable game (such as "New Vegas Anti-Crash", aka NVAC) require NVSE already, don't shy away from using it's functions instead of the vanilla ones.  Virtually every mod user should already have it installed.)
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">"Global Variables" are considered base types in the GECK, and can be viewed by clicking "*ALL" in the "Object" window, clicking the "Form Type" column heading, then scrolling to view all items of type "GLOB".
 +
 
 +
As with all base types, you can create your own global variable just by renaming one of these to something that is unlikely to conflict with other mods (typically by prefixing it with the name of your mod), and clicking "yes" to create a new object.
 +
 
 +
In order to modify "Global Variables", you must open the "Global" window by clicking on "Globals..." under the '''Gameplay''' menu. The "GLOB" Form type doesn't have its own dialogue window, so double-clicking on a Global in the "Object" window will result in an error.
 +
 
 +
====Alternatives====
 +
If the variable will only be used within ''one script'', typical ''script variables'' are the best choice, as they have a scope of only that script: variable naming conflicts are not possible.
 +
 
 +
If the variable will be used within a ''single quest'', using ''quest variables'' should suffice, as then the variable will not need storing before or after the quest.
 +
 
 +
In some cases, you could create a ''persistent reference'' which would store the value in a property.
 +
 
 +
However, where a variable will need to be used across ''multiple'' quests, cells and scripts, a well-named ''global variable'' is probably the correct choice.
 +
 
 +
====Global variables for In Game Time====
 +
* GameDay: Returns the current in-game day (day of the month: 0-31).
 +
* GameDaysPassed: Returns the amount of days passed since the beginning of the game: i.e. 10/13/81 (October 13, 2281).
 +
* GameHour: Returns the current in-game hour (0-23).
 +
* GameMonth: Returns the in-game month (0-11).
 +
* GameYear: Returns the in-game year.
 +
* Timescale: Number of in-game minutes that passes in 1 real minute. Default: 30, typically expressed as a ratio of "30:1".  <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">IMPORTANT: Please see [[Fallout_NV_Mod_Conflict_Troubleshooting#Issue: Can Timescale adjustments break certain quests, etc.?|Issue: Can Timescale adjustments break certain quests, etc.?]]</span> before using other than the default '''Timescale''' value of "30".
 +
 
 +
====Notes====
 +
* While '''GameHour''' and '''GameDay''' are defined as short, they return float values. For instance, at 2:30 AM, '''GameHour''' has the value 2.5.
 +
* Remember that an hour is about 0.041667 (1/24) of a day. So using '''GameDaysPassed''' for anything other than day tracking may get awkward.
 +
* Care must be taken when mixing use of '''GameDaysPassed''' and '''GameHour''' in a script. When crossing midnight, '''GameDaysPassed''' may indicate the start of a new day, while '''GameHour''' is still in the previous day. For example, if '''GameDaysPassed''' is 6.04 (6th day at 00:01), then '''GameHour''' should be about 0.02 (00:01). But '''GameHour''' may indicate something like 23.90. This situation can exist for multiple frames.
 +
: If all you want to know is if it is a new day (strictly meaning that the 12:00am boundary has been crossed), save the current '''GameDaysPassed''' into a SHORT variable (e.g. '''lastDay''') and then when you want to do your comparison, create a SHORT ('''currentDay''') and set it to the current '''GameDaysPassed'''. If ('''currentDay - lastDay''') >= 1, then a day has passed. By storing '''GameDaysPassed''' in SHORT variables you trim off the factional hours that live in the decimal places. If you use floats instead of SHORTs you will essentially be checking if "24 hours has passed" rather than, "is it the next day."
 +
</div> - See the '''GECK''' entries on [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/List_of_Global_Variables List of Global Variables] and [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Special_Variables Special Variables].
 +
 
 +
=== NAM files ===
 +
By default there are "'''< DLC >.nam'''" files for all the DLC ".ESM" files.  These files cause the game to load those DLC even if they are not "active" in the "load order".  If any "'''.nam'''" files for specific DLCs are not found, that DLC is not automatically activated (enabled).  (It is recommended you rename rather than delete them if you don't want a particular DLC to automatically be loaded.)
 +
 
 +
Normally, when starting GECK and opening the "File" menu it has automatically "checked" (enabled) the DLC ESM files with "'''< DLC >.nam'''" files for loading, but not the "FalloutNV.ESM".  There isn't a "'''.nam'''" file by default for "FalloutNV.ESM".
 +
 
 +
The "'''nam'''" file contains nothing more than the common name (e.g. "Dead Money") of the respective DLC.  When a plaintext "'''FalloutNV.nam'''" file with "Fallout New Vegas" as content is created, "FalloutNV.ESM" will be automatically checked (enabled) in GECK's "File" menu just like the DLC.
 +
 
 +
=== 3D Model and Texture resources ===
 +
Note that often the models on these sites tend to have very high polygon counts, which the NIFTools either completely choke on or if they do handle it, end up just killing your game performance.  Use with caution.
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.blendswap.com/ Blendswap Open Source 3D Models] Web site.
 +
* [http://resources.blogscopia.com/category/models/  Creative Commons 4.0 Unported license 3D Models] Web site.
 +
* [http://resources.blogscopia.com/category/textures/ Creative Commons 4.0 Unported license Textures] Web site.
 +
* [http://rd.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64531 Mongo Resources V2] Mod.  ESM of various types of items.
 +
* [http://www.ogre3d.org/tikiwiki/tiki-index.php?page=Free+Resources Ogre Free Resources] Wiki site.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62054/? Old Vegas Resources by Bobio567] Neon sign resource mod.
 +
* [http://www.turbosquid.com/Search/3D-Models/free Turbosquid's $0.00 3D Models] Web site.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/searchresults/?src_cat=104 Modders resources and tutorials] Nexus category.
 +
 
 +
{{Fallout Record Types}}
 +
 
 +
=== Factions Stealing and Ownership ===
 +
==== Factions ====
 +
This is a topic which gets complex in a hurry in application.  Consider the following a broad overview.
 +
 
 +
[http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Fallout:_New_Vegas_factions Factions] are "groups of members" with a relationship to other factions which affect the default behavior between members of those factions, and between members of the same faction.  The actor's membership in a faction is processed by the game AI in determining another actor's reaction to them.  The key thing is the relationship between factions, rather than between individuals.  Actors will never attack "Friends" or "Allies".  (See also [[#Custom_NPCs|Custom NPCs]].)
 +
 
 +
You should not generally attempt to change anything about a faction's relationship with another faction.  Instead create a new faction, decide which actors or other factions you want to be members of your new faction, and then establish their relationships with other factions.  If you haven't fully mapped out those inter-faction relationships, things get "surprising".
 +
 
 +
[http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Fallout:_New_Vegas_reputations Reputation] is about how members of various factions (including your own "Player" faction) feel about your character.  While related, they are separate issues.  Note you can have both positive and negative reputation (fame/infamy) with a given faction at the same time.  The "fame label" attached to your character is the result of a matrix of that positive/negative range, given in the referenced wiki article.  "Reputation" changes only apply to the Player; not to other Actors.
 +
 
 +
Once you have "committed a crime" against one member of a faction, the entire faction is hostile to you (and your ''PlayerFaction'').  All NPCs react based upon the Actor's membership in a faction and that faction's relationships with their faction, including your "companions" who become part of the ''PlayerFaction'' when they are "hired".
 +
 
 +
The dialogue topics are a hierarchy of responses.  The first response which tests ALL conditions as "true" is the response given.  (If you are never seeming to get to your desired response, this is the first thing to check.)  A Faction's "Hostile" reaction is right up there at the top, so they never get past it to say anything else.  If you want them to say something before attacking, then you need to alter the response so that it causes them to bark (say something or make a noise to the player or another NPC) before attacking.  If you want them to bark only in the first instance, then you need to add a "DoOnce" conditional test to that response, and have a standard "attack response" after it in the hierarchy.  Speaking always takes a bit of time, and "sounds" process independently of other script actions (meaning once started they run until done while the rest of the script is processed), so you just put the bark line before the attack in the script.
 +
 
 +
It is worth noting that the game designers created separate "factions" for dialogue (e.g. "vSecuritronDialogueFaction", "vOuterVegasDialogueFaction", etc.) that could be tested for in dialogue conditionals in addition to the typical factions (e.g. "vStreetSecuritronFaction") for relationships with other factions.
 +
 
 +
Various types of armor have faction associations.  Wearing any ''faction disguise armor'' will turn reputation with that faction to "Neutral". For example, if "Liked" by the NCR but wearing NCR "face wrap armor" (a "disguise armor"), that armor will return reputation with the NCR to "Neutral". It will go back to "Liked" once the armor is removed.  Only certain types and sets (in combination with the correct helmet) of armor function as "disguises" in this manner.  (See the table in this [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Fallout:_New_Vegas_apparel apparel page] of "The Vault" wiki which identifies which vanilla armor counts as a disguise.)  "Disguises" provide a temporary membership in their respective faction.  Such "indirect" methods of changing faction membership and/or reputation are preferred to directly altering it for the Player.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-FactionCompanions"></span>
 +
===== TIP Companions and Followers =====
 +
: Thanks to '''miguick''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Assume you have some reason for determining who or how many Actors are accompanying the Player (or any Actor reference).
 +
 
 +
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetFollowers GetFollowers] returns an array of any actors following the calling reference for whatever reason; not necessarily teammates if they are doing anything else besides following the reference.
 +
 
 +
If you want an array of the actors that are actual '''teammates'' of the player, you can use [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetTeammates GetTeammates].  If you only need the number of them, [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetPlayerTeammateCount GetPlayerTeammateCount] can suffice.
 +
 
 +
More broadly you can check every [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetDetected GetDetected] Actor individually (JIP function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetDetectedActors GetDetectedActors] returns an array of such), and determine if they are a member of the "PlayerFaction" using [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetFactionRank GetFactionRank].  Other [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Faction_Functions Faction Functions] are available.  Broadly there are seven major factions, and a host of additional lessor or specialized ones:
 +
* PlayerFaction
 +
* BrotherhoodSteelFaction
 +
* VCaesarsLegionFaction
 +
* GreatKhansFactionNV
 +
* NCRFactionNV
 +
* PowerGangerFactionNV
 +
* VWhiteGloveSocietyFaction
 +
Use the GECK, with all the DLC (except the Pre-Order Packs) loaded, and you will find their Editor-IDs under "Actor Data | Faction".  The "Users" column gives a good indication of how often that Faction ID is applied.  The "User Info" property can reveal other factions that also belong to any given Faction or Actor.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-FactionDisguise"></span>
 +
 
 +
===== TIP Faction Disguise system =====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">"Faction Disguise" is treated as a "magic effect" spell: ''DisguiseFactionPulseActorEffect''.  It has "no duration", so it remains in effect until "dispelled".  This is supposed to be done in the script when the disguise armor is unequipped. Sometimes this fails (bug).  Try the console command:
 +
<pre>
 +
dispel DisguiseFactionPulseActorEffect
 +
</pre>
 +
The 6 armor disguise factions are:
 +
* ArmorNCRFactionNV
 +
* ArmorVCaesarsLegionFaction
 +
* ArmorBrotherhoodSteelFaction
 +
* ArmorGreatKhansFactionNV
 +
* ArmorPowderGangerFactionNV
 +
* ArmorVWhiteGloveSocietyFaction
 +
 
 +
There are individual "FactionOutfitWarningScripts" to check if the Player is wearing faction armor and store the Player's actual reputation scores upon equipping; and restore them upon unequipping.  These also check for companion reactions:
 +
* BrotherhoodFactionOutfitWarningScript
 +
* CaesarsLegionFactionOutfitWarningScript
 +
* KhanFactionOutfitWarningScript
 +
* PowderGangOutfitWarningScript
 +
* VMS18WhiteGloveSocietyFactionOutfitWarningScript
 +
 
 +
There are two scripts related to the ''DisguiseFactionPulseActorEffect'' spell:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Scn    DisguiseFactionQuestScript
 +
This code kicks in whenever players equip any faction disguises. We place an explosion with a custom enchantment on it [scripted spell effect: ''DisguiseFactionPulseActorEffect''] that filters through all the references within its radius. When this pulse finds a Sniffer reference from the appropriate faction, it removes them from the disguise faction and thus potentially turns
 +
them hostile to players with whom they have less than stellar relations
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Scn    DisguiseFactionPulseScript
 +
This script belongs to a spell effect [''DisguiseFactionPulseActorEffect''] that removes Faction Sniffers from the "magic" armor faction donned when players use faction disguises.  The spell is set off intermittently, through a pulse, that filters the appropriate references within its radius. This radius is set to 25 ([[Fallout 3/NV Game Units|game units]]), currently, and it's planned to reach at least 50 units. The pulse is placed on the player every two seconds, timed through a quest script that kicks off/on when players equip a faction disguise. - Jorge
 +
 
 +
Also, the script only addresses NCR relations. It'll eventually consider any faction that has faction disguises. [Editor - It now does, but only for those with "armor"; i.e. "not the WhiteGloveSociety".]
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
The following commands are present in those scripts.  "Self" refers to a FactionSniffer Actor.  Removing the Actor from the specific ArmorFaction means they are NOT fooled by the disguise, and will see the actual Player Reputation (Fame/Infamy).  Example:
 +
<pre>
 +
Self.RemoveFromFaction ArmorNCRFactionNV
 +
Self.AddToFaction ArmorNCRFactionNV 0
 +
</pre>
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
==== Stealing and Ownership ====
 +
"Containers" and their contents have "ownership".  This affects who can use items without it being regarded as "stealing".  [[Cells]] have ownership as well.
 +
* First the ownership of the item is considered; if none is selected ...
 +
* Then the ownership of the container is considered; if none is selected ...
 +
* Then ownership of the [[Cell]] is considered.
 +
If the ownership set on the cell is the only way any containers/items are being claimed, then you can just change that to none.  But this will also effect any trespassing if it was something in use.
 +
 
 +
Opening "owned containers" and taking their contents or "owned" items found "lying around", and trespassing (to include opening specific doors with "owners"), have negative effects on the Courier's reputation with the owning NPC and the faction(s) in which they have membership.
  
* [[GECK:_Tips_and_Tricks|GECK: Tips and Tricks]]
+
You can set NPC container ownership to "Player" as long as it is not a container that another NPC will need to use. But you could use the faction ownership to let the player share the ability to use it, by making a new faction and adding the player to that faction.  Anything with the faction ownership set will also count as stealing, unless the player is in the faction or has ally status with that faction. 
* [[Effect_Shaders:_definitive_guide|Effect Shaders: definitive guide]] (WIP, not updated since Mar 2012.)
 
* [[Fallout_3/NV_Game_Units|Fallout 3/NV Game Units]]
 
* [[How_to_fix_hard-coded_texture_paths_in_NIF_files|How to fix hard-coded texture paths in NIF files]]
 
* [[Nifskope:_NiStringExtraData_guide|Nifskope: NiStringExtraData guide]]
 
* [[Video_capture_and_edit_tools|Video capture and edit tools]]
 
  
=== GeckCustom.INI ===
+
Containers and "pickable plants" in exteriors can also have faction ownership setThe faction ownership is used so that all people in the faction will consider it a crime and react accordinglyOtherwise only the NPC set as owner would react.
* TIP: The "GeckCustom.ini" may not get created in the "C:\Users\<YourAccountName>\Documents\My Games\FalloutNV" folder until you '''''save''''' your first modified file; not merely close GECK as some have reportedNOTE that as you have to run GECK as an "Administrator", the "C:\Users\..." folder with the INI file will be for the "Administrator" accountThis can cause confusion as to where to look.
 
* TIP: In order to load multiple master (i.e. ESM) files into GECK at once, you need to edit the "GeckCustom.ini" file to add:
 
<code>
 
bAllowMultipleMasterLoads=1
 
</code>
 
* TIP: You may find many things are invisible when viewing an interior cell in the New Vegas version of the GECK. Open the "GeckCustom.ini", find the line "bUseMultibounds=1", and change the value to "0".
 
  
=== GECK record types ===
+
Another way that will set ownership for a whole area is an encounter zone. It looks like the NV main file doesn't set any ownership with encounter zones anyway. But some of the DLC's and others mods may do thatJust mentioning as a place to check on ownership in the future.
* ACHR = Character Reference
 
* ACRE = Creature Reference
 
* ACTI = Activator, usually something like a light switch, plant, etc.
 
* ADDN = Addon Node
 
* ALCH = Ingestible (Alchemy)
 
* ALOC = Media Location Controller
 
* AMEF = Ammo Effect
 
* AMMO = Ammunition
 
* ANIO = Animated Object
 
* ARMA = Armor Addon
 
* ARMO = Armor
 
* ASPC = Acoustic Space
 
* AVIF = Actor Value
 
* BOOK = Book, usually one that's actually usable.
 
* BPTD = Body Part Data
 
* CAMS = Camera Shot
 
* CCRD = Caravan Card
 
* CDCK = Caravan Deck
 
* CELL = Cell/Area
 
* CELL = Cells are areas in the game that make up the game world. Each interior is in its own cell
 
* CHAL = Challenge
 
* CHIP = Chip
 
* CLAS = Classes
 
* CLMT = Climate
 
* CMNY = Caravan Money
 
* CONT = Container
 
* CREA = Creature
 
* CSNO = Casino
 
* CSTY = Combat Style
 
* DEBR = Debris
 
* DOOR = Door/Teleports or removes barrier
 
* DOOR = Usable doors, often used to teleport the player into cells.
 
* ECZN = Encounter Zone
 
* EFSH = Effect Shader
 
* ENCH = Enchantment, such as Stimpak's healing ability.
 
* EXPL = Explosion
 
* EYES = Eyes
 
* FACT = FactionAll NPCs and creatures are assigned to one.
 
* FLST = Form List
 
* FURN = Furniture
 
* GLOB = Global
 
* GMST = Game Setting
 
* GRAS = Grass
 
* HAIR = Hair
 
* HDPT = Headpart: eyes, hair, beards, etc.
 
* IAMD = Imagespace Modifier
 
* IDLM = Idle Marker
 
* IMGS = Imagespace
 
* IMOD = Item Mod
 
* IPCT = Impact Data
 
* IPDS = Impact Data Set
 
* KEYM = Key
 
* LGTM = ImageSpace (Template)
 
* LIGH = Light
 
* LSCR = Loading Screen
 
* LTEX = Land Texture
 
* LVLC = Leveled Creature
 
* LVLI = Leveled Item
 
* LVLN = Leveled Character
 
* MAPM = Mapmarker, these are what tell you where a town, etc. is on the map.
 
* MESG = Message
 
* MGEF = Base Effect
 
* MICN = Menu Icon
 
* MISC = Miscellaneous item, such as random junk.
 
* MSET = Media Set
 
* MSTT = Music Type
 
* MUSC = Music
 
* NAVI = Navigation
 
* NAVM = NavMesh
 
* NOTE = Note which can be activated to show some information.
 
* NPC_ = NPC/Non Playable Characters
 
* PERK = Perk
 
* PGRE = ?? Fiendmineref is used in the .esm
 
* PROJ = Projectile
 
* PWAT = Placeable Water
 
* Pack = Package
 
* QUST = Quest
 
* RACE = Race
 
* RADS = Radiation Level
 
* RCCT = Recipe Collection
 
* RCPE = Recipe
 
* REFR = Reference
 
* REGN = Region
 
* REPU = Reputation
 
* RGDL = Ragdoll
 
* SCOL = Static Collection
 
* SCPT = Script
 
* SLPD = Sleep Duration
 
* SOUN = Sound
 
* SPEL = Actor Effect (Spell)
 
* STAT = Static
 
* TACT = Talking Activator
 
* TERM = Terminal
 
* TES4 = Remnant of TES4:Oblivion, just a header.
 
* TREE = Tree
 
* TXST = Texture Set
 
* VTYP = VoiceType
 
* WATR = Water Type
 
* WEAP = Weapon
 
* WRLD = World
 
* WTHR = Weather
 
  
 
== Tutorials ==
 
== Tutorials ==
Some tutorials are specific on making various kinds of Fallout NV mods with GECK.  Others cover aspects of creating mods that are more appliable to mod creation in general.  Always bear in mind that the game engine for Skyrim and Fallout 4 is different than that used for older Bethesda games, and each game version of the engine is different in some way.
+
Some tutorials are specific on making various kinds of Fallout NV mods with GECK.  Others cover aspects of creating mods that are more applicable to mod creation in general.  Always bear in mind that the game engine for Skyrim and Fallout 4 is different than that used for older Bethesda games like Morrowwind and Oblivion, and each game version of the engine is different in some way.  However, each succeeding game built upon concepts implemented in earlier games, so they are still worth investigating.  Your starting point should be the "Basic Tutorials" provided by Bethsoft as part of their "Construction Kits".
 +
 
 +
=== Bethsoft Basic Tutorials ===
 +
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php?search=tutorial&title=Special%3ASearch&go=Go Bethsoft Basic GECK Tutorials]
 +
* [http://en.uesp.net/w/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=tutorials&button= Basic Oblivion & Skyrim Tutorials]
 +
 
 +
=== Animation ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/28326/? Adult Animation Tutorial For Noobs] by '''Coronerra'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/21983/? Animated Computers Consoles Electronics and Security Systems (ACCESS)] FO3 Resource and PDF Tutorial.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/9700/? Artorp Object Animation Tutorial] Video and Blender KF files.
 +
* [[Avoiding_Blender_animation_pitfalls|Avoiding Blender animation pitfalls]] Nexus Wiki article.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpVigZKqs10 Bits of Blender - Shape Keys] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2EyodoK9a8 Cloth and Shape Keys in Blender 2.5] Video (no audio).
 +
* [[Creating_character_animations|Creating character animations]] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YU1TwnzYuw4 Fallout3/New Vegas Animation Tutorial] Video.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61642/? First Person Animation Tutorial] Mod with materials and link to Video.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56203/? Material and Texture Animations in NifSkope - Tutorial] PDF/DOC download.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/984792-tutorial-working-with-the-nicontrollermanager/ NifSkope: Working with the NiControllerManager] Forum Thread.  Alternate images available [http://www.mediafire.com/file/p0srsyrfuaszevp/Tutorial.zip here].
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63770/? Nifskope Testing Skeleton] by clanky4. Mod for testing animations in NifSkope only.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zijo8ly6pyI One minute tutorial on Shape Keys] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XU9BAXkn_Bs Tutorial For Making Reload Animations work in FNV] Video by '''The Shiny Haxorus'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/66968 Weapon Animation Patching Tutorial] PDF with separate "screenshots" file by '''benja'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/48521/? Weapon Animation Tutorial] PDF by '''Toasty Fresh'''.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-AnimationSummary"></span>
 +
====TIP Animation Summary====
 +
: Thanks to '''pluramon''' and '''RoyBatterian''' on the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following summary:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
You'll find the animation options for weapons in the "Art and Sound" tab of the weapon in GECK; just double click on it.
 +
 
 +
As for the animations themselves, the Gamebryo engine uses the NetImmerse format, and there are two file types you should be familiar with:
 +
* ".nif" files store all mesh 3D data and shading properties, under control nodes.
 +
* ".kf" files store all animation data, manipulating the control nodes in nif files.
 +
 
 +
All ".kf" files associated with weapons share a naming convention that tells the game engine which specific action they animate. Generally the first three characters in the file name indicate the weapon type, followed by the action type, and lastly the variant tag.  The exception are the "sneak" animations which begin with that prefix before following the same naming pattern as the rest.  To throw in a few examples:
 +
* '''2haattack3.kf''' = two-handed automatic weapon type, attack animation #3;
 +
* '''2haattackloop.kf''' = two-handed automatic weapon type, fully-automatic fire attack animation;
 +
* '''sneak2hrattack5.kf''' = two-handed rifle weapon type, sneak attack animation #5;
 +
* '''1hpreloadr.kf''' = one-handed pistol weapon type, reload animation 'r';
 +
* '''2hhattackright.kf''' = two-hand handler weapon type, attack animation 'right'.
 +
 
 +
Each weapon animation has two versions - default (3rd-person) animation and 1st-person animation. Both share exactly the same name, only located in separate folders. From limited experience with weapon animations, it appears most 1st-person weapon animations have little to no noticeable effect in-game. The default animations are used most of the time, whether it be 1st-person or 3rd-person.
 +
 
 +
Some weapons (e.g. the "minigun" and "flamer") can utilize a "looping" sound file with the animation.  The FO3 wiki article [[Minigun sounds|Minigun sounds]] describes the basic process.  Getting the "loop points" to work correctly can be difficult.  (The mod [http://nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63107 Automatic Weapons Fix] is known to cause a problem with the ending "release" loop point.)  The (free) sound editor [http://www.wavosaur.com/ Wavosaur] is recommended as the only one which seems to work reliably with the '''GECK''' for this purpose.  Also make sure the sample positions are correct in the sound form; '''GECK''' only sets them when making a '''new''' sound.
 +
 
 +
All vanilla ".nif" files and ".kf files" are packed in the archive '''Fallout - Meshes.bsa'''. After you have installed '''FOMM''' or by using '''BSAOpt''', you will be able to extract them, and then edit them.
 +
{{BSA Extraction Warning}}
 +
Default animations are located in the folder '''"meshes\characters\_male"''', while their 1st-person counterparts are found in '''"meshes\characters\_1stperson"'''.
 +
You will also want to extract a skeleton to work on. You will find humanoids use the one in '''"meshes\characters\_male\skeleton.nif"'''.  All ".nif" files that refer to a vanilla ".kif" animation look for them in the same location, so it is common for "animation replacements" to be placed in those same locations.  "ArchiveInvaildation will then cause the "loose" files to be used instead of the ones in the BSA.  If the replacement ".nif" files points to a different ".kf" file (which might be placed under it's own folder), every mod that uses that ".nif" will consequently use the same ".kf" file.
 +
 
 +
What's left is importing the '''skeleton.nif''', along with the ".kf" animation file you wish to edit, to your choice 3D modelling software, then you can finally get to work.
 +
 
 +
When done, you will need to export the ".kf" file back to the folder from whence it came. Some post-editing with '''NifSkope''' may be necessary, since some properties are not always exported correctly (this applies to '''Blender'''; it may not be necessary if you're using '''3DS Max/Maya'''). More details on importing/exporting/post-editing can be found [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php/Blender/Creating_a_Character_Animation (Blender specific) Creating a Character Animation], and [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/3ds_Max/Guides/Importer#Animation_Options (3DS Max specific) Animation Options]. Both pages contain relevant info, regardless of which you use.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-AnimationExport"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Animation Exporting====
 +
: Thanks to '''uhmattbravo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">You can't properly Import/Export Texture animation in '''Blender'''.  Set up for such animations are best done in '''NifSkope'''.  See the [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56203/? Material and Texture Animations in NifSkope - Tutorial] by '''Pixelhate''', which should pretty much be considered the authority on the subject.<br>
 +
 
 +
First be sure to set the "bone priority" in '''Blender'''.  To set your bone priorities open up a ''scripts'' window in '''Blender''', select ''scripts | object | set bone priority''. You'll need to have a bone (or all of them in a lot of cases) selected first. (For instance, you'll likely want all the bones in a special idle to be priority 25, but a lot of attack animations (as another example) use different priorities for different bones.)<br>
 +
 
 +
The 90° rotation happens when you import a skeleton and/or animation into '''Blender'''. One of it's quirks. It's fixable.  You can't rotate the rigging bones themselves to make the actor turn in game.  The "armature" is all the bones together and is named the ''scene_root''.  The armature and collision together are called the "skeleton" and it won't actually rotate in game even though it appears rotated in '''Blender'''.  Moving the ''Bip01'' bone in any way except up and down, (including rotation) will move all other bones with it.<br>
 +
 
 +
If you need to jump or move something up or down in an animation, use ''Bip01 Non Accum''.  It controls vertical movement like ''Bip01'' controls the horizontal.<br>
 +
 
 +
Carefully check the "start" and "stop" entries for the animation type (e.g. "1/Start" and "44/End" instead of "idle_start" and "idle_end") on the "Anim" text are correct before exporting because '''NifSkope''' translates it into "text keys".<br>
 +
 
 +
To export the animation from '''Blender''', basically click to use the '''Blender''' game defaults, click "animation" only, don't touch the "collision" or "shader" options, and while it may not actually make a difference, use the ''bsfadenode'' for animations.  See also [[#TIP: Exporting a mesh from Blender for import into GECK|TIP: Exporting a mesh from Blender for import into GECK]].<br>
 +
 
 +
After exporting your animation from '''Blender''' as a ".kf" file, make sure your "animation text string" in '''NifSkope''' is set correctly (e.g. change the ''Cycle_Type'' default "Clamp" to "Loop" for repetitive movement (e.g. "mtforward") or combat animation (e.g. "2haaim"), and change the group name (the string at the top).  The "group name" is usually exported from '''Blender''' as the filename (e.g. "mtforward" or "2haaim"), and needs to be changed to a name the game will recognize, such as "Forward" or "Aim".  Apparently you can add on to the end of this "group name" for a special idle (e.g. SpecialIdle_Bark).<br>
 +
 
 +
When saving the file in '''NifSkope''', it defaults to ".nif", so for animations you need to be sure to choose ".kf" from the drop down menu list of choices.</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-KFActorRotation"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP KF edit rotates Actors 90 degrees to right====
 +
: The following is taken from the "First Aid for frequent problems" section of the [[Avoiding_Blender_animation_pitfalls|Avoiding Blender animation pitfalls]] Nexus Wiki article.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Any '''kf''' that is edited usually results in the Actor facing 90 degrees to the right. It does this even when the '''kf''' is imported into '''Blender''' and then immediately exported without changing anything.
 +
 
 +
This is an issue that can be fixed in '''NifSkope'''.  Apparently ''Bip01'' will generally have a rotation applied to its "Rotation Quaternion" (Euler R) within its "interpolator".
 +
 
 +
To fix it:
 +
* click on the root ''NiControllerSequence'' in the "Block List",
 +
* then expand the submenu "Controlled Blocks" in the "Block Details",
 +
* then find and expand the "Controlled Blocks" ''Bip01'',
 +
* click on ''Interpolator'' value,
 +
* then set ''Rotation Quaternion'' and change to "0, 0, 0".
 +
* DO THE SAME WITH 'BIP01 NonAccum' and change to 90.
  
Some tutorials are specific on making various kinds of Fallout NV mods with GECK.  Others cover aspects of creating mods that are more applicable to mod creation in general.  Always bear in mind that the game engine for Skyrim and Fallout 4 is different than that used for older Bethesda games, and each game version of the engine is different in some way.
+
Note the article has both an "easy way" and a ""hard way" if the easy version doesn't work.
 +
</div>
  
=== Armor & Clothes ===
+
<span id="Tip-PlayAnimation"></span>
* [http://modsreloaded.com/creating-armor-in-fallout-3-with-blender-t3220.html Creating Armor in Fallout 3 with Blender] HTML.
+
 
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tARCxpFg4Hg Malos Custom Clothes Tutorial (Fallout 3)] Video.
+
====TIP Play an Animation====
 +
: Thanks to '''DoctaSax''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The basic command/function to force an Actor to play an animation is [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/PlayIdle PlayIdle]: taking a string argument with the ''name'' of the idle to play.  '''JIP LN NVSE''' adds the alternate, extended function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/PlayIdleEx PlayIdleEx] which takes the ''Editor-ID'' instead.  It also can determine which of an "AnimGroup" to play based upon conditions the same as the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/PickIdle PickIdle] function.  See the linked commands for details.
 +
 +
[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/AnimGroups AnimGroups] are groups of animations that can be played on actors and creatures as well as some objects. Only one animation can be active at a time.<br>
 +
Note that some combat animations can only be played while the actor is in an "alerted" state (has a weapon drawn; see [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetAlert SetAlert]).
 +
 
 +
When you want an Actor (even the Player) to play a specific animation, make sure you pass the reference to a "ref" variable first.  For example:
 +
<pre>
 +
ref rActor
 +
 
 +
set rActor to PlayerRef
 +
if rActor.IsActor
 +
  rActor.playidle TheDesiredAnimationName
 +
endif
 +
</pre>
 +
Note that in the GECK, a ref variable may store either a ''reference'' or a ''base form''.  ''Base forms'' may not be used as the [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Calling_reference calling reference] to functions that allow this syntax, although it may be passed as the target if the function permits this.  Hence the "IsActor" check in the example, while not necessary for "PlayerRef" (which is always a ''reference''), is a good practice.
 +
 
 +
If you want to use the ''console'' to force a particular "idle" (such as when "posing" the Actor), you must be in "3rd Person View", go into "Toggle Free Camera" (TFC) mode, select or reference the target Actor, and then issue the "PlayIdle" command.  Note that the skeleton (armature) in use must be compatible with that required by the animation or it won't work correctly.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== Armor and Clothes ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 
* [[3ds_Max_armor_to_Fallout_New_Vegas|3ds Max armor to Fallout New Vegas]] Wiki.
 
* [[3ds_Max_armor_to_Fallout_New_Vegas|3ds Max armor to Fallout New Vegas]] Wiki.
 
* [[Armor_texturing_for_beginners|Armor texturing for beginners]] Wiki.
 
* [[Armor_texturing_for_beginners|Armor texturing for beginners]] Wiki.
 +
* [[Creating_an_armour_for_Fallout._Part_1|Creating an Armor for Fallout. Part 1]] Wiki.
 +
* [[Creating_an_armour_for_Fallout._Part_2|Creating an Armor for Fallout. Part 2]] Wiki.
 +
* [http://modsreloaded.com/creating-armor-in-fallout-3-with-blender-t3220.html Creating Armor in Fallout 3 with Blender] HTML.
 
* [[Creating_armor_mashups_for_fallout|Creating armor mashups for fallout]] Wiki.
 
* [[Creating_armor_mashups_for_fallout|Creating armor mashups for fallout]] Wiki.
 
* [[How_to_remove_the_BoS_decals_on_custom_Power_Armour|How to remove the BoS decals on custom Power Armour]] Wiki.
 
* [[How_to_remove_the_BoS_decals_on_custom_Power_Armour|How to remove the BoS decals on custom Power Armour]] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: Standalone Armor] PDF.
 +
* [http://kgtools.wordpress.com/clothing-converter/ KGTools Clothing Converter] StandAlone Tool (SAT).  Automatically convert Armor, Clothing, or Equipment from one body style to another!
 +
: Note the '''KGTools''' web site containing the downloads is no longer accessible.  Use the links [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ on this site (adults 18+ only)] instead.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tARCxpFg4Hg Malos Custom Clothes Tutorial (Fallout 3)] Video.
 +
* [[Photoshop_cube_maps_in_Fallout_3|Photoshop cube maps in Fallout 3]] Wiki.
 +
* [[Photoshop_environment_mapping|Photoshop environment mapping]] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gOTVt-y_2Ws Photoshop Rusted Metal Texture] Video.
 +
* [http://gomedia.com/zine/tutorials/tutorial-using-metal-and-rust-textures-to-destroy-a-design/ Using Metal and Rust textures to destroy a design] HTML.
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-BoneWeighting"></span>
 +
==== TIP Bone Weighting ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "Discussions" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The thing in the game that makes clothes follow body parts is called '''bone weighting''', which is a part of the mesh/NIF file. '''Bone weighting''' is created and modified using a 3D modeling program like '''Blender''' or '''3DSmax'''.  (This can also be adjusted using '''NifSkope''', but that works best with values that are already present.) Every vertex on the NIF is weighted to the skeleton (aka the "armature"), so as the various skeleton bones move, the clothing moves with them. If you want a piece of clothing to move with an Actor's forearm, you weight that section of clothing 100 percent to the ''forearm bone''.
 +
 +
Suppose you want part of a dress to fall straight down between the legs.  The parts of the dress that you want to hang are normally weighted to the ''thigh bones'' and move with the legs. If you want those parts to hang straight instead, you need to remove their weights from the ''thigh bones'' and weight them more heavily to the ''pelvis''. If you weight them 100 percent to the ''pelvis'' then they'll just hang, regardless of the leg movement. By weighing them heavily to the ''pelvis'', but adding in a little weight to the ''thigh bones'' then they'll move a bit with the legs, which will look more realistic.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-ExportMesh"></span>
 +
====TIP Exporting a mesh from Blender for import into GECK====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following.
 +
 +
Be sure you are following the correct "subject" tutorial: either for weapons or armor/clothing, etc.
 +
 +
For importing armor and clothing, mostly using the default in the Nif tools doesn't create a problem. When you export, make sure you "select all" before exporting to ensure that you get the armor/clothing mesh as well as the ''armature'' (aka "the skeleton"). '''Blender''' only exports whatever you have selected, so make sure you do a "select all" before exporting.
 +
 +
You want "Use BSFadeNodeRoot" unchecked for clothing and armor.  Don't remember what all of the numbers should be all over that screen, but generally click on "Creature" and the "Skin" (not cloth) on the export options.  Better record the export settings for reference in case of issues.  Not sure that having cloth active instead of skin actually matters much. Anyway, no matter what's checked or unchecked on that export screen, '''Blender''' has never output all of the ''shader flags'' properly, and there does not seem to be any way to get it to do so.  For regular armor/clothing parts, the type needs to be set to '''SHADER_DEFAULT''' and  make sure '''SF_SHADOW_MAP''' and '''SF_REMAPABLE_TEXTURES''' are both checked. For the any visible human skin body parts (arms, legs, etc) the type needs to be set to '''SHADER_SKIN''' and make sure '''SF_SHADOW_MAP''' and '''SF_FACEGEN''' are both checked.  When these flags aren't available in '''Blender''', then you have to set them in '''NifSkope'''.
 +
 +
'''Blender''' usually sets the rest of the flags correctly.  When the ''shader flags'' are set wrong, the typical symptoms are that everything looks fine in the GECK but is invisible in-game.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
=== Blender Mesh Editor ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/Installation_of_Blender Installation of Blender] wiki article.  Originally written for Oblivion, "Python" and "PYFFI" are not required or used for Fallout games.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLrgQj91MOVfjTShOMRY8TLmkJ7OFr7bj6 Blender Absolute Beginner Series] Video Tutorials playlist.
 +
* [http://www.wikihow.com/Turn-a-2D-Image-Into-3D-Using-Blender Turn a 2D image into 3D using Blender] Wiki Tutorial with pictures.
 +
* [http://wiki.tesnexus.com/index.php/Blender_rigging_/_skinning Blender rigging / skinning] Wiki collection of references
 +
* [[Photoshop_environment_mapping|Photoshop environment mapping]] Wiki basic tutorial on creating "environment cube maps" (*_e.dds files located in "textures\effects" folder) that happens to use '''Photoshop''' as the editor.
 +
* [http://blenderartists.org/t/rendering-a-cubemap-skybox/528461 Rendering a cubemap/skybox] HTML thread on using Blender v2.49 to create "environment cube map" (AKA cubemap/skybox).  Note first post response misunderstood the problem.  Keep reading.
 +
* [[Rigging_skinning_and_dismemberment|Rigging skinning and dismemberment (aka "meatcaps")]] Wiki article by '''Leakingroof'''.
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-ClearDisplay"></span>
 +
====TIP Blender Clear the display====
 +
: Thanks to '''M48A5''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">People complain: "When I open or import a mesh into Blender, often all that shows up is a cube. No mesh, no shape, no object ... just a cube."  The solution is simple, but not obvious.
 +
 +
When you first open '''Blender''', move your '''mouse''' to clear the logo.  Then press the "<a>" key twice to highlight everything.  When all the items in the display have a '''pink highlight''' around them, press the "move" (<m>) key.  A small grid will open near where you have the cursor.  Choose any of the boxes (such as the far right one on the top tier) and <Left- click> the "OK" button.  This will clear the display.
 +
 +
You can now continue to import or create what you want with nothing else in the display.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="TIP: BlenderExport"></span>
 +
====TIP Blender Export Settings====
 +
: Tnanks to '''AusAllerWelt''' and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout New Vegas "GECK and Modders" Forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">For "Fallout New Vegas" (and "Fallout 3") you want to set the default "export" settings for Blender as follows (assuming you are primarily working on '''Armor''' meshes), and then make adjustments as circumstances require.
 +
 +
[[File:BlenderExport_Fig.png|frameless|800px|BlenderExport Figure]] <br clear=all>
 +
If you start with the default settings (click the "Restore Default Settings for Selected Game" button on the lower left), click on ''Creature'' under '''Collision Options''' (top middle right), then click on either the ''Cloth'' or ''Skin'' setting just below that. Then make sure that the ''Use BSFadeNodeRoot'' setting under '''Shader Options''' (top right) is '''unchecked''' (not selected).
 +
 +
You can select the ''Shadow Map'' setting under '''Shader Options''' (top right) if you'd like, but you need to go into '''NifSkope''' afterwards anyway so you can set the ''Shadow Map'' '''Shader Option''' setting there, because this version of Blender always gets the following in particular "wrong". Either way works.  (Using later versions of Blender brings their own problems.)<br>
 +
 +
After you export your model, go into '''NifSkope''' to fix the '''Shader''' settings.
 +
* For any '''armor parts''' (i.e. "not human skin"), the '''Shader Type''' needs to be set to ''SHADER_DEFAULT'' and ensure ''SF_SHADOW_MAP'' and ''SF_REMAPABLE_TEXTURES'' are both '''checked''' (selected).
 +
* For any '''visible human skin''' body parts (arms, legs, etc,) the '''Shader Type''' needs to be set to ''SHADER_SKIN'' and ensure ''SF_SHADOW_MAP'' and ''SF_FACEGEN'' are both "checked" (selected).  Blender will usually set the rest of the flags correctly.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-BlenderBlackTexture"></span>
 +
 +
==== TIP Imported NIF texture appears Black ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Mesh files (*.NIF) internally point to the texture file (*.DDS) designed for them.  The "vanilla" and DLC game art assets (both mesh and texture files) are stored in "Bethesda Software Archive (BSA)" files instead of under the game "Data" folder tree while using the same folder structure.  (Some mod's do this as well.)  As '''Blender''' has no idea what a BSA file is, it can't find the texture file to display it.  If '''Blender''' can't find the texture file, it just shows the image with a "black" texture.  In order to see the textures for your mesh while looking at it in '''Blender''' you will have to extract the texture file(s) from the BSA into the appropriate folder under "Data\textures" first.  Be careful to extract such files to some other location than the game "Data" folder first, and then manually copy them to the correct "Data" folder to avoid accidents.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-NoobBlender"></span>
 +
 +
====TIP New to Blender====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 30px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The '''Blender Noob to Pro''' tutorial included in the Blender v2.49b package under the [[#Programs and Tools|Programs and Tools]] section is a good resource.
 +
Some tips that maybe aren't obvious when you are starting:
 +
* Make sure you select all before exporting. Blender only exports what you have selected. Also, make sure you have the export options set properly for what you are doing. If you are making a static, click on the static button (at the top near the middle) and then below that click on the button for the closest material type (wood, metal, etc). If you are making armor, click on "creature", because armor and human skins and creature skins are all basically the same thing.
 +
* Statics and clutter items need a collision mesh. Armor, clothing, and human and creature skins don't need a collision mesh, but they do need to be parented to an armature (aka "a skeleton").
 +
* Blender tends to export statics and clutter objects fine, but the version recommended as most compatible for FNV (v2.49b) doesn't seem to export the shader flags correctly for skins (armor, clothing, etc.).  If you don't go into NifSkope and fix the shader flags, your skin thing (armor, clothing, creature, etc) will end up invisible in-game.
 +
* There are two different approaches used for UV mapping. One is to start with the texture and fiddle with the mesh to fit it, and the other is to start with the mesh and let Blender give it a UV map (unwrap using "smart projection") and then fiddle with the texture instead. Either way works, and which is easier depends on what you are making.
 +
* Start by making simple modifications to things. Here's an easy one to start with. There's a coffee table mesh ("SubCoffeeTableDirty01" in the GECK) that has an upper part and a lower part to it. Edit the mesh to get rid of the upper part, and edit the collision mesh to match, then export it and put it in a mod somewhere.
 +
 +
There are plenty of good tutorials out there.  Blender is a full-function 3-D editing tool that can be used to make everything from cartoon movies to games, so it's got a lot of stuff in there with lots of examples and tips scattered around the internet.  The Nexus Mods site has a wiki "category" devoted to [http://wiki.nexusmods.com/index.php/Category:Blender Blender] articles.  Admittedly, there's a bit of a learning curve involved. But as long as you keep plugging away at it, you'll figure it out. It will seem easy once you get used to it.</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-BlenderExport"></span>
 +
====TIP Blender version NIF export====
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When attempting to export a model from Blender as a NIF file, you get the "traceback (most recent call last):" error message box (after reporting one or more file lines) saying:
 +
<pre>"io_scene_nif.utility.nif_utils.NiError: non-uniform scaling not supported.  Workaround: apply size and rotations (CTRL-A) on '<object>'".</pre>
 +
Most probably the issue lies in using a newer version of Blender.  These are only minimally compatible with modding the older "Gamebryo engine" games.
 +
:* You want to save your model from the newer version of Blender using ("'''Save As''' | '''Legacy Mesh Format'''") which outputs a legacy ".blend" file, and then open it in a '''v2.49b''' version of the tool.  (See [[#Image_Tools|Image Tools]] above under the "Programs and Tools" section.)  However, some things don't seem to export properly when you do it this way.  The next bullet point is a possible way around such problems, but more likely you will just have to edit it.  For this reason, many people prefer to create new meshes using '''Blender v2.49b''' since everything there just works (except hairs).
 +
:* If you try to import a mesh from a different format (example: '''fbx''') '''Blender v2.49b''' won't import it properly.  (See [[#Tip-BlenderImport|TIP: Blender Import other Model Formats.]])  Instead import it into a newer version of '''Blender''' and then export as an "OBJ" format file.  At that point you can (in the same newer version of '''Blender''') just "'''Save As''' | '''Legacy Mesh Format'''" which outputs a legacy ".blend" file, as the mesh probably doesn't contain anything fancy that wouldn't export back to a ''legacy blend''.
 +
: Most have a lot of success in general when importing "OBJ" files so they tend to use that as an intermediary format.  But it isn't required when modding images from Gambryo games such as FNV and earlier.  Note that an "OBJ" file is a lot like a "text" or "CSV" file and does '''not''' include a ''UV Map''. You will need to generate a new one after importing before you can apply a texture.  (See  4th bullet point in [[#Tip-NoobBlender|TIP: New to Blender.]])
 +
: You should generally <Ctrl+A> (apply size and rotations) to everything before moving from '''Blender''''s default to another format, or rigging, or any big changes.  It doesn't always matter, but it's a good practice.  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">This needs to be done BEFORE creating "collision" or the scaling and rotation will cause the collision to not export properly.</span>  You can avoid that type of ''scaling'' in the first place by ''scaling'' in '''edit mode''' rather than '''object mode'''.</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-BlenderImport"></span>
 +
====TIP Blender Import other Model Formats====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''user826''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The import options for other formats (example: '''fbx''') or even newer version ".blend" format files into the FNV recommended version of '''Blender (v2.49b)''' are more limited in terms of results than with later versions of '''Blender'''.  It is solvable with an annoying two-step process, but by using a later version of '''Blender''' that has an import option for the model format in question you can export it from that version as an "OBJ" file, then read the "OBJ" into '''v2.49b''', which can then export it as a "NIF" file.  However, it is worth noting that the NIF tools will fail in all kinds of ways if the model is too complex, so that may be an issue no matter how you do it.
 +
 +
Some have found that with a three-step process of, after importing the "OBJ" file into '''v2.49b''', they then export it as a '''.3DS''' format file, and then re-import the '''.3DS''' file into '''v2.49b''' before then exporting it as a "NIF" file, they get a better result.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
=== Collision ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/19739/? Blender Video Tutorial - Convex Collision] Video.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/sADeZhuv748 Fallout to Blender and back: Collision Meshes - Part 1] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=56LwyhJ4u5Q Fallout to Blender and back: Collision Meshes - Part 2] Video.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/AD4uywa1-pE GECK: Collision creation in Blender] Video.
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-CollisionSounds"></span>
 +
====TIP Collision Impact Sounds====
 +
: Thanks to '''pixelhate''' and '''miguick''' of the Nexus Fallout "Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">In FO3 or FNV the impact sound of one material upon another (e.g. a shell casing falling upon the ground, a footstep on a wooden stair, etc.) is referenced in the collision object as "HAV_MAT" (Havok Material).  But it doesn't handle the sound only; it combines it with the particles emitted when hit or shot as well as the decals associated.  "Havok Material" will decide: The impact sound, the decal, the particle effect on impact, the sound when walking over a surface, and the colliding sound upon dropping, kicking, or grabbing an object.  These are hard coded in the game engine and cannot be changed as far as we know.  What the actor is wearing does not affect this; only the action being taken.
 +
 +
However, there is an INI file setting under "[Audio]":
 +
<pre>
 +
fPlayerFootVolume=x
 +
</pre>
 +
which has a "x" float type value of "0.65" by default.  Setting "x" to "0" will make your footsteps totally silent.  You can alter it in scripts using '''NVSE''''s ''SetNumericINISetting'' command, as in:
 +
<pre>
 +
SetNumericINISetting "fPlayerFootVolume:Audio" x
 +
</pre>
 +
 +
Modders have found 96 "Havok Materials" which are combinations of different things mentioned before.  32 of them are the most commonly used by the game.  Bear in mind that the names in the drop down list don't reflect the effect at all and can be misleading; so some experimentation may be called for to achieve the desired sound.
 +
 +
There's a drop down list in '''NifSkope''' or your preferred texture editor from which you can choose the most fitting one.
 +
 +
In '''NifSkope:''' open the "Block" list window, select the ''BHKCollisionObject'', expand and look into each of the ''Nodes'' in the "Block Details" window.
 +
 +
Depending on the type and structure of the Collision, you should find one or two places where HAV_MAT is noted: double click on it to access the drop down list.
 +
 +
The material you set in the ''bhkRigidBody(T)'' overides any setting on the lower blocks. To get multiple "Havok Materials" with a single NIF, you have to nest multiple ''NiNodes'' and create a new ''bhkColisionBlock'' for each material you use.  Check to make sure that the ''Layer'' and ''Layer Copy'' entries in your ''bhkRigidBody(T)'' and the ''Layer'' setting inside ''Data Layers'' in your ''bhkNiTriStripShape'' all match.  Collision sequences are one of the few places in a ".NIF" file where the exact order is essential.
 +
 +
Don't forget that the "armature/skeleton" can have it's own HAV_MAT as well.
 +
 +
If you alter the mesh NIFs for your mod, you will have to include them in your package.  There are basically two ways of doing so:
 +
* If the items are replacements for vanilla items and should affect all those items in game: place the modified meshes, keeping the original naming, in the "Data" loose folder reproducing exactly the original folder structure.  These will then override the ones in the vanilla BSA file when "ArchiveInvalidation" is toggled.  In that case, you shouldn't need to make any changes to your ESP/ESM files to have the new meshes active.
 +
* If the items are specific to your mod and should coexist with vanilla items: place the modified meshes, with new names, in a folder structure specific to your mod.  You will then be creating new unique instances of the items using those meshes under that unique path and have to include them in your ESP/ESM files.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-ObjectCollision"></span>
 +
 +
==== TIP Custom Object Collision ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Sometimes (even though you added "collision" to an object) when you initially place it on a shelf or other surface with collision just fine, it seems to fall at least partially through the surface when the cell reloads.  If precisely aligning your object with the surface results in it sinking, try placing the object's Z-axis just slightly above the surface collision boundary and let it drop into collision with the surface.  However, this only works if the object is a "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Movable_Static Movable Static]" based upon "Havok Materials", whose weight gives them "gravity" physics.  (See also [[#TIP: Collision Impact Sounds|TIP: Collision Impact Sounds]] and the GECK entry for [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Object_palette Object Palette].)
 +
 +
Part of the issue can be in how you created the collision mesh.  For simple objects, just copy the mesh for your custom object from the vanilla object mesh.  However, that doesn't work so well for complex objects with a complex collision mesh.  It's preferable to use a simple box collision (which can be created in '''Nifskope''' instead of your "mesh editor").  For "havoked" or "grabable" objects: primative collision (sphere, box, or capsule) are preferable to avoid engine problems.
 +
</div>
  
 
=== Conversions ===
 
=== Conversions ===
* [https://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/250761-converting-fo3-mod-for-fnv/ Converting FO3 Mod for FNV] Thread.
+
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
* [https://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnv-edit-series-converting-fo3-mods Converting F03 mods to TTW & FNV] Wiki.
+
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/250761-converting-fo3-mod-for-fnv/ Converting FO3 Mod for FNV] Thread.
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? FNVEdit Training Manual] (PDF.) Generally applies to all 'xEdit' versions for other games.  Chapter 7 is on converting FO3 mods to FNV.
+
* [http://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnv-edit-series-converting-fo3-mods Converting F03 mods to TTW & FNV] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool, behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site".
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPKrwES9Cb4 FNVEdit Creating compatibility patches for "Brumbeks Inventory Sorting" (BIS) by JaHn3tiC] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z61u0bQUmgM FNVEdit Making a Feature (Basic Compatibility) Patch by Roy Batty] Video.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38413/? FNVEdit Training Manual] PDF. Generally applies to all 'xEdit' versions for other games.  Chapter 7 is on converting FO3 mods to FNV.
 +
* [http://www.grammarly.com/ Grammarly] pretty well regarded grammar checker, with free versions of their plugins for browsers.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62261/? How to make a Custom Race] PDF.
 +
* [http://tone-analyzer-demo.mybluemix.net/ Tone Analyzer] uses linguistic analysis to detect three types of tones from written text: emotions, social tendencies, and writing style. Users can use the online Tone Analyzer service to analyze conversations and communications.
 +
: Tools behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site" in their "modder resources" section.
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool
 +
:* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/37660-clothing-converter-lattice-library-share-your-clothing-converter-lattices/ Clothing Converter Lattice Library] Resource.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-MeshConversion"></span>
 +
====TIP Converting meshes====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''MA48A5''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Other games has meshes you would like to use; either vanilla or from mods.  Which game is better to get a mesh from? Quality wise, and which game is easiest to convert said mesh to '''FNV'''?  '''Oblivion''', '''Skyrim''', or '''Skyrim Special Edition'''?
 +
 
 +
If this is for your own personal use, there's no issue. If this is for a mod that you plan on releasing on the '''Nexus''' (or anywhere else), then you can't use assets from other games (period).  They are copyright protected against "distribution" without permission.  Not even from other Bethesda games in the same series like '''Fallout'''.  (The exception is if the resources are already included in the "destination" game's files even though not used.)
 +
 
 +
You can only use assets from other mods if the mod author gives you explicit permission to do so (e.g. "this is a modder's resource").
 +
 
 +
That said, the game engine for '''Oblivion''' is fairly close to the game engine for '''FO3/FNV'''. They changed quite a bit for '''Skyrim'''. In any event, the skeletons for the player and for NPCs is different for any of the TES games. If you are porting over armor or clothing, you'll need to unparent the mesh from its original armature and reparent the mesh to the '''FNV''' skeleton, and of course reassign all of the bone weights as you'd expect from doing that sort of thing.
 +
 
 +
Statics don't have a skeleton so those will port much more easily.
 +
 
 +
Some things just won't port.  '''Skyrim Special Edition''', being 64-bit, is about impossible to convert to a 32-bit game.<span style="color: orange; background-color:#424242;">[[#Tip-MeshConversionFootnote1|(See also Footnote [1]]])</span>  So that leaves '''Skyrim''' and '''Oblivion'''.  '''Skyrim''' armor that uses ''wings'' for example won't ever animate properly in '''FNV''' no matter what you do, because the '''FNV''' skeleton doesn't include ''wings''. To make them work, you'd have to not only create a new skeleton/armature, but you'd also have to create a whole bunch of animations to go with the new skeleton. Otherwise, the best you can do is have ''static wings'', which will look a bit funny.  (There is one armature with support for '''''moving wings''''' by '''Deedes''' (2014) on Nexus with versions for [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/20620 FO3: The Skeleton] and [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56657 FNV: The Skeleton].  You would have to re-parent the mesh to that armature.) 
 +
 
 +
The [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/27557-new-clothing-body-style-converter-beta-v089f-10-26-2014/ New Clothing Body Style Converter] Tool, behind a "gated" "Adult (18+) Only site" in their "modder resources" section, is designed to facilitate converting "armor" and "clothing" between different body types.  However, it is still in "Beta" status since 2014, but does work with upper/lower body meshes and CBBE bodies.  Note you will need either an existing [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/37660-clothing-converter-lattice-library-share-your-clothing-converter-lattices/ Clothing Converter Lattice Library] or to make one yourself.
 +
 
 +
'''Skyrim''', being a newer game, has more detailed meshes in general, and mod authors have generally followed suit and have created similarly more detailed custom meshes. While this does make for higher quality 3d models, you can run into difficulty if you use a lot of higher quality models and textures in '''FNV''' since it's an older 32-bit game and it will only use 2 GB of memory by default. You can double that to 4 GB if you install the 4 GB patch, but that's as far as you can take it.  (32-bits can't address any more than 4GB.) Your PC may have gobs more memory than that, but '''FNV''' won't use it. So it's very easy to run the game out of memory if you use high resolution textures and high quality models.
 +
 
 +
The recommendation is almost never use any textures larger than 1024 x 1024 pixels for '''FNV''' unless it absolutely needs a higher resolution due to the nature of the 3D model, just because of the memory issue.  Also try to keep the triangle count (vertices) as low as possible. If you use a lot of 4096 x 4096 textures, your game will look prettier, but it's also going to crash a lot more often.  (A 4096 x 4096 pixel image with 16 bit color resolution is 32 MB of data. If your screen is displaying 100 different models with textures that size, that's 3.2 GB of data just for the textures. Since a 32 bit program can only handle 4 GB of data, you can see how trying to display a lot of high resolution models is going to run the game out of memory very quickly.) The texture caching system in '''FNV''' seems to leak memory. The more you stress it, the sooner it will run the game out of memory and crash.
 +
 
 +
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;"
 +
/* Remove the next four 'white-space' lines to restore default white-space processing. */
 +
white-space: pre-wrap;      /* css-3 */
 +
white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  /* Mozilla, since 1999 */
 +
white-space: -pre-wrap;      /* Opera 4-6 */
 +
white-space: -o-pre-wrap;    /* Opera 7+ */
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
<span style="color: orange; background-color:#424242;" id="Tip-MeshConversionFootnote1">Footnote [1]:</span> This statement deserves some clarification.
 +
 
 +
A lot of people seem to think that anything made with a 64 bit program can't be compatible with stuff made by a 32 bit program. That's not true. What matters is the data format that the programs use. If the format is the same, then the data will work for both the 32 and 64 bit programs. There's nothing special about the data created by a 64 bit program. It's just data.  The key is in the format.
 +
 
 +
32 bit programs can't access more than 4 GB of memory. This is because 2 to the 32nd power is 4 GB, so if all you have is 32 bits available to specify a memory location, it has to be in the lower 4 GB of memory. This is why FO3 and FNV will never use more than 4 GB of memory (2 GB without the "4 GB patch") no matter what. The programs just aren't capable of accessing any more memory than that.
 +
 
 +
'''Skyrim SE''' is basically a 64 bit port of '''Skyrim''' using the updated '''Creation Engine''' that they developed for '''Fallout 4 (FO4)'''. For porting objects from one game to another, we don't really care about that. What we care about is whether the NIF file format changed between '''Skyrim''' and '''Skyrim SE'''. There are plenty of programs which come in 32 and 64 bit versions, and both use the same '''data format''' to store their data '''''if you select it''''', so you can use either the 32 bit or the 64 bit version.
 +
 
 +
For '''Skyrim SE''' though, they were playing around with the '''Creation Engine''' for '''FO4''' development, and they made changes to the NIF format for '''FO4'''. It's not known how many of those changes (if any) were made to the NIF format for '''Skyrim SE''', but if you can't easily import meshes from '''Skyrim SE''' into '''Blender''' (for example), it's because the tool set hasn't been updated to handle the data format difference. It's a data format difference, not a 32 vs 64 bit difference.
 +
</div>
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-PluginCopy"></span>
 +
====TIP Copying between plugins====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
* The Trick is to make an ESP first, only dependent on the main master file.  Save and close it.
 +
: Best way to make a new ESP file is to drop something in the "Render" window, then save and name the file.  So loading a cell first is needed.  Suggest Wasteland cell / Good Springs.  You can of course delete that cell later if it's not needed for your purposes.
 +
* Then open the GECK adding the other files from which you want to use assets, with your new .ESP as the "active file".</div>
 +
 
 +
=== Creature Creation ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
 
 +
The process of creating a "creature" is essentially the same as creating a "NPC Companion", but without the "companion wheel".
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/6306/? Adding a custom creature to Fallout 3 Tutorial by Ominus] PDF.  Very Basic.
 +
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Bethsoft_Tutorial_NPC_population Bethsoft Tutorial NPC population] HTML.  Covers the basic placement of leveled lists for enemy spawning and the use of generic patrol and sandbox package behaviors.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/60497/? Bringing Life to the Mojave by Mindboggles] PDF.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8YVZ0FoXXcc GECK Tutorial - Creature/NPC Companion by Seddon4494] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JIHh6-4k_q4 GECK Tutorial: Custom Creature Part 1 (of 4) by gerokeymaster] Video.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-EmbeddedWeapon"></span>
 +
====TIP Locate Embedded Creature Weapon====
 +
:  Thanks to '''uhmattbravo''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' sub-forum for the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
* If you're using an existing creature, the quickest way to locate an embedded weapon would be to look at one of it's existing weapons in '''GECK'''.
 +
* If it came from a resource, and doesn't have any existing weapons, open the skeleton in '''Nifskope''' and look at the end of bones where it would be logical to fire from. Typically it's named projectile node or something similar, but it's also one of the few (if not only) bones that doesn't start with ''bip01''.
 +
</div>
  
 
=== Custom NPCs ===
 
=== Custom NPCs ===
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NuFepoBHptk GECK: Custom NPC and Dialog] Video.
+
Other sections have relevant information to this subject.  The following "Tips" in particular are applicable.
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9wnoZ7tKro GECK: Creating an NPC] Video.
+
* See the [[#Dialogue & Lip-synch|Dialogue & Lip-synch]] section regarding scripting "Dialogue" and "Conversations".
* TIP: To avoid crashing the GECK when you desire to "preview" an NPC, try opening their face "advanced" tab first.  Then go back to one of the other tabs to check the "Preview Full".  And when editing, click "Ok" for closing the NPC window, and then save the file instead of switching to the other tabs. Don't leave "edits" hanging when switching among tabs.
+
:* [[#Tip-GenericDialog | TIP: Adding Generic Dialog.]]
* TIP: When switching among custom features such as eyes or hair, switch to a "vanilla" feature first, and then switch to a new "custom" look.  The GECK gets confused if you try to switch straight from one custom feature to another.
+
:* [[#Tip-Translators|TIP: Conversation/Quest system.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-OCE|TIP: Obsidian Conversation Editor (OCE).]]
 +
:* [[#TIP-RandomNPCcomments|Tip: Random NPC Comments.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-DialogTabs|TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 +
 
 +
* See the [[#Scripting|Scripting]] section regarding:
 +
:* types of scripts: Objects, Quests, and "Base Effects".
 +
:* [[#TIP-EditorIDNames|'''TIP: Do not begin Editor-IDs with numbers.''']]
 +
:* [[#Tip-CompoundConditionals|TIP: Debugging Compound Conditionals.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Debugging|TIP: Debugging data to file.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-EventHandler|TIP: Don't overlook EventHandlers.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Encapsulation|TIP: Encapsulation - Parens, Brackets, and Braces.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-FunctionParameters|TIP: Function parameter separation with commas.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-ParsingLines|TIP: GECK parses the entire line before evaluating.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-NPCWpnChoice|TIP: NPC Weapon Choice.]]
 +
:* [[#TIP-MsgVariable|TIP: Pass a variable number into a script message.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Notes|TIP: Passing a 'Note' to the player.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Recipes|TIP: Passing a 'Recipe' to the player.]]
 +
 
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]<br>
 +
 
 +
"All '''Companions''' are ''NPCs'', but not all ''NPCs'' are '''Companions'''."  Both are discussed in this section, but please note and bear in mind the distinction when used.
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel] HTML. (Most recommended.)
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/fallout3/mods/5506 CMF Companion Tutorial] RTF by '''Darkfirebird CMF'''.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/900821-fnv-companion-tutorial/ FNV Companion Tutorial] Forum Thread by '''trilioth'''.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Adding_items_to_vendors GECK: Adding items to vendors] Wiki tutorial.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLo2FGzSVbkcPedlm9zZ981YvUy7DoSQew GECK: Companion Tutorial playlist by cgy95] Video series.
 +
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Creating_a_new_vendor GECK: Creating a new vendor] Wiki tutorial.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O9wnoZ7tKro GECK: Creating an NPC] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NuFepoBHptk GECK: Custom NPC and Dialog] Video.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5184015-guide-replacing-vanilla-hair-with-modded-hair/ GUIDE: Replacing Vanilla Hair with Modded Hair] Forum Thread.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] mod by '''Fallout 2AM'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: Quick 'n' Dirty Merchant] PDF.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/38059/? NCCS - NosCo Companion System] Mod.  Ready-made basic, customizable companions without the "companion wheel" (available as a plugin).  The "companion scripts" make useful examples.  There's a guide that comes with it; it's really a case of loading it up in the GECK, duplicating one of the NCCS NPCs, switching it to one of the premade scripts and dumping it in game.  Ta-da: the basic companion is done and then all you have to do is customise it.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/41652/? Rivens Tattoo Flash Sheets] Resource. (Copy-and-paste tattoos.)
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62261 Tutorial: How to Make a Custom Race] PDF by '''jim_uk'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/43286 Tutorial: Creating a custom PC Race] RTF by '''MagicThize'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62328 Tutorial: How to Make a Freakish Custom Race (Tutorial)] PDFs by '''lazyradly, beardofsocrates, and FancyPants'''.  Details on how to create ".EGMs", ".EGTs", proper NIFs, etc.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-ActorHeight"></span>
 +
==== TIP Actor height in GECK ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">If you want to make an Actor taller or shorter in the '''GECK''', just modify their '''Height''' on the ''Traits'' tab. It's a little confusing because most Actors have a value of "0.00" for height, which just means ''use the default'': "0.00" is the same as setting the height to "1.00" (told you it's confusing). If you set it to something other than zero, then it's a percentage scale factor. In other words, if you set the height to "0.95" then they'll be "95 percent" as tall as the default, or about 5 percent shorter.  Setting the height to "1.05" would make them 5 percent taller (105 percent of normal height).
 +
 
 +
'''Body meshes''' can just be copied from '''FO3''' to '''FNV''' (and vice-versa, but that's illegal "porting": so, personal use only). The skeleton is the same. The only thing that is different between the two games as far as body parts are concerned is "hair" and "hats", which end up rotated by 90 degrees between the two games. You can fix that in '''NifSkope''' by just rotating the part by 90 degrees.  (See [[#TIP:_Head_Parts_Rotated|TIP: Head Parts Rotated]] under the "Custom Items" section.)  You don't need to re-parent meshes to armatures and that sort of thing.
 +
 
 +
If you want your Actor to be about a foot shorter, that's about 84 percent at the default height of about 6 feet, so set their height to "0.84".
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="TIP-AIPackageBasics"></span>
 +
==== TIP AI Package Basics ====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">You need to understand the difference between an [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetCurrentAIPackage AIPackage] and an [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=GetCurrentAIProcedure AIProcedure].  Also, check out the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:AI_Functions Category:AI Functions] to understand the less obvious things you can do with them.  (Take the time to read the linked wiki pages.)
 +
 
 +
First you have to chose the correct type of [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=Category:Packages Package] to use; investigating how each is intended to be used and actually functions in practice for your purposes.  Remember: only one '''Package''' will run on any given Actor at a time; but that package can have several '''Procedures''' within it to deal with different circumstances.  While there is overlap between the two, note that '''Procedures''' is a longer list.  Don't get ahead of yourself: work on and refine each '''Procedure''' by itself before you attempt to combine them into a comprehensive '''Package'''.  (You will use "condition flags" to control which gets used when.  More on this later.)
 +
 
 +
For example: "Stalking" would be a '''Procedure''' that is more than just a simple "follower" script because you want the Actor to try to remain unnoticed. For one thing, you might want to use an "Escort" or "Guard" base package instead of "Follow". "Sneaking" is inherently slower than normal movement, but NPCs "cheat" by "teleporting" when they get too far away from the target they are following.  (You  might not have noticed this unless you checked on companions behind yourself frequently in rough terrain.)  But you might find you need to shift in and out of "sneak" mode.  Various '''Target Followers''' may affect what you need for the effective trailing distance to avoid having aggressive ones attacking your "stalker".
 +
 
 +
Once you get that functional, you might want a "flee" '''Procedure''' that will keep that Actor at a proper distance from the '''Target''' without losing track of them so it can resume "following".  A "special case" to test is if your "stalker" is fleeing while the '''Target''' changes cells.  In which case, what are you going to have your "stalker" do to "pick up the scent" of their '''Target''' again?
 +
 
 +
When the Actor gets far enough from the '''Target''', they then might need a '''Procedure''' to find somewhere to "hide" (break line-of-sight from the '''Target'''), wait a reasonable amount of time for any followers to stop "searching for enemies", and then resume the "Follow" / "Stalk" AI procedure.
 +
 
 +
AI packages are in a [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Packages_Tab priority list] of "conditions".  ("Conditions" are just variables, often called "flags", you define and set to control things.  A common use is a "do once" variable in a "quest" script.  You are going to need to "set" and "clear" a number of them for this to indicate when to use only one procedure or package at a time.)  The first package that meets all of it's conditions as "true" then is used.  While the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] and [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=RemoveScriptPackage RemoveScriptPackage] functions might seem appropriate to  generally use, they have major limitations.  (See [[#TIP_Using_AI_Packages|TIP Using AI Packages]] and the linked description for more details on this.)  Just adding a package does not place the package within the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Packages_Tab priority list]; instead it overrides the list for immediate implementation but goes away once completed and won't matter after that as it's conditions are never evaluated after that point.  Typically you will want to place your package in the [https://geckwiki.com/index.php?title=AI_Packages_Tab AI Packages Tab] list of packages for your "stalker" Actor, set the appropriate "conditional flag variables", and use the "Evaluate Package" (EVP) function to cause the list to be processed again to determine which is now the "first true" package.  Note that you do not use EVP with '''AddScriptPackage'''.  That function performs the equivalent immediately when called.
 +
 
 +
Each '''Package''' needs to consider that it may encounter conditions that require another '''Package''' or '''Procedure''' to take precedence and execute.  You do not simply "resume" an AI package where you left off.  It starts over whatever the current situation is when it gets invoked.  That could be in a completely different cell than where it left off.  This is why it is important to keep your "condition flags" current and updated as things change.
 +
 
 +
See also:
 +
* [[#TIP_AI_Packages_and_Distance|TIP AI Packages and Distance]]
 +
* [[#TIP_Making_NPCs_move_aka_AI_Packages|TIP Making NPCs move aka AI Packages]]
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-GetDistance"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP AI Packages and Distance====
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Supposing you want your character to meet up with an NPC at some X-Marker location, but they aren't there when you "fast travel" to that location?  You need to "teleport" them ,but you don't want to just make them "vanish".  Here is one way to handle it.
 +
 
 +
In the "Dialog Result Script" where you make the NPC start using your "AI Package" to send them to that location, also start a "quest script" (e.g. "ThisQuestName").  This quest should have a processing delay of perhaps one second, and then check for the player to be a certain distance away from the NPC, and for the NPC to not be in the player's view ("Line of Sight": LoS).  Once it's found that both requirements are satisfied, the NPC is teleported to the marker and the quest was ended.  The quest is set to be stopped on proper completion of the AI package as well, in case it's still running.
 +
 
 +
The example script below uses the '''JIP LN NVSE''' function ''GetDistance2D'', but it will work fine with the vanilla ''GetDistance'' function as well.
 +
<pre>
 +
Begin GameMode
 +
    ; separation of player and NPC check
 +
    If player.GetDistance2D refNPC >= 2048
 +
        If player.GetLOS refNPC == 0
 +
            refNPC.moveto refMarker
 +
            ; maybe remove their AI package or add another one or whatever here?  maybe EVP?
 +
            StopQuest ThisQuestName
 +
        EndIf
 +
    EndIf
 +
End
 +
 
 +
Begin GameMode
 +
    ; NPC near X-Marker check
 +
    if refNPC.GetDistance2D refMarker <= 64
 +
        StopQuest ThisQuestName
 +
    endif
 +
End</pre>
 +
''GetLOS'' isn't always reliable, so in some situations it may be preferred just to increase the distance; maybe use ''GetDistance3D''.  ''GetLOS'' has returned "true" when the NPC or object was at the very edge of the player's camera, and has not realized the player couldn't see the NPC.  These both require an extreme circumstance, and most of the time it works fine; but it's best to test each situation.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NPCPreview"></span>
 +
====TIP Avoid CTD previewing NPCs====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">To avoid crashing the GECK when you desire to "preview" an NPC, try opening their face "advanced" tab first.  Then go back to one of the other tabs to check the "Preview Full".  And when editing, click "Ok" for closing the NPC window, and then save the file instead of switching to the other tabs. Don't leave "edits" hanging when switching among tabs.</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-OnlyOneRace"></span>
 +
====TIP Changing only one race====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Since the '''GECK''' is really an evil Vault-Tek experiment designed to test modder's frustration levels, one of the annoying things that it does is any time you even click on a race to view it, it marks that race as changed. Your mod will therefore not only create your custom race, but it will also overwrite any other mod's changes to the (Caucasian, Asian, Asian Child, Ghoul, etc.) races. If you don't want your mod to change these other races, when you start up the '''GECK''': select your mod and select ''Details''. Then select the races other than your custom race one by one, and press the ''<Delete>'' key. That will flag those changes so that they don't get loaded when you next load up the GECK. Now load your mod up as usual and save it. That will get rid of the extra races in your mod that you probably didn't want to modify.
 +
 
 +
Alternately, you can use FNVEdit to remove the extra race records. It's a bit less clicking and fiddling to do it in the GECK, but either way works.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="TIP-CompanionWheel"></span>
 +
====TIP Companion Wheel====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' sub-forum for the following basic summary:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">To make the companion wheel work, you MUST use the specific dialog options and variables shown in the [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278/? Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel] tutorial, as those are the options that the command wheel is expecting.  Hopefully when converting an existing one, the original companion has enough dialog options that you can just copy the voice files to the dialog topics that you need.  The tutorial has two quests, one that runs the companion and one that is only to hire the companion. You don't really need a quest to hire the companion. You can just do it through dialog if you really want to keep it simple.
 +
 
 +
Only one companion conversation option should be active at a time.  In other words, if you already have a dialog option for the companion to follow you, you need to disable that conversation option and use the existing '''FollowersLetsGo''' topic instead. Similarly, if you have a wait option, you need to disable that and use '''FollowersWait''' instead. Using ''SetPlayerTeammate 1'' in the hiring script is enough make the command wheel appear whenever you talk to the NPC, but the command wheel options won't actually work unless you use the '''Followers''' topics: such as '''FollowersWait, FollowersLetsGo, FollowersTrade''', and the various '''FollowersTactics'''' options.
 +
 
 +
If the topics aren't showing up, check to make sure you have ''Top Level'' checked (upper right on the quest form) and make sure that the conditions are valid. Also, trading (''OpenTeammateContainer'') won't work unless the NPC is set to be a teammate
 +
(you've done a ''SetPlayerTeammate 1'' on the NPC, which is usually done when hiring the NPC).
 +
 
 +
Make sure you have a line with ''SetPlayerTeammate 0'' when firing the companion so the command wheel will no longer show up when you talk to them.  The tutorial has the details of exactly which topics you need to use.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
span id="Tip-CustomRaceFaces"></span>
 +
====TIP Custom Race and Faces====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">A ''custom race'' doesn't give you a ''custom face''.  (The ''head'' mesh is separate from the ''body'' mesh and the ''race'' textures.  See [[#Tip-CustomSkinTextures|TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures.]]) It gives you a custom face blueprint that is further modified by all of the '''FaceGen''' stuff (see [[#FaceGen:_Heads,_Faces,_Hairs,_and_Helmets|FaceGen: Heads, Faces, Hairs, and Helmets]] section) when you actually apply it to your NPC or player preset. If the custom race version is pretty close to what you want, then you'll probably want to adjust all of the  sliders in both the ''Geometry'' and the ''Texture'' section of the NPC pretty close to the middle (zero) for each slider. There are some shading and tinting effects that always get applied whether you want them or not, which is a royal pain in the backside sometimes. Unfortunately, there's no known way to disable them.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-CustomSkinTextures"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Custom Race and Skin Textures====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Suppose you want to add tattoos (or scars or whatever decoration) to the skin of a particular NPC or race.  The body texture is controlled by the race, not by the mesh "NIF" file. You need to change this in the '''GECK'''.  '''NifSkope''' won't help you here.
 +
 
 +
You are probably going to want to create a ''custom race'' for your character, otherwise the tattoo will show up on every NPC who is a member of that race.
 +
 
 +
To create a ''custom race'', open up the '''GECK''' with at least the '''Fallout New Vegas.ESM''' file selected, select the ''Actor Data | Race'' tab on the left (in the Object Window), double click on one of the races to bring up the ''Race'' form, and now select one of the races to duplicate.  (Note there is a "TestQACaucasian" race that is not otherwise used if you want to try out the process.)  If your tattooed character is ''Caucasian'', for example, right-click on the ''Caucasian'' race and select ''Duplicate''.
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Important Note: Since the '''GECK''' is an evil Vault-Tec tool designed to test modder's frustration levels, it's important to note that, for no other reason than it's evil, it has now decided to mark your original vanilla ''Caucasian'' race as modified, even though you haven't made any modifications to it, thus guaranteeing that your tattoo mod will conflict with any other mods that modify the ''Caucasian'' race. Stupid '''GECK'''.  (See also [[#Tip-OnlyOneRace|TIP: Changing only one race.]]) Fortunately, fixing this is fairly simple. You can use '''FNVEdit''' to remove the modified ''Caucasian'' race from your mod, OR you can just save your mod, start up the '''GECK''' again, select ''Data'', and instead of just selecting your new mod, highlight your new mod and select the '''Details''' button (at the bottom next to the '''Set as Active File''' button). There should be a '''RACE''' entry under the ''Type Column'', with the '''Caucasian''' Editor-ID.  Highlight that and press the ''<Delete>'' key. This will mark the modified ''Caucasian'' race as not to be loaded by the '''GECK'''. Select the '''Close''' button, and now load up your mod in the '''GECK'''. With that your mod no longer includes the modified '''Caucasian''' race, so save your mod, and now the unintentionally modified vanilla ''Caucasian'' race is permanently gone from your mod.</div>
 +
 
 +
Now that you have a modified race to work with, again select ''Race'' on the left side and double-click on your "new race" to bring up the ''Race'' form with your "new race" selected. <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: red;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Make sure you do not even click on any other race, or that race will be marked as modified by your mod</span> (stupid '''GECK'''). Again, if you goof up and accidentally click on another race, you can mark it as deleted during load and get rid of it that way, or you can clear it out using '''FNVEdit'''.
 +
 
 +
Make sure the ''Playable'' box is checked. As long as you copied from another playable race, it should be checked already.
 +
 
 +
Select the ''Text Data'' tab at the top of the ''Race'' form, and change the name of your "new race". If you don't do this, when you go to select your race during character creation, you'll have two races that both say ''Caucasian'' (or whatever race you copied) and you won't be able to tell which race is which. So change it to something like ''Tattoo Race'' or ''Caucasian Tattoo'' or whatever you want to call it.
 +
 
 +
If you are only modifying the female body texture, check the ''Female'' box down at the bottom where it says ''editing''. (There is a box for ''Male'' and ''Female'', and ''Male'' is checked by default.)
 +
 
 +
There are four textures that define a human body: The ''body'' texture (includes ''torso, arms, legs, and feet''), ''left hand, right hand, and head''. All of these except the ''head'' are found on the ''Body Data'' tab. The default human bodies use the same texture for both the right and left hand. For my tattooed characters, I have given them custom tattoos on each hand and therefore have ended up with unique textures for both the left and right hands. Just click on ''Edit'' and select your new textures. If you are only replacing the body texture, then you only need to modify the ''Upper Body Texture'' and you can leave the hand textures alone.
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Another important note: You only select the main texture file (i.e. '''upperbodyfemale.dds''') in the '''GECK'''. The '''GECK''', and the game, assume that the ''normal map'' and ''skin'' files are in the same folder, and have exactly the same name as the main texture, except with "_n" for the normal map and "_sk" for the skin appended to the base filename. In other words:
 +
: If your tattooed texture is called '''upperbodyfemale.dds''':
 +
:* the normal map has to be '''upperbodyfemale_n.dds''', and
 +
:* the skin needs to be '''upperbodyfemale_sk.dds'''.
 +
: If your tattooed texture is called '''tattoobody.dds''', then
 +
:* the normal map needs to be '''tattoobody_n.dds''', and
 +
:* the skin needs to be '''tattoobody_sk.dds'''.
 +
Typically, if you are only adding tattoos to an existing texture, you can just copy the "_n" and "_sk" files from the original body to the folder with your new tattoo texture. Each modified texture (body, left hand, right hand, head) that you have needs a matching "_n" and "_sk" file.</div>
 +
 
 +
It should go without saying that all of these textures have to be somewhere in your "Data\Textures" folder.
 +
 
 +
The ''head'' texture works the same, except it is under the ''Face Data'' tab instead of the ''Body Data'' tab with all of the other textures.
 +
 
 +
Once you have all of your modifications done and you have all of the files in the right place, you can click the '''preview boxes''' to look at your race's ''Head'' or ''Full'' view.
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Something else to note: if you make changes to the ''head'' texture and '''preview''' it, further changes to the ''head'' texture don't always show up in the '''GECK'''. It caches a copy of your ''head'' texture and sometimes won't show any newer version in the preview window. You can shut down the GECK and reload your mod to properly preview your head texture changes if that happens. ''It will usually pick up modifications to the '''body''' texture if you preview again though.'' It's only the ''head'' texture that gets stuck (it has the same issue for  textures for items and other non-NPC things)See also [[#Tip-FaceFeatures|TIP: Switching Custom Facial Features.]]</div>
 +
 
 +
If you are using a custom body for your player, you can select the NIF for that on the ''Body Data'' tab as well. There is an ''Upper Body'' model, and a ''Left'' and ''Right Hand'' model. For hand and body NIFs, all you need is the NIF in your '''Meshes''' folder. ''Head'' meshes need an "EGM" file as well, and the file name again needs to match. If your NIF is '''CustomHead.nif''' then the "EGM" needs to be '''CustomHead.egm''', for example.
 +
 
 +
If all you are doing is adding a texture to whatever the default mesh is on your system for that race, then you probably don't need to worry about custom NIFs. This is true even if you are using a ''body replacer'', since they tend to place themselves in the same location as the default vanilla body NIFs in the folder structure. In other words, if you are using say the "Type 3 body replacer" and your "tattoo texture" is for "Type 3", you already have custom NIFs in your '''Meshes\Characters...''' folder for the "Type 3", and those are already what gets loaded by the GECK for each race type. You don't need to have a custom "Type 3" NIF for your character.
 +
 
 +
On the other hand, if you want a custom NIF just for your character so that they use a different mesh than the default races, then you will need to specify a custom NIF in the ''race'' in the '''GECK'''. Whatever ''body texture'' is defined in the NIF ends up getting ignored by the game, though. The game will use the custom texture defined in the '''GECK''' instead.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-Hostility"></span>
 +
====TIP Hostility between NPCs====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Hostilities will not immediately break out between two NPCs when they come into proximity simply because they are in "Enemy" [[#Factions|Factions]].  Their actions are influenced by the NPCs personal "aggression" and "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Confidence confidence]" numbers (on the GECK "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/AI_Data_Tab AI Data Tab]" page and the resulting "Threat Ratio" at the time. 
 +
 
 +
You can use the "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/SetActorValue setav]" command in script to change the "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/ActorValue#User_Defined_Actor_Values Actor Value]" for permanent changes or "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/DamageActorValue DamageActorValue]" and "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/RestoreActorValue RestoreActorValue]" for temporary changes to the "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Stats_List Stats List]". (See the GECK "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Actor_Value_Codes Actor Value Code]" list.)  Be careful about the scope of effect of your changes.  Read the warnings under "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/ActorValue Actor Value]" carefully.
  
=== Dialogue & Lip-synch ===
+
There are ten "user defined/mod actor values". They have no defined game functions, but can be used by quests to establish permanent data on the actor. Keep in mind that setting one of the variables on an actor implicitly defines that variable for ALL actors, not just in your mod. Using these values to store extra information has the potential to cause conflicts with other mods. <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">If you need to store information on an actor, use a token (an unplayable, therefore invisible, piece of armour) instead.</span>
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Quest_and_Dialogue_Tutorial GECK: Dialoge Tutorial] Wiki.
+
</div>
* [https://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/449620-a-very-basic-dialogue-tutorial/ A very basic dialogue tutorial] Wiki.
+
 
* [http://www.moddb.com/mods/explorer/tutorials/geck-custom-holotape-voice GECK: Custom Holotape + Voice] Wiki.
+
<span id="Tip-InterruptCombat"></span>
* [https://youtu.be/NWtIRBPVedw GECK: Dialogue and Lip Synch] Video.
+
====TIP Interrupt combat for dialog====
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvQCChzifyQ GECK: Dialogue with Lip Files] Video.
+
: Thanks to '''clanky4''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zK09aDY8FHY Advanced Dialogue: Topic with multiple sub-topics] Video.
+
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQdUQmIdvUc GECK: How to make an NPC with Basic Dialogue] Video.
+
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcqbF0zpxtQ GECK: NPCs talk to each other] Video.
+
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haHdenMkeOw GECK: Companion Idle Chatter] video.
+
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* Tip: for Random NPC Comments.
+
">Suppose you want an NPC (once engaged) to interrupt combat in order to switch to some dialog: such as to offer to surrender when their HP drops low enough. (An example of this is during the "Dog/God" fight in the kitchen of the Sierra Madre Casino, but that script is a mess to try to interpret.)
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When the conditions for that interruption are correct, use the command:
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">PlayerRef.[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StopCombatAlarmOnActor StopCombatAlarmOnActor]
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</div>
 +
This ends the fighting flag for all enemies targeting the specified actor (e.g. PlayerRef). All hostile actors that are in combat with that actor will return to their normal routines. Now they can enter into dialog (or other activities such as a "run away" travel package).
 +
 +
If you wish to only stop the fighting flag for a single actor, refer to [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StopCombat StopCombat].
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-NPCMovement"></span>
 +
====TIP Making NPCs move aka AI Packages====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''EPDGaffney''', and '''FiftyTifty''' of the Nexus FalloutNV 'New Vegas GECK and Modders' and '''kingbeast88''' of the 'New Vegas Mod Troubleshooting' sub-forums for the following basic summary of how to get NPCs to move:
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">An NPC that just stands there typically is doing so because they don't have an [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/AI_Packages_Tab GECK: AI package] to run.
 +
 +
A typical companion will have a companion script which will have defined a number of [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Category:Packages GECK: Packages]: a '''Follow''' default package, a '''Follow Long''' package, an '''Idle/Wait''' package, and a '''Non-hired''' package (they may use the same package for ''Wait'' and '''Non-hired''', like a ''sandbox'' type package, for example). Each of the packages must have a condition variable, which will typically be the equivalent of "'''if (''IsFollowingDefault'' == 1)'''" for the follow default package, or ''IsFollowingLong'' for the follow long package, or ''HasBeenHired'' is set to zero for the '''Not-hired''' ''sandbox'' (or whatever) package, and "'''if (''waiting'' == 1)'''" for the '''Wait''' package. If you don't have a condition, then the package will want to always run. Those variables (e.g. ''IsFollowingDefault'', ''IsFollowingLong'', etc.) all have to be defined in the NPC's script. You set the various variables to match what you want the character to do as the way you control which package is used, then do an ''[http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage EvaluatePackage] (.EVP)'' function on the NPC to get them to switch.
 +
 +
Function ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ResetAI ResetAI]'' clears all current AI behaviors from an actor. Combat, pathing, and packages are re-evaluated.  This is a severe command that affects all AI behavior.  Usually, you just want to have an actor re-evaluate its current package. In that case, use ''EvaluatePackage'' instead.  (When using the number of "tokens" present in an Actor's inventory to control AI packages, one author found it necessary to use ''ResetAI'' instead of ''EVP'' in order to get their script to function correctly more often than the first time.  The cause behind this behavior is unknown.)
 +
 +
See also [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/How_Are_Packages_Evaluated How Are Packages Evaluated].
 +
 +
===== Following =====
 +
So, if you want your NPC to '''Follow''' you, it's necessary to script the following in the NPC's conversation quest (replace "MyNPCREF" with the NPC's actual Ref-ID, obviously):
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">
 +
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 1
 +
: Set IsFollowingLong to 0
 +
: Set waiting to 0
 +
: MyNPCREF.evp
 +
</div>
 +
If you want the NPC to '''Follow Long''', you would do the following:
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">
 +
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 0
 +
: Set IsFollowingLong to 1
 +
: Set waiting to 0
 +
: MyNPCREF.evp
 +
</div>
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: <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
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background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
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">(Also, on the NPC object: uncheck the ''no low-level processing'' box if they need to follow you through portals consistently.)</span>
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 +
And if you want the NPC to '''Wait''', you would do the following:
 +
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">
 +
: Set IsFollowingDefault to 0
 +
: Set IsFollowingLong to 0
 +
: Set waiting to 1
 +
: MyNPCREF.evp
 +
</div>
 +
: <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
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background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
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word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">(Don't forget to set the ''Guard Location'' on the '''Wait''' package to "Near Current Location" instead of the default "Near Editor Location", or the companion will run off to wait at their spawn site.)</span>
 +
 +
Note that you want to set variables to enable your packages, and also clear variables to stop the other packages from trying to run. You want to set it up so that the only condition that evaluates to '''true''' is the one that's for the package you want the NPC to run. For example: if you want the NPC to follow the "default" package, you need to enable the '''IsFollowingDefault''' variable while disabling both the '''IsFollowingLong''' and the '''Wait''' package variables.
 +
 +
===== Conversations =====
 +
The ''HasBeenHired'' variable would be used to enable or disable various conversation options, and would also be set when the NPC is hired and cleared when the NPC is fired (and again, an ''.EVP'' would be done to get the character to ''sandbox'' when not hired so they don't just stand there like an idiot).
 +
 +
If you want a fully functional command wheel, you '''''have to use the conversation topics''''' that the command wheel expects.
 +
 +
The first tutorial listed ('Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel') is recommended for learning to use the "companion command wheel".
 +
 +
[[File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|thumbnail|100px|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]]
 +
Some people prefer to follow the simpler instructions and example in the [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/900821-fnv-companion-tutorial/ FNV Companion Tutorial] Thread by '''trilioth''' (even though it does not include how to use the "companion wheel"), but get confused at "Step 3: Create AI Packages".
 +
 +
The way this was done in the vanilla game (and the [[:File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]] image here) was using quest variables, whereas '''trilioth''''s tutorial uses script variables.  Follow the tutorial, as based on the preceding steps you should have these variables in your object script, not your quest script.  The way you create the package is the same otherwise.  (See [[:File:EPDGaffney_AIPackage-GoingHome.png|AIPackage-GoingHome_Fig-01]].  {{Thumbnail_enlargement_message}})
 +
 +
<span style="text-align: left; color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">(WARNING: There is a bug in '''GECK''' on versions of '''Windows''' after Win7 that causes the columns under the "Conditions" tab to be collapsed to the left and appear to not be present.  Accessing this field in the "AI Package" form consistently causes this bug to trigger, and it then affects other "list box" type fields in other forms.  Please see the [[#Issue:_GECK_is_missing_text_in_fields|Issue: GECK is missing text in fields]] entry for suggestions on dealing with this.)</span>
 +
 +
===== Package Types =====
 +
For '''Patrol''' packages your "Patrol Leader" NPC needs to be linked to your first "X marker" in the navmeshed patrol path.  (See the [[#Tip-NavMeshExteriors|TIP: Navmeshing Exterior cells.]])  All "X markers" in the patrol path need a ''unique ID'', need to be ''persistent'', and linked to each other in the succession you wish it traversed. "Idle markers" can be used but need ''duration'' times set and need to be made ''persistent''.  Patrol packages might be buggy with idle markers: they worked in Fallout 3, but in the experience of mod creators have issues in '''New Vegas'''.  For parties of more than one Actor, the remainder should "Guard" the "Patrol Leader" in order to react to threats to that Leader.
 +
 +
To make a new '''Patrol''' package with a unique ID: Just edit a base package to your liking; then change the Editor-ID name.  '''GECK''' will create a new form.  Make sure the package type is '''Patrol''', the ''starting location'' is a linked reference (e.g. "X marker"), and flagged ''repeatable''. Then give the NPC the new package and link your NPC to the first marker in the patrol path.
 +
 +
An NPC not waking up from sleep is an indication the time schedule conflicts with another package.  All it should need is a package type of '''Sleep''', a ''schedule time'' and ''duration'' (do not allow the times to overlap with other packages), flag enable ''fallout behavior'' & for ''location'': the ''name of a cell'' or a linked reference (which needs to be selected) or a ''near reference'' (if you have multiple beds for instance and don't care which they use).
 +
 +
''Sandboxing'' chooses things completely at random, including just standing where they are and picking idles from the idle manager.  '''Exterior sandbox''' type packages need a package type of ''sandbox'', and a ''wander location'' set with a ''radius'', rather than just in a particular cell.  Set whatever flags you want in: ''allowed behavior'', enabled ''fallout behavior'' in flags, and a non overlapping time scheduled.
 +
 +
You'll also want to avoid locking/unlocking doors in ''packages'', as this is completely broken and unreliable in '''New Vegas'''.
 +
 +
When you send someone away (i.e. "no longer hired" or "go home"), set the "GoHome" package to be a "sandbox" type instead of "travel", and they will automatically run off to the "home" location to sandbox there.  The game scripts often teleport actors to that location first when they want to avoid encountering "hostiles" enroute.  Be sure you first set the conditions you are using as appropriate (i.e. "not hired", "available for hire", etc.) before an ".EVP" command to take immediate effect.
 +
 +
Be very careful using "[http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] <packagename>". In practice, whenever an NPC teleports (fast travel, goes through a door, etc) they tend to stop running whatever AI package was added through '''AddScriptPackage''', and then use a suitable sandbox package. It's a useful function for some things, but it won't work in cases like this (traversing cells).
 +
 +
If your NPCs take off for parts unknown when following a package, make sure you have a "North Marker" placed in the cell.
 +
 +
To make the NPC go back to Goodsprings (for example), you need a package that sends him there. The condition for the package will be similar to "<CompanionREF>.HasBeenHired == 0". You don't necessarily need to make an Xmarker the destination. You can have the package be a sandbox inside the "Goodsprings Saloon" cell if you want. Then he'll just ''sandbox'' around inside the Saloon whenever he isn't hired and he'll go back there if you fire him.
 +
See also [[#TIP-AIPackages|TIP: Using AI Packages.]]
 +
 +
===== Teleporting and Following Navmeshes =====
 +
In order  for a companion to ''teleport'' to you when you go through a door (or otherwise ''teleport'' elsewhere, as when using '''Fast Travel'''), all the companion needs is to be set as ''your companion'', i.e. you executed the script command '''SetPlayerTeammate 1'''.
 +
 +
Additionally, for a companion to follow you, the companion needs to have a ''follow package'' and that package needs a conditional variable on it which is "true", and all other packages that the companion has need conditions that are "false" at the same time so that they will not run instead of the ''follow package''.
 +
 +
For example. let's say your NPC has a ''follow package'' and a ''wait package'', and a variable '''npc_following''' and a variable '''npc_waiting'''. The ''follow package'' has the condition '''"if npc_following = 1"''' and the ''wait package'' has the condition '''"if npc_waiting = 1"'''. If you '''"set npc_following to 1"''' and '''"set npc_waiting to 0"''', and then execute an '''EVP''' command on the NPC, then they should follow you. If you want them to ''wait'', '''"set npc_following to 0"''' and '''"set npc_waiting to 1"'''. If you accidentally set both variables to 1 then either package could execute (depending upon their sequence in the packages list), so the NPC might follow you or they might not. If you accidentally set both variables to 0 then the companion will not do anything.
 +
 +
The other thing that might stop a companion from moving is if they aren't on a valid '''Navmesh'''. If the area that they are in isn't '''Navmeshed''', then they will just stand there.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-MerchantInventory"></span>
 +
 +
==== TIP Merchant Inventory ====
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
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 +
">The '''GECK''' tutorial [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Adding_items_to_vendors Adding items to vendors] fails to point out that you can only have one merchant/vendor container in a different cell (such as "VendorChestsCell"). For example, if you open up the '''GECK''' and go to the '''NovacGiftShop''' cell and double click on '''Cliff Briscoe''' (which brings up his "reference editor"), and then click on the "Merchant" tab, you will see where his merchant chest gets linked in even though it's in a different cell. You can change that link to a different container, but you can't add a second container there.
 +
 +
If you want to add a second container, you can't place it in a different cell. It has to be in the cell where the merchant is located and the cell has to have its ownership set to the merchant. And of course the container has to be persistent and its ownership has to be set to the merchant.
 +
 +
You can place the container in the shop (hidden behind a wall or underground if you'd like), or you can place the items individually in the shop.
 +
 +
Another approach is to add the items directly to the merchant's original container. There are two ways to do this. First, you can just edit the original container. That works, but breaks compatibility with any mods that also edit that container. The second way to do it is to use a script to add the items to the container, like making a quest with a quest script that is set to run once to add the items. Since you aren't actually modifying the container permanently, this second approach won't break things if another mod also wants to modify the same container.
 +
 +
Let's suppose you want to have a merchant sell certain items only if you succeed in a "speech check".  The solution to adding this inventory leads to some interesting bits of information pertaining to inventories in general.
 +
 +
Merchants will sell any items that are marked as owned by them as long as their container or the item is in the same cell when the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ShowBarterMenu ShowBarterMenu] function is called.  This includes items lying about the shop outside an obvious container (apparently the shop itself, i.e. the "interior cell", can count as one if '''solely owned''' by the NPC; as exemplified by buying Chet's silenced pistol from him removes the one in his display case and that doesn't appear to be specifically scripted anywhere).  Of course, the merchant in question must be able to sell that type of item (e.g. the merchant must have the AID service ticked in their NPC form or the wine in their owned fridge won't be available to buy in the barter menu).
 +
 +
The tested conditions determining what can be sold are:
 +
# Any item that is owned by the merchant, in the cell with them, enabled, and a type that they can sell will turn up in their barter menu.
 +
# These items do not need to be in containers.
 +
# Additionally, the merchant's own personal inventory is an "owned container", and anything reverse-pickpocketed onto their person (or presumably added via script, though this was not tested) becomes part of their barter menu.
 +
# Likewise, placing the player's items into the merchant's owned containers makes these items part of the barter menu as well.  ("Ownership" automatically changes as soon as the transfer completes; i.e. item is released.)
 +
# If the cell (this usually refers to an "interior cell") is marked as owned by them, all items in that cell without explicit ownership will belong to them, as usual, and these items will be available for purchase as well.
 +
# An item that is marked as belonging to the merchant will be available for purchase even if the entire cell is not marked as owned by them.
 +
# If something is owned by the merchant and it was originally put in one cell, transferring it to their current cell makes it immediately part of their barter menu.
 +
# Disabling and enabling owned items works to control whether these owned items are eligible to be in the barter menu (provided they meet the other criteria).
 +
# Items that are owned by a faction of which the NPC is a member will NOT be available in that NPC's barter menu; ownership must be theirs alone (which is the case when the interior cell is owned only by the NPC).
 +
 +
Bottom line seems to be, if the merchant owns it and it's in the cell they're in when you open their barter menu, as long as they sell that form type, it should be there to buy.  The editor location has no impact.
 +
 +
So, what you would do is set up your secret items container in advance and leave it out of reach in that cell.  Then when the secret stash should become available to the player for purchase, run [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetOwnership SetOwnership] on the container or item (either of which needs a Reference ID and to be marked as a persistent reference).
 +
 +
This normally means the vendor must be in that cell, so it may be a good idea to give them dialogue about how the merchant needs to meet them at a location in that cell, should the player ever speak to them when they are in a different cell.  Alternatively, you could script an owned container to be transferred to the current cell in that circumstance.  You could use an invisible model for the container and place it near the merchant before opening the barter menu.  It's not believed you need collision on the container but that has not been tested.  If you do need collision, the container should just be scaled down to nothing to avoid weird collision experiences.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="TIP-CompanionXP"></span>
 +
 +
==== TIP Only Combat Teammates give XP to Player ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
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">Followers don't give their kill XP to the Player unless they have been "hired" as "companions" or otherwise had the function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetPlayerTeammate SetPlayerTeammate 1] applied.  The XP sharing is apparently a built-in engine function specific to "combat teammates" and not those with simply a "follow" AI package.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-CompanionPerks"></span>
 +
 +
====TIP Perks for Companions====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for providing the following quotation:
 +
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">It is generally understood that you cannot add Perks to '''Companions''' in the same way as to the Player.  However, according to a [http://fallout.gamepedia.com/Blog:News/New_Vegas_dev_quote_roundup J.E. Sawyer (FNV project director) Q&A roundup]:
 +
Quote:
 +
;<blockquote>
 +
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">There is an undocumented feature in F:NV that some modders may find useful. It is the ability to give perks to companions. Or, more accurately, it is the ability to add perks to a special list on the player that will have an effect on any active followers. Here's how it works:
 +
<pre>player.addperk XXXXXXXXXXXXX 1</pre>
 +
The "1" means "put this on the special list for companions". Companions will still not store/keep perks, but we give the player a second list of non-displayed perks that only apply to companions. If you want the effect to apply to all companions, you do not need to conditionalize the perk owner conditions for the perk's entry points. If you want the perk to be special for the companion, check the NPC's ID or ref in the perk owner conditions.
 +
 +
I recommend making special companion versions of perks even if you want to use existing effects. E.g. if you want to give Raul the equivalent of Shotgun Surgeon for some reason, make a special "RaulShotgunSurgeonPerk" that's filtered just to him, and add it to the player with player.addperk RaulShotgunSurgeonPerk 1 the first time Raul is hired. Even if Raul leaves the party, you shouldn't have to worry about the perk hanging out on the player as long as the perk owner conditions are filtered properly.
 +
 +
N.B.: The effects will ONLY work while a companion is in the party. So in the above scenario, Raul would no longer have the benefits of RaulShotgunSurgeon if he left the party.</div>
 +
;</blockquote>
 +
This tip applies to '''"companions"''' only.  Some test results of using this "feature" are found at the end of this [http://forums.bethsoft.com/topic/1142430-perks-on-companions/?p=16697594&fromsearch=1#entry16697594 Bethsoft 'Perks on Companions' thread].
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-FaceFeatures"></span>
 +
====TIP Switching Custom Facial Features====
 +
: Thanks to '''rikkurikku''' and '''Budong''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
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">For example: Let us say you want to switch between the normal actor's face, and one that is "bloodied".  Set up your "bloody" face version texture as a different race and use the JIP ''[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetRace SetRace]'' function to switch, followed by "Update3D" to refresh the display in-game.  This applies to both the Player and NPCs.  See [[#TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures|TIP: Custom Race & Skin Textures]] regarding creating a "custom race" and the appropriate folders.<br>
 +
 +
'''Budong''' added:<br>
 +
If you want to ensure compatibility for everyone, you can accomplish the same thing entirely without needing the JIP NVSE Plugin.  Set up one race for your "healthy" NPC, and another race for the "injured" NPC.  Link them to one another via the ''YoungerRace'' and ''OlderRace'' options in the '''RaceEditor''', then call the ''AgeRace'' function to visually clobber/heal them. Entirely vanilla and will work for everyone.
 +
 +
When switching among custom facial features (such as eyes or hair), switch to a "vanilla" feature first, and then switch to a new "custom" look.  The '''GECK''' gets confused if you try to switch straight from one custom feature to another.<br>
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-MakingNPCs"></span>
 +
 +
====TIP Trick with making NPCs====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
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style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
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background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
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word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">If you create the NPC in an ESP, you can run into the infamous "head/body mismatch" bug. There are some settings you can change that fix the bug on some computers, but if you want it to work on all systems, define the NPC in an ESM file.
 +
* See also sections [[#Dialogue & Lip-synch|Dialogue & Lip-synch]] and [[#Scripting|Scripting]] for related info.</div>
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-TempCompanion"></span>
 +
==== TIP Turn a Temporary Companion into a Permanent one ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
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 +
">Supposing you want to turn a "temporary" quest companion into a permanent one (for example '''Corporal Halford''').  How would you go about it?
 +
 +
The recommended tutorial, which includes using a companion wheel, is: [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45278 Advanced Companion creation guide with Companion Wheel].  Since the NPC already exists and has a quest for hiring, you don't need to make the hiring quest part of the tutorial.  Make sure you use the existing functions as shown in the tutorial instead of creating your own. Those functions are what makes the companion wheel work.  See also [[#TIP_Companion_Wheel|TIP Companion Wheel]].
 +
 +
When I made a companion out of '''Corporal Betsy''' I found it easiest to make a duplicate and then swap out the duplicate <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">once the vanilla quests were done</span>. The advantage of this is that you don't have to hack into the existing quests and dialog, other than to add the hiring option (which triggers the swap) at the appropriate conversation stage.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
<span id="TIP-AIPackages"></span>
 +
====TIP Using AI Packages====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
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">
 
">
Drop in Xmarkers at the locations where you want to provide specific comments, and give them a unique Ref-ID.  Then put in a condition of:
+
* You can activate dialogue and travel packages by using the [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=AddScriptPackage AddScriptPackage] function, usually in a "dialogue result" or "base effect" script.  This has the advantage that a package added in this fashion will take precedence over all other packages until it is done, and terminate as soon as it is able (check the ''Must Complete'' and/or ''Must Reach Location'' flags to prevent premature termination, but be sure you provide the means to determine it '''''IS''''' completed).
 +
* <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">An actor can have only one script package active at a time.</span>  When calling the function twice on the same actor, the second package replaces the first one added.  Unless the ''AddScriptPackage'' has some constraint on it (''Must Complete'' and/or ''Must Reach Location''), it will be removed the next time the actor reevaluates his package.
 +
* Actors evaluate their packages every 10 seconds. If no packages have true conditions then the actor will just stand there by default, unless they are in combat. So if you want a package to take effect right away, set the conditions for the package and call the [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage EvaluatePackage] (.EVP) function on the actor: [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=EvaluatePackage ActorREF.evp].
 +
* Sometimes it can be difficult to get the ''AddScriptPackage'' to trigger, or you don't want it to take precedence over all other packages.  The usual method to assign AI packages is to attach the package directly to the actor and give it conditions to trigger or disable activation.  On the NPC/Creature object, the first package from the top of the list ''that has true conditions'' will be the one in effect when packages are evaluated.
 +
* Check that the order of your packages and their conditions do not prevent some from ever triggering.  Treat each as if a part of a series of nested "IF ELSE" blocks. ('''IF < condition > is "true" then do "this package", ELSE do "that"''', where "that" can be another ("nested") "IF ELSE" block.)  The last "ELSE" should trigger an "idle" or similar "default" package.
 +
* The [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=RemoveScriptPackage RemoveScriptPackage] function is only used for packages added by way of the ''AddScriptPackage'' function.  Once you remove an added script, the actor will automatically re-evaluate and determine which package should take it's place.
 +
* AI Packages attached directly to the actor are activated or deactivated by setting the variables used in the conditional tests.  If they are only in effect in very specific circumstances (such as being in a particular cell or location), then use another variable set in a quest script to determine if the circumstances exist to avoid making the full condition checks unnecessarily.
 +
* If an Actor won't use a particular weapon type, make sure they have a "combat style" appropriate for that weapon in the package; and that the weapon has a "health" greater than zero.  They will always use the "best" weapon in their inventory for the combat situation.
 +
* If the AI Package has a "schedule" or timing (''start time'' and ''duration'') to it's events, make sure that schedule does not overlap or conflict with any other package assigned to the NPC.  A scheduling conflict will prevent either package from running.
 +
 
 +
* Be aware that for Actors with the "No Low Level Processing (LLP)" flag set: The Actor does not update its AI unless the player is in the same cell as it.
 +
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word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">LLP behaves differently, depending on whether the object is persistent or not, and on whether the object is in an interior or an exterior cell:
 +
 +
* Persistent in an interior: All functions should always work reliably.
 +
* Persistent in an exterior: If the Actor is in the same cell, or the cell is currently buffered (i.e. within loaded ''uGrids'') - all functions should always work reliably. Otherwise, some functions will fail (example: GetParentCell).
 +
* Non-persistent in either an interior or an exterior: If the cell is currently buffered - all functions should always work reliably. Otherwise, all functions will always fail.
 +
 
 +
Keep in mind an Actor may not be unloaded immediately when changing cells, while persistent ones and quest NPCs marked in their base form will process more frequently.
 +
 
 +
If you place an actor in the world with the '''GECK''' and mark that REF as persistent - then they are persistent regardless of the LLP setting. They can always be referenced by a script.
 +
 
 +
You can use the '''JIP LN NVSE''' function [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/SetPersistent SetPersistent] to set a non-persistent (dynamic, aka "spawned") reference to persistent at runtime.
 +
 
 +
You might want to also be aware of and test for an Actor's "processing level" with the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetActorProcessingLevel GetActorProcessingLevel] function.
 +
</div>
 +
See also [[#Tip-NPCMovement|TIP: Making NPCs move (aka "AI Packages").]]
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== Dialogue and Lipsynch ===
 +
Other sections have relevant information to this subject.  The following "Tips" in particular are applicable.
 +
 
 +
* See the [[#Custom NPCs|Custom NPCs]] section regarding scripting "AI Packages".
 +
:* [[#TIP-CompanionWheel|TIP: Companion Wheel.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Hostility|TIP: Hostility between NPCs.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-NPCMovement|TIP: Making NPCs move (aka "AI Packages").]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-CompanionPerks|TIP: Perks for Companions.]]
 +
:* [[#TIP-AIPackages|TIP: Using AI Packages.]]
 +
 
 +
* See the [[#Scripting|Scripting]] section regarding:
 +
:* types of scripts: Objects, Quests, and "Base Effects".
 +
:* [[#TIP-EditorIDNames|'''TIP: Do not begin Editor-IDs with numbers.''']]
 +
:* [[#Tip-CompoundConditionals|TIP: Debugging Compound Conditionals.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Debugging|TIP: Debugging data to file.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-EventHandler|TIP: Don't overlook EventHandlers.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Encapsulation|TIP: Encapsulation - Parens, Brackets, and Braces.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-FunctionParameters|TIP: Function parameter separation with commas.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-ParsingLines|TIP: GECK parses the entire line before evaluating.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-NPCWpnChoice|TIP: NPC Weapon Choice.]]
 +
:* [[#TIP-MsgVariable|TIP: Pass a variable number into a script message.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Notes|TIP: Passing a 'Note' to the player.]]
 +
:* [[#Tip-Recipes|TIP: Passing a 'Recipe' to the player.]]
 +
 
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/449620-a-very-basic-dialogue-tutorial/ A very basic dialogue tutorial] Thread.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mm_fF4VHhw4&feature=related Crow`s Tutorial on Dialogue] Video.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63034/? FEEL - Facial Expression Editor (Limited - pfft...) by Fallout 2AM] in-game facial expression editor.
 +
* [http://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/text-to-voice/ FireFox Text-to-Speech Addon] Firefox plugin w/downloadable audio.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61248/? FonixData.cdf ( Easier .Lip Files ) by DingraThePishvaz] Mod. Alternative to either Skyrim or Oblivion Lip-sun generator for FNV.  NOTE: This must be installed under the "Data\Sound\voice\processing" folder.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zK09aDY8FHY GECK: Advanced Dialogue: Topic with multiple sub-topics] Video by Seddon4494.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haHdenMkeOw GECK: Companion Idle Chatter] Video.
 +
* [http://www.moddb.com/mods/explorer/tutorials/geck-custom-holotape-voice GECK: Custom Holotape + Voice] Wiki.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/NWtIRBPVedw GECK: Dialog and Lip Synch] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWtIRBPVedw GECK: Dialog and Lip Synch Tutorial] Video by Seddon4494.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvQCChzifyQ GECK: Dialogue with Lip Files] Video.
 +
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Quest_and_Dialogue_Tutorial GECK: Dialogue Tutorial] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BQdUQmIdvUc GECK: How to make an NPC with Basic Dialogue] Video.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/826465-idle-animation-list/ GECK: Idle Animation List] Forum Thread.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rcqbF0zpxtQ GECK: NPCs talk to each other] Video.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/48239/? Guide to fix the lip sync function in the GECK by Capt Mitch] Text file, using Skyrim Lip-sync tool.  Oblivion Lip-sync tool will work as well, but is not as good as Skyrim's.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63317/? Lazy Voice Finder - FInd voice assets just you want] Mod.
 +
* [http://www.oddcast.com/home/demos/tts/tts_example.php?sitepal Online Text to Speech Demo] Web site.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvQCChzifyQ Qenosa's Tutorial on Dialogue and NPC creation] Video.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-GenericDialog"></span>
 +
====TIP Adding Generic Dialog====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
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style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
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background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">So, you want your NPC/Vendor to have some ''generic dialog'' (meaning: re-use existing dialog already in the game that is not situation specific; like "Hello").
 +
 
 +
There are two ways you can do this.
 +
 
 +
* One is to extract all of the voice sounds and corresponding LIP files from the game "Fallout - Sound.BSA file" to some other folder (NOT to "Data"); then go through and pick and choose which lines you want; and just create new dialog topics and responses for your NPCs that use those lines verbatim. Then just copy/paste and rename your voice files for the new dialog. For some things, this will be the faster way of doing it.
 +
 
 +
* For ''Vendors'' though, it's probably faster to integrate them into the existing vendor system. This will probably require a bit more digging through the '''GECK''' to make sure you get your NPC correctly configured. You'll probably need the voice type to be set to the proper type of the existing vendor you are modeling yours after, the NPC's class to be set to what the vendor dialog expects, and you'll probably need to add the appropriate factions for vendors to your NPC. Just go through the configuration of an existing similar vendor NPC and you should be able to figure it all out.
 +
 
 +
See also [[#Tip-DialogTabs | TIP: Standard Dialog.]]
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-BatchLips"></span>
 +
==== TIP Batch Lip file generation ====
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
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background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">So, the lads at the "New California" mod team happened upon an incredibly useful bit of information regarding a hidden functionality for batch generation of LIP files.  The way it works is:
 +
 
 +
[[File:GECKFacialAnimation menu.PNG|thumbnail|100px|GECK Facial Animation menu image]]
 +
# Set up all your WAV files in advance, with the correct names and formatting so that they would be "previewable" in the '''GECK''' for the relevant lines of dialogue.
 +
#: Then, once they're all done, you can do the batch process.
 +
# This step is required for '''MO/MO2''' users.  <span style="color:green;background-color:#FFFFFF;">If not using '''MO/MO2''' or a similar "empty Data folder" mod manager, you probably don't need to worry about this step as the folders should already be there under "Data\Sound\Voice".</span>
 +
#: If you are using '''MO/MO2''', go into your vanilla '''Fallout New Vegas Data''' folder and then make all the hierarchies (e.g. "Fallout New Vegas\Data\Sound\Voice\NewCalifornia.esm\PBODocIsaakVoiceType"), but the audio files don't need to be moved from your '''MO/MO2''' folder.
 +
#:[[File:GECKFacialRecreate prompt.PNG|thumbnail|100px|GECK Recreate Facials prompt image]]
 +
#: <span style="color:red;background-color:#FFFFFF;">This was only tested for '''MO2''', but it probably works for other "empty Datafolder" managers such as '''MO'''.  Because '''MO''' and '''MO2''' load everything virtually, it makes sense that the '''GECK''' doesn't know where to put the LIP files unless you make the hierarchy in the vanilla folder.  Users should be able to make LIP files the normal way (individually) as long as the folder structure is there in the vanilla Data folder.</span>
 +
# Whether you skip '''Step 2''' or not, now click on the '''GECK''' menu bar ''Gameplay | Facial Animation... '' option.  (See [[:File:GECKFacialAnimation menu.PNG|GECK Facial Animation menu image]].  {{Thumbnail_enlargement_message}})
 +
# You'll be asked: "Do you want to forcibly recreate all facial animation files", and you'll want to choose the "Yes" button.  (See [[:File:GECKFacialRecreate prompt.PNG|GECK Recreate Facials prompt image]].  {{Thumbnail_enlargement_message}})
 +
# The GECK will put up a progress bar and then appear to freeze as it processes in the background.  After the better part of an hour, it should be finished.  However, in practice, it does the last Form-IDs first, meaning after the first couple of minutes it has probably finished with what was needed, and could be force-quit if desired.  They didn't actually try that; but it crashed on its own once and everything seemed fine.
 +
 
 +
:: <span style="color:red;background-color:#FFFFFF;">Dialogue topics that are technically vanilla but are modified to add new dialogue, even for characters that are added by a new ESM/ESP; most notably '''GREETING''' but also any of the combat lines or the iron sights one(s), unfortunately have very low Form-IDs, and as such will be among the last to be generated by this batch process.</span>  Probably easier to do those manually unless you plan to set '''GECK''' to do its work and then leave your PC alone for a bit.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-Translators"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Conversation or Quest system====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
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 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The conversation/quest system for Fallout New Vegas seems like nonsense until you realize it evolved out of the conversation/quest system for Morrowind. In Morrowind, different people could say the same topics, and most of it wasn't voiced; so it made a lot of sense to group things by '''quests''' and '''topics''' instead of by '''speaker'''.
 +
 
 +
What this means for FNV is that some dialog is spread out through a lot of different quests. If you want to edit '''Doc Mitchell''''s dialog during your initial character creation, for example, that's in the various ''VCGxx'' quests (''VCG01'', ''VCG02'', etc). His healing options are in ''VDoctors'', the same quest as for all of the other wasteland doctors. If you right click on '''Doc Mitchell''''s ID in the GECK and select "Use Info", you'll get a list of topics where his ID is used.
 +
 
 +
Being part of a ''faction'' and using an existing ''voice type'' is enough to trigger a lot of the dialog in-game. If you only want your Actor to say what you have scripted them to say, and only that, then give them a unique ''voice type''.  Otherwise, generic dialog may get triggered unexpectedly
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="TIP-CuttingLipFiles"></span>
 +
 
 +
====Tip Cutting Lip files to match dialog====
 +
:  Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Assuming you are cutting up existing voice files to make new dialog.  What I typically do is import the existing voice clip into '''Audacity''' (see [[#Programs and Tools | Programs and Tools]]) and chop it down to the part I want, then export that as a '''WAV''' file and rename it to match the file name that the GECK expects in the dialog quest. Make sure you export it as a WAV and not an OGG. The Lip generator wants a WAV file.
 +
 
 +
Instead of trying to cut down the lip file to match, just regenerate the lip file from scratch. Click on the voice file in the box at the bottom of the dialog editing box to highlight it, then click on "From WAV" and click on "Generate Lip File", which should now no longer be grayed out.  If you don't seem to be able to actually generate a LIP file, double-check that your voice file is in MONO (and not Stereo) mode.
 +
 
 +
This of course requires that you have copied the lip generator from Oblivion or Skyrim, or the alternative [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61248/? FonixData.cdf]. In Oblivion the lip generator's in '''\Sound\Processing''', which is where it belongs in FNV as well. (See the links above for options.)  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">NOTE: The '''FonixData.cdf''' tool must be installed under the '''sound\voice\processing''' folder.</span>
 +
 
 +
Helpful tip - I will often record a very short bit of blank audio in the dialog editing box just so it puts a blank WAV and LIP file in the right directory where it's expecting it. Then I just go to that folder and delete those "dummy files", which seems kinda stupid, but it gets the folders all created properly and named properly and stops me from doing stupid things like typing one of the folder names wrong. Then I copy and paste the file name from the GECK onto my newly edited WAV so that I can't make a stupid typo there as well.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-GetSpeaker"></span>
 +
==== TIP Get the current speaker reference ====
 +
: Thanks to '''FiftyTifty''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Suppose you want to identify the current speaker of a line of dialog for use as a later reference.  Dialog "inherits" it's implied speaker from it's topic, so you need to use the "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetActionRef GetActionRef]" function, placed inside the dialog "Result Script (End)" block.
 +
 
 +
See also the GECKWiki "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Calling_reference Calling reference]" page.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-TopicVoices"></span>
 +
====TIP How to generate '''lip''' files====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">There are two parts to '''''Voices''''' in topics: the sound file, which is usually a '''.WAV''' or an '''.OGG''' format file, and the lip file ('''.LIP'''). The sound file has (obviously) the spoken sound, and the lip file has the synchronized lip movements. Without the lip file, the NPC's lips won't move as they speak, which is very weird.
 +
 
 +
The GECK as it ships is missing its lip file generator. Bethesda has updated the GECK a couple of times since its first release and still hasn't bothered to put the lip generator in it.  (They seem to like making things difficult for us.) You can use the one provided with the Oblivion or Skyrim CK installed on your computer: the same lip generator is in the '''\sound\processing''' folder. Just copy that folder to your FNV directory and you're good to go.  Or there is a "third-party" lip generator: [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61248/? FonixData.cdf ( Easier .Lip Files )] Mod by '''DingraThePishvaz'''.  <span style="margin:0px 10px 10px 0px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: green;
 +
background-color:#fff5f5;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">NOTE: The '''FonixData.cdf''' tool must be installed under the '''sound\voice\processing''' folder.</span>
 +
 
 +
Now the question is: where is your sound coming from? If you are going to be speaking into a microphone, just bring up the topic and hit "record" near the bottom of the window. Don't forget to "save" it when you are done. If you don't like what you just said or you made a mistake, flubbed the line, whatever: then don't hit "save", and instead just hit "record" and try another "take". When you click "save" it only saves your last "take". If you have the lip generator installed, the GECK will automatically create both the '''.WAV''' and '''.LIP''' files.
 +
 
 +
If your sound is coming from an already existing '''.WAV''' file, it needs to be in the exact location that the GECK expects it to be in and it has to have the exact name that the GECK wants it to have. If you look down near the bottom of the topic, you'll see the file name that it wants, without the '''.WAV''' extension, which will have the topic name in it and will also have what looks like a bunch of random letters and numbers in it (they aren't random; they are '''hexadecimal'''). Sometimes the easiest way to make sure your file ends up in the right place is to record a quick 2 second ''dummy'' hello or something into the microphone and save it, then go under the '''\sound''' folder and find your mod and voice type (etc.) until you land on the files you just created. If you have to create all of the folders yourself it's very easy to make a mistake. This way (i.e. by recording ''dummy'' files) you make sure that the folder names are right and everything is in the right place. Then delete the '''.WAV''' and '''.LIP''' dummy files that you just generated, and put the actual '''.WAV''' file that you want to use in its place. You can copy the file name from the topic screen and paste that into the file name of the '''.WAV''' file.  The file names are too long and contain too many letters and numbers, so changing the name manually isn't recommended; copy-and-paste is safer.
 +
 
 +
Now you have a '''.WAV''' but no '''.LIP''' file.  You'll need to close the topic and re-open it, as the topic window doesn't refresh when you change the files.  Now you should see a "Y" under your '''.WAV''' near the bottom, and you should see your '''.WAV''' file listed. Select your '''.WAV''' file, click on "from wav" and click on "generate lip file", and the GECK will create the '''.LIP''' file for you. You can also do this to create '''.LIP''' files from any dialog you may have recorded before realizing that you didn't have a working '''.LIP''' generator.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NoDriver"></span>
 +
==== TIP No sound driver available error message ====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">So, you keep getting an error message saying "Error: No sound driver available for use" every time you open the dialogue window.  What gives and how do you make it go away?
 +
 
 +
It's not necessarily an audio driver problem.  It doesn't matter where your '''GECK''' is installed.
 +
 
 +
The form in the '''GECK''' where you edit dialog is also where you record audio for that dialog. If you do not have a microphone or some sort of ''line input'' connected to your computer, the '''GECK''' can't find anything to record audio from and gives you that error.
 +
 
 +
Plug in a microphone and the error will go away. Depending upon your version of '''Windows''', something other than a microphone (such as headphones) plugged into the line input will also make the error go away.
 +
 
 +
Some audio drivers will have a ''virtual audio source'' of some sort that will be enough for the '''GECK''' to think that it has something to record from.  If nothing else, many audio drivers used to have a loopback so that they could record whatever was going out through the speakers. (Microsoft and the audio driver manufacturers have moved away from this since some folks were using it to illegally record the audio off of '''YouTube''' videos and the like.)
 +
 
 +
Look under the '''Windows''' "Control Panel | System | Sound | Input | Device Properties".  There should be a drop-down box in the "Device Properties" window that lets you enable various devices (e.g. "Stereo Mix (Realtek Audio)") that (regardless of whether they actually function or not) will be sufficient to get rid of the error message in '''GECK'''.
 +
 
 +
If you have something configured or plugged into one of your sound card's inputs and you still have the error, then you have an audio driver problem.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-OCE"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Obsidian Conversation Editor aka '''OCE'''====
 +
: Thanks to ''' EDPGaffney''' (the "I" in the following) of the Nexus "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the details of this tip:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">'''Obsidian''' wrote the '''Conversation Editor''' (OCE) to help them do dialogue in this game in a way that was workable for so many branching paths and such.  It comes with the "New Vegas G.E.C.K." and can be accessed by clicking the last button on the right on the top toolbar, which looks like the symbol for a "right-justified" paragraph.  Its interface looks very similar to the ''Dialogue Tree'' in the '''Quest''' window that most people seem to use even in this game. (I suspect because of all the Fallout 3 tutorials, and that OCE wasn't available in Fallout 3).  Some of its advantages are:
 +
* loading things much faster,
 +
* never crashing (at least for me after weeks of editing hundreds of lines),
 +
* not having that Windows 10 bug unless you open certain other things in the G.E.C.K.,
 +
* being able to save your mod with it open,
 +
* inheriting the speaking NPC (and optionally other conditions if you tell it to, I think) so that you needn't enter it for every single line,
 +
* being able to edit conversations in a more visually comprehensible way (as a tree, with entries you can modify in the same window),
 +
* making new dialogue by simply adding a child to the last thing you wrote and typing it into the same window as the rest of the conversation,
 +
* being able to copy topics and then paste them as links or simply pasting the topic as a new topic with the same text and conditions,
 +
* and having access to every feature of the Fallout 3 method (well, theoretically; I'm still not sure about recording).</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="TIP-RandomNPCcomments"></span>
 +
====Tip Random NPC Comments====
 +
: Thanks to '''Mktavish''' of the '''Nexus Fallout New Vegas GECK and Modders''' forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Drop in Xmarkers at the locations where you want to provide specific comments, and give them a unique Ref-ID.  Then put in a condition of:
 
"Subject: GetDistance to that XmarkerRef < 10000" (as an abstract, pseudo example) on each of the Info/response entries, in addition to a "GetIsID" condition.
 
"Subject: GetDistance to that XmarkerRef < 10000" (as an abstract, pseudo example) on each of the Info/response entries, in addition to a "GetIsID" condition.
 
If the 150 char limit isn't enough then add another 150 char block in the Response field.
 
If the 150 char limit isn't enough then add another 150 char block in the Response field.
 
On the Topic text (at the top) say something like: "Do you have any info on this place?".  Flag it as a top level dialogue; then the priority will determine where it shows in the list of options after their "Greeting".
 
On the Topic text (at the top) say something like: "Do you have any info on this place?".  Flag it as a top level dialogue; then the priority will determine where it shows in the list of options after their "Greeting".
If you're not within the maximum distance to any marker then that option shouldn't show up as a dialogue option for the player. - Source: Mktavish, Nexus forums
+
If you're not within the maximum distance to any marker then that option shouldn't show up as a dialogue option for the player.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
: '''Budong''' added the following alternative method:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">NPC is running this script, which basically waits and does nothing until a random amount of time has passed and then forces the NPC to say something to the Player.
 +
 
 +
<pre>
 +
float m_banterTimer
 +
float m_banterThreshold
 +
 
 +
BEGIN GameMode
 +
  if m_banterTimer < m_banterThreshold
 +
    set m_banterTimer to m_banterTimer + GetSecondsPassed
 +
  else
 +
    set m_banterTimer to 0
 +
    set m_banterThreshold to GetRandomPercent*4
 +
    SayTo player LocationBanter;
 +
  endif ; banterTimer
 +
END</pre>
 +
 
 +
Then put all the NPC's banter dialog into the topic called LocationBanter.  The '''location-specific responses''' all have a condition using the '''GetInCell''' function to tie them to specific places and are at the top of the topic's stack so they evaluate first but only trigger when the Player is at a specific location; they're also flagged with "once per day" so you don't get spammed by them. The bonus to this method is that you can have '''generic non-location-specific''' dialog at the BOTTOM of the topic's stack, so if the Player is NOT at a landmark, the NPC still makes amusing observations every now and again. (Plus you are not forced into dropping new objects in cells all over the game; it's just the script and the dialog.  Nice and tidy, easy to manage.)
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-SayOnce"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP '''Say Once''' use ====
 +
: Thanks to '''Mktavish''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">The "Say Once" flag is set per "response", not per "Topic".  So basically you take the Topic, and add as many responses to it as you want.  Flag them "top level", and set "priority" for what order each response will be presented in.  You can even set conditions that might change when they are used, such as (for example) a "quest stage" or "gateway variable".  Once they have been spoken, the responses you flag as "Say Once" will no longer be considered in the priority list thereafter.
 +
 
 +
The dialogue tool is pretty versatile.  But it is not very intuitive either and one of the harder things to get proficient with in the '''GECK'''.  However, there is no one set way to do things.  See [[#TIP_Obsidian_Conversation_Editor_aka_OCE|TIP Obsidian Conversation Editor aka OCE]].
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-DialogTabs"></span>
 +
====TIP Standard Dialog====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">NOTE: Dialog ''quests'' must be checkboxed to "start enabled".  If the ''quest'' isn't "active" the ''topics'' will not be available.
 +
 
 +
Certain bits of dialog are standard, but have to be added from the correct tab in the '''Quest Stages'''.
 +
See the following references:
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Quest_and_Dialogue_Tutorial Quest and Dialogue Tutorial], in particular the "Dialogue Topics" section.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mm_fF4VHhw4&feature=related Crow`s Tutorial on Dialogue] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NvQCChzifyQ Qenosa's Tutorial on Dialogue and NPC creation] Video.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Creating_a_new_vendor Creating a new vendor] tutorial on creating dialog for a NPC's interaction with the player.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/StartConversation StartConversation] command forces a conversation between two NPCs, starting with a specified topic.
 +
* [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/How_to_script_conversation_between_two_or_more_NPCs How to script conversation between two or more NPCs] tutorial.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Dialogue GECK Category: Dialogue] This page has a number of important points to bear in mind, such as flags and:
 +
:* '''Prompt:''' This text will be displayed in place of the topic text. If left blank (as is default), the topic text will be used.
 +
:* '''Result Script (Begin):''' This script runs when the Info is played, at the moment the actor starts saying his line.
 +
:* '''Result Script (End):''' This script runs at the moment the actor finishes speaking.
 +
 
 +
The following is intended to help clarify the above GECKWiki pages:
 +
* ''GREETING'' only shows up as an option in the ''topics tab'' of your Quest when you < right-click > on the '''Topics''' tab in the left-hand pane of the GECK "Object Window" under the "Actor Data/Quest" section; and then also select/highlight the ''info response'' field in the top right-hand pane: where it shows a piece of the text and conditions.  Then you go to that small "list box" on the right side labeled "Add Topic"  and < right-click > in there to select from the list of existing ''topics'', or select '''New''' to add a completely new one.  In case it isn't clear: this ''GREETING'' is the NPC's first response when the Player first initiates dialog.  If you enable (check) the "SayOnce" box, it does not appear again '''''for that Actor'''''.  It can appear for another Actor which meets any qualifying conditions.  Do not confuse it with ''Hello'' which is all actors' way to start conversations, but usually only between NPCs.
 +
* Once created, ''Hello'' and ''GOODBYE'' only show up as dialog options upon < right-click > on the '''Conversation''' tab and select ''Add Topic''.  They should be "top level", with a priority of 5.  ''Hello'' is generally used for conversations between two or more NPCs, without the Player.  ''GOODBYE'' is essential to be able to terminate a conversation.  If in the '''Topics''' tab you do not set up any topic flagged as ''GOODBYE'', the dialog will end with one of those ''GOODBYE''s from the '''Conversation''' tab.
 +
* You will need Voice "sound" (and corresponding Lip-Sync ".lip") files for your dialog lines so they take the appropriate amount of time before proceeding to the next line.  Otherwise they may appear to "skip" over some lines or cut each other off.  "Silent" sound files are common for this purpose when the actor is not voiced, but still needed to establish the timing.  See the [[#Sound and Voice Tools|Sound and Voice Tools]] section entries for the necessary tools.
 +
* Sort your list of dialog '''Topics''' by ''Priority''.  ("1" is highest, "100" is lowest.)  Place the ''GREETING''  and ''GOODBYE'' Topics at the top of the list.  '''Topics''' are processed from the top down until it finds the first one with all conditions "true".
 +
* Order your list of "conditional test" ''responses'' in each '''Topic''' by priority as well.  Consider all the conditional responses as an "IF ... ELSEIF ... ELSE ... ENDIF" block.  The first ''response'' which tests as "all true" will be "the winner" and processing will skip to it's "Result Script".
 +
* "Conditional tests" override ''Priority'' values.  Think of "Priority" as a way to group ''Topic'' statements; but NOT as a "tie breaker" ... especially in the case of those ''responses'' which otherwise have the same conditions.  The order of the placement of the response lines within a ''Topic'' determines the order they are tested.  Only the first which succeeds is processed.  Later responses with the same conditions will never get processed.  Use conditional tests to ensure only one response is appropriate at a time.  See also the GECKWiki [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Using_Complex_Conditions Using Complex Conditions] and [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Causes_of_CTDs Causes of CTDs] pages.
 +
* Any dialog that does not have a "conditional test" should be considered as if in the "ELSE" portion of the hypothetical "IF ... ELSEIF ... ELSE ... ENDIF" block.  Again, if more than one response falls into this "condition", only the first will ever get processed.
 +
* Consider the use of a "''token''" (a piece of equipment flagged "unplayable" (and thus "invisible") placed in the Actor's inventory) along with the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetIsID GetIsID] function to indicate which Actor is currently speaking.  (Otherwise, you would need to convert the "Ref-ID" of the Actor into their "Base-ID" using [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetBaseObject GetBaseObject] first in order for ''GetIsID'' to work correctly.  But remember: a "Base-ID" is a template for all "Ref-ID" instances of that form.  If more than one Actor in the conversation is based upon the same form, the "Base-ID" is not unique.  [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/GetIsReference GetIsReference] only works for "persistent" references such as unique Actors; not those dynamically spawned from "lists".  Which is why a "''token''"shifted between the speakers works better.)  You can use a "ResultScript (End)" block for each response to transfer the "token" to another Actor with the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/MoveToContainer MoveToContainer] function.  (An example of the use of a "token" is in the GECKWiki tutorial [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Adding_an_Options_Menu Adding an Options Menu].  "Tokens" can also be used to store information on an Actor.  See [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ActorValue ActorValue].)
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-TextDisplay"></span>
 +
 
 +
==== TIP Text display timing ====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Many new mod creators think of "voice" and "lip-sync" files as "optional" when they only intend to display a text message.  Then they wonder why sometimes their message only displays briefly in a flash and others wait until something is clicked upon. The latter is because a message displayed under control of a menu block is "paused" until an "input" (key entry or button click) is received.  (Sometimes this is not as obvious as a "button", such as using an elipsis ("...") instead.  Generally not having an obvious means of proceeding is considered "poor design" unless it is deliberate as a form of "visual puzzle".)  This is one way to ensure the message is seen by the Player.
 +
 
 +
If you are not getting display of the Dialog response text outside of a menu, most likely it is because the text has no "voice" audio and/or lip-sync file attached.  (Both are needed.)  These files determines how long the text remains on screen before allowing the display to proceed.  Even if there is no actual voice to be heard, a "silent" audio file of sufficient length is required to determine the length of the display of the text.  The mod [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63052 Silent Voice Generator] by '''Enter_77''' can generate both silent voice and corresponding lip-sync files of up to 30 seconds duration from exported GECK quest and dialog text documents.  (See "Voices" under the [[#Music_and_Sounds|Music and Sounds]] section.  It is recommended placing your own "silent voice" files under their own sub-folder to avoid the risk of overwriting actual voices used by others.)
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== FaceGen ''Heads Faces Hairs and Helmets'' ===
 +
: This information is compiled from a number of threads, guides, and articles by authors such as '''DrakeTheDragon''', '''throttlekitty''', '''Ghogiel''', '''scanti''', and '''Skree000'''.  It is an overview at best.
 +
 
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/66932 Generating EGM files for Headwear and Hairs] PDF tutorial by '''Roy Batty'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/9360 The Conformulator] Mod Tool.
 +
* [[Working with Skyrim head TRIs|Working with Skyrim head TRIs]] (Wiki) for additional tutorials and resources.
 +
* [http://oblivion.nexusmods.com/mods/20166 Head06 Resource] Oblivion Mod by '''Throttlekitty''' as a reference example.
 +
 
 +
Hair NIFs usually have two models inside of them, one called Hat and one called NoHat. Adjust your alternate hairstyle's Hat model so that it doesn't clip through any hat you want the Actor to wear.
 +
 
 +
The heads of characters and NPCs in Bethesda games are created using the builtin [http://facegen.com/index.htm FaceGen] tool, which is a licensed '''Singular Immersion ''FaceGen Modeler'''''.  According to the FaceGen site "Customizer" tool [http://facegen.com/customizer_help.htm user manual] the resulting information is stored in the following files.
 +
 
 +
Each model part consists of one or more of the following file types, with the same root name:
 +
# TRI. This is the base mesh, which includes UVs and information about morph targets but not the FaceGen shape changes.
 +
# BMP. This is the base texture.
 +
# EGM. This is the statistical shape information, which is used to modify the base face shape. Without this file, the mesh will never change shape.
 +
# EGT. This is the statistical texture information, which is used to modify the base texture image. Without this file, the texture image is fixed.
 +
# FIM. This is the UV remapping transform, which is used to transform the detail texture in the FG file (taken from a photograph) into the UV layout of this mesh. Without this file, a mesh cannot have a detail texture applied.
 +
 
 +
EGM, EGT, and TRI extension files are in turn are used to construct "OBJ" (whole head mesh) files.  This is because "faces", "hair", and "helmets" have to be able to "morph" or "conform" to the underlying "head" mesh.  Different heads can be used with the same body to provide the customized faces of PlayerCharacters.
 +
 
 +
'''Note that everything related to the head must be placed in a BSA for it to be processed properly by the game engine.'''  Otherwise the "loose files" do not get "conformed" to the head mesh properly.  (Use the "BSArch" tool linked in the [[#Packaging_Tools|Packaging Tools]] section to '''''create/update''''' your BSA file.)
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">From '''DrakeTheDragon''':<br>
 +
Be aware that for EGM and TRI files it is one whole head mesh (OBJ) per morph, the base mesh with the morph applied to its fullest, and when you import them into modeling apps it is paramount the vertex count and order isn't even remotely touched, or they'll be useless to you as they won't fit into the EGM/TRI file afterwards anymore later. Morph offsets are calculated from the difference between the neutral base mesh's vertices and the morphed mesh's vertices, and this can't work when one or more sets of them don't have identical vertex indices anymore. Don't use any fancy scripted modification tools from your modeling app or anything else complex which could likely alter the vertex order either. If I remember right, even alterations to the UV map can change the vertex order and render the OBJ useless beyond repair already.
 +
 
 +
[The '''Oblivion''' mod [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/18566 Adding Eye Morphs to FaceGen Files]] is a guide for much more than just adding "eye morphs".  It's an invaluable resource and a profound guide how to do all of it at the same time. It covers the basics and all possible tasks likewise and, again, it goes far beyond just eye morphs in all departments.  [Curator: As '''Oblivion''' utilizes the same underlying '''Gamebryo''' game engine as FO3 and FNV, it is still applicable in general.  It includes the necessary tools by '''Scanti'''.  There is a later version of [http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/9360 The Conformulator] than the one in that package.]
 +
 
 +
Last I heard the latest [http://www.niftools.org/ NIF Tools] im-/export scripts for '''Blender''' could also be used to create EGM files, but '''Scanti's Conformulator''' is still the better solution and can be used for far more than just that.
 +
 
 +
I'm 3 years behind though [in Oct 2013] and not 'up to date' with the most recent developments anymore.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">From '''Ghogiel''':<br>
 +
It's rather easy to use '''The Conformulator'''. I've used it for years since it was very first released.
 +
 
 +
Once you have your Fallout NIF, just export from '''Nifskope''' to OBJ, and use that in the '''Conformulator''' instead of trying to use a NIF as input.
 +
 
 +
So you have your final F3 NIF. (Try not to do anything else to this NIF: nothing that will reorder the vertex numbering index!)
 +
 
 +
* Open it in '''Nifskope'''.
 +
* Export as OBJ file type.
 +
* Open '''Conformulator'''.
 +
* Input that OBJ file.
 +
* In the TRI file input field, select the "humanhead.tri" file.
 +
* Hit <conformulate>.
 +
 
 +
I've experimented with using stuff like, a simple primitive box, make a TRI from the head onto that, then use that TRI to bake the EGMs onto final helmets (the theory is, the helmet mesh(or whatever) will deform much more uniformly in all directions) as an attempt to try to get around odd deformations on some headwear.
 +
 
 +
Most of the time the quality is set to "vertice". You only need to get more fiddly if your headware deforms oddly (e.g. the brim of a hat bending a bit).  Which is where using the box method I mentioned above was developed for. Or trying to copy the face morphs from one TRI to a new one.  And hair morphs. Otherwise I can't see how you can mess up.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">From '''ThrottleKitty''':<br>
 +
[http://www.nexusmods.com/oblivion/mods/18566/? Adding Eye Morphs to FaceGen Files] is just about all I know about EGM/TRI/EGT files, and some tools to work with them aside from '''The Conformulator'''.
 +
 
 +
For the problem with the mouth not moving, there's a couple of solutions; first the problem! '''The Conformulator''' compares your mesh to the original NIF/TRI/EGM files and creates morphs based on those offsets. So if the mouth isn't 100% perfect, you'll get a 'bad' morph. With my [http://oblivion.nexusmods.com/mods/20166 Head06] mod, the goal was to create a high-res version of the original, and stay true to the form. Even with small differences between the mouths, I ended up with a 'sticky mouth' look when talking. (So maybe the first solution isn't much of one).
 +
 
 +
I got around this by slightly opening the mouth a very little bit, a tip I got from '''Scanti'''. The vertices are too close together and the tolerance of '''The Conformulator''' was as such that it didn't know which way to move those areas. Took a couple tries, but I successfully managed to copy the morphs from the stock head to my custom one.
 +
 
 +
You'll need to use one of the other tools (I used the [hex editor] '''010''' scripts) to take the offending morphs in and out of the TRI file for fixing. You get an OBJ [file] as an output, which can be mangled about, then injected back in.
 +
 
 +
The EGT file is a package of 50 textures. The only way you'll be able to reuse the existing ones is if your model has an '''''identical''''' UV layout- or close at least. If not, a bit of [fiddling] of models and UVs should yield a good result for baking the textures from one UV set to another. (short of buying the '''Facegen''' software to do it the right way).
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
==== Fallout 3 EGM manipulation ====
 +
: The following is based upon a FO3 [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/92378-what-is-egm-file/ thread entry] by '''Skree000'''.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
EGMs are data files associated with head "accessories" that help deform them to accommodate the Head-Deformation associated with the Character Creation menu.
 +
 
 +
Without an EGM file, your character skull would stick through the hat, hair or helmet model if you made the skull really wide, tall or deep.
 +
 
 +
EGMs, without requiring a licensed commercial product, are created through a mod tool called '''The Conformulator'''.
 +
 
 +
'''The Conformulator''' takes TRI files; which are basically models that have ''Morph Targets''. ''Morph Targets'' are what you manipulate when you change sliders in your character creation screen. These are basically just moveable bones that are skinned to parts of the face. A TRI file is an archive of one model and its morph targets.
 +
 
 +
'''The Conformulator''' also requires an OBJ or NIF format mesh to 'conform' to the TRI file. Basically it skins the mesh to the TRI file's ''Morph Target'' parameters, so that whenever you 'squash the forehead', the 'forehead region' of the headgear also gets squashed.
 +
 
 +
'''The Conformulator''' doesn't always do a perfect job, so it has a few options allowing modders to control how sensitive or accurate the conformulation is to the TRI file.
 +
 
 +
EGM's are REQUIRED for any headgear/hair. Without them, it will look awful; as if you have extremely deformed/altered character faces/heads.
 +
 
 +
To make your own EGM, export an OBJ of your headgear/hair from your modelling program, [Curator: the mesh ''transforms'' are exported when it's output as file type "OBJ" but not in a NIF], and then open '''The Conformulator'''.
 +
 
 +
* Input the vanilla head TRI file, which is located in the Fallout3.BSA. (Unpack that with one of the BSA extraction tools listed in the [[#Packaging_Tools|Packaging Tools]] section.  Note the warning!)
 +
 
 +
: The TRI files you need are in "\meshes\character\_male\" and the one you want should be called "Humanhead.tri" or something like that. There are also "femalehead.tri" for female versions, if your mesh has problems with one gender over the other.
 +
 
 +
: For the most part "Humanhead.tri" works just fine, since the only real major differences between male and female heads are slightly different facial ''morph targets'', which aren't really that important for hairdos or hats to fit on the skull. (Skull deforms are all basically akin to each other.)
 +
 
 +
* Once your TRI file is plugged in, plug in the OBJ of your headgear/hair mesh.
 +
 
 +
* Hit "Conformulate".
 +
 
 +
* Done. Your EGM is ready!
 +
 
 +
'''GECK''' will auto-detect any EGMs that are present in the folder where the headgear is located.  HOWEVER!!! The EGM name must MATCH the .nif file name of the headgear.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
: Note that if your head "accessory" (hat, helmet, piercings, etc.) is not conforming to the head, you may need to "unequip" and "re-equip" the accessory whenever you edit your face so it will reconform.
 +
 
 +
=== Havok Physics ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: Havok Removal] PDF.
 +
* [[Making_Havok_ragdolls_in_Blender|Making Havok ragdolls in Blender]] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-HavokDeadNPC"></span>
 +
====TIP Havok a dead NPC====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''jokerine''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Positioning a "dead" NPC can be frustrating.  Spawning a dead NPC will have them appear as you left them (usually standing in the "T-crucifix" pose).  Instead have the NPC alive in a temp holding cell, then move them to where you want them to end up and kill them.  If the "dead" NPC just stands there you can have havok kick in if you place a small dummy explosion by the freshly enabled NPC. '''Jokerine''' wrote about that [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5831532-egg-planting-script-placeatme-problems/?p=52011812 here]. You could probably copy the same script she wrote there and give it to your NPC.  If you do it that way, they'll havok (have game physics applied) and drop in some random-ish fashion, though not too random since they mostly ended up in the same position on the floor. If you have the NPC move to the same room when the player enters the room, the player will see the NPC appear and then fall to the ground; so best to do this out of sight of the player if possible.
 +
 
 +
Dead NPCs can be havoked in the GECK, though like much in the GECK that seems to be a bit buggy at times. Dead NPCs will spawn as you leave them though, so if you leave them just standing there in the GECK, then they'll just be standing there when the player finds them.
 +
 
 +
Live NPCs won't havok ''in the GECK'', but if you kill them when they spawn or when a player approaches, they'll havok and fall and will end up in some random-ish position when the player finds them.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== Heightmaps ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/517230-tutorial-converting-a-dem-to-a-heightmap/ Converting a "Digital Elevation Map" (DEM) file to a Heightmap] Thread.
 +
* [http://www.truancyfactory.com/tutorials/fallout3/fallout_worldspace2.html Fallout3 Creating a Heightmap] HTML with images.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/224954-height-map-creation-and-editing-tutorial/ Heightmap creation and editing from imported image/data] Thread.
 +
 
 +
=== Interior Creation===
 +
Often neglected topic because the GECK tutorials walk you through the process.  Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''random411''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for pointing out the need for this section.
 +
 
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qThfCjgNUdE Fallout New Vegas GECK interior building] Video (9:21) by '''deacrb'''.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0rK5UdhMyas GECK Tutorial - Building a House, Part 1] Video (12:16) by '''Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Creating_a_New_Empty_Cell Creating a New Empty Cell] GECK Wiki.  (Note: FNV has fewer pre-made empty buildings than FO3.  "TestQuest01" seems to be all.)
 +
 
 +
====Angle and Grid Snapping====
 +
"Angle snapping" & "grid snapping" buttons are covered under "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Categories:Preferences Categories: Preferences]" and in the "[http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Bethsoft_Tutorial_Layout#Grid_and_Angle_Snapping Bethsoft Tutorial Layout] on the GECK Wiki site.  You want to enable this and configure the spacing before you start doing anything else.
 +
 
 +
====Basic Interior location design guide====
 +
: Thanks to '''djmystro''' of the "Fallout New Vegas" Mod Talk" forum for the basis of this section.  He is the "I" reference in the following.  The original source is the thread "[http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/581268-interior-location-creation-tutorial/ Interior Location Creation Tutorial]" in that forum.
 +
 
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">I learned a lot of things creating AWOP that seriously sped up my production time creating huge interior locations so I thought I would bundle a load of tips together in a guide to help others getting started with some simple handy facts that will save you a lot of time if you wanna go creating dungeons.
 +
 
 +
Contents:
 +
* Position 0
 +
* Block Size
 +
* Handy Keys
 +
* Havoc Engine
 +
* Walkthrough
 +
* How I Started
 +
* Copied vs New
 +
* Bodging Gaps
 +
* Cave Gaps
 +
* Cave Navmesh
 +
* Interior Size/Object Count
 +
* Adding NPCs
 +
* Object Spacing
 +
* Fast Navmesh
 +
* Fast travel to Object/NPC in Render Windiw
 +
* Interior Light and Fog settings.
 +
* Locating Objects
 +
 
 +
=====Position 0=====
 +
On creating a new interior make sure the first block is placed at 0 on all axis. This will make the auto-move functions much simpler and easy to understand (as well as mathematically predictable).
 +
 
 +
=====Block size=====
 +
Each block is by default 256x256 or in caves double or triple that size. There are however exceptions such as the Office and Factory building sets which have a default height of 288 which can cause blocks moved using the auto-align functions to shift out of place vertically requiring manual readjustment later.
 +
 
 +
=====Handy keys=====
 +
Note: [RMB = HOLD the <Right mouse button>]
 +
* <F> - Drop object onto nearest surface.
 +
* <G> - Move object up by a small amount
 +
* <F5> - Refreshes the scene allowing for viewing of light effects and such.
 +
* <Ctrl+F> - Swap currently selected object(s) [Very useful for taking a clean Vault and making it dirty by just swapping out all references to one type of object such as a Vault wall in a scene to another similar replacement].
 +
* <Ctrl-F> (with Navmesh Active) - Checks local Navmesh for errors and allows for deletion or move to warning triangle.
 +
* <Ctrl-D> - Duplicates object(s)
 +
* <Z+RMB> and move- Rotates selected object on it's Z Axis.
 +
* <X+RMB> and move - Rotates selected object on it's X Axis
 +
* <RMB> & move - Rotates selected object on Y Axis
 +
* <A> - Turn full lighting on and off.
 +
* <Right-Click> (Navmesh on) - Drop Vertice
 +
* A (Navmesh on and exactly *3* vertices selected) - Fill in a Navmesh triangle.
 +
 
 +
=====Havoc Engine=====
 +
To use the Havoc engine (on by default in the FO3 GECK) to realistically drop items and reveal the contents of certain vanilla interiors you need to do the following:
 +
* Open the 'GECKCustom' ini file (usually in My Documents/My Games/Fallout NV)
 +
* Find:
 +
:* bUseMultibounds=1 and change the 1 to 0.
 +
 
 +
[Note that havoc dropped items will hover slightly above the surface they are intended to drop on. For detail objects I recommend using the F-key drop function. However certain objects such as skeletons can only be dropped properly using havoc.]
 +
 
 +
=====Walkthrough=====
 +
Using this info it is relatively quick and painless to create vast rooms.
 +
Here's an example of an office block:
 +
* Choose entrance location, manually place block at 0 on all axis.
 +
* Decide on approximate size of location and how you intend for it to play out.
 +
* Find a wall and corner object (or anything else 'room' based that will be used at least once).
 +
* Drop them into appropriate positions (place at 0 height manually and use the auto-align features to rotate and slot them into place.
 +
* Use Ctrl-D to duplicate any objects needed more than once such as standard room walls and drag them into place.
 +
* Use Ctrl-F to select specific wall clusters and replace them with similar objects (e.g OffRmWall01 to OffRmWall02/03) which will vary up the appearance.
 +
* Drop in essential clutter objects such as desks, terminals etc... and use the previous functions to duplicate and replace with similar objects. Use G and F to reposition vertically. [Duplicating clusters of stuff can vastly speed up creation.]
 +
* Add detail clutter and loot then enemies.
 +
* Leave FX until navmesh is complete.
 +
* Clutter from the bottom upwards. Navmesh from the top down.
 +
: Clutter from the lowest floor (including basements) and then add later floors so you can see into the room effectively from all angles whilst adding clutter. Resist the urge to navmesh at this stage until the building is complete. This is because dropping a vertice (or green square used to link navmesh triangles) on top of existing navmesh on a lower level is tricky. It requires you to drop it on the floor from an angle where lower levels of navmesh are not in the way/directly underneath.
 +
 
 +
* Add FX after navmeshing. Navmesh Vertices get stuck on FX and even spamming the F key repeatedly will not get them to the floor sometimes.
 +
 
 +
=====How I Started=====
 +
I did not read any tutorials to get started modding (though once I got to dialogue and quest creation aspects those became very necessary).
 +
 
 +
For level design I began by duplicating rarely visited areas from the vanilla game (back then FO3). I then re-cluttered them myself. I pretty much learned the hard way though. Had I known of the existence of many of the above tips/keys/info I would have got a lot more done a lot faster but that's another story.
 +
 
 +
Basically I took what was there already, searched for the object in the GECK and just looked at all the similar objects. Sometimes just trying stuff out but mostly going in knowing what I wanted and if need be finding the blocks I needed to 'bodge' it together.
 +
 
 +
If I wanted a certain object I thought where I had seen it before and sought it out in it's vanilla location, checked out the name, found it in the list then dropped one into my location (though standard keyboard copy/paste commands work fine, just make sure you have the render window selected before attempting to copy).
 +
 
 +
=====Copied vs New=====
 +
Eventually I found that copying vanilla areas was more trouble than it was worth. Most are at unpredictable heights and horizontal positions and a few are even at random angles which makes adding new room blocks onto them very difficult without creating gaps.
 +
 
 +
Eventually it becomes easier to create a new room and just copy a load of clutter from a few vanilla areas in bulk and redistribute them rather than the other way around.
 +
 
 +
=====Bodging gaps=====
 +
I like to use certain kits together such as Hotel, Office, Utility, Cave and Vault, sometimes just in one interior (the Dead Money AWOP has lots of these locations). However they are not always designed to fit together leaving gaps often along ceiling joins. Look out for simple blocky objects which can be used to fill gaps such as:
 +
* Free Columns (e.g NVGSRmFreCol) [Eseentaly wall-join features]
 +
* Wood blocks (e.g CampLog01-04)
 +
* Concrete (e.g PowerStationBlock01)
 +
* Rubble (e.g OffRubblePile01/IndRubblePileSmall)
 +
* Door Frames (e.g OffDoorFrameSmOnly)
 +
 
 +
=====Cave Gaps=====
 +
Cave sets are not like other square room sets. They require much more attention as to which block can go where. They are not symmetrical and floor and ceiling joins in particular will be off unless you put the right blocks next to each other at the correct angle.
 +
Here's how I do it:
 +
* Place initial block at 0 and make sure it is also not at an angle.
 +
* Do NOT rotate any blocks (apart from Hallway pieces and corner blocks which are more flexible).
 +
* Each cave piece is numbered 1-4. These represent North, South East and West and are consistent throughout.
 +
* Drop one in. If you drop a number 2 wall in and need it facing the other way swap it out for a number 4 rather than rotating it 180 degrees. Should be simple from there on out. This way you avoid the gaps.
 +
 
 +
=====Cave Navmesh=====
 +
Quick tip for navmeshing caves is to aim for the rocks when dropping vertices. This stops the majority of it going under ground from several vertices being dropped lower than the average ground height.
 +
 
 +
=====Interior Size or Object Count=====
 +
Making a location too big and adding too many objects will severely impact on performance. I have found the total object count (from a cigarette to a train cart) should not exceed 1500 or thereabouts (though I have many interiors that push this limit, in some cases maybe a bit too far).
 +
 
 +
To create a very big location is still do-able. For example the main sections of the Collapsed Underpass from AWOP are structurally built from about 40 very large blocks doubled in size though the rooms are probably big enough to contain every Vault in the vanilla game. This cuts down on object count and performance does not take a hit.
 +
 
 +
Which objects/FX/NPCs etc are more likely to trigger a performance hit I have yet to figure out.
 +
 
 +
=====Adding NPCs=====
 +
I try and limit NPCs of a certain type to about 20 in any given location with no more than 30 overall. Adding more than this caused many problems when FNV was initially released though I believe the patches have resolved most problems I experienced. Even so having too many NPCs seems to be bad for performance, especially if using vanilla spawns likely to be effected by mods such as IWS or VVV.
 +
 
 +
Also when building an interior try and think how the enemies will react to your entrance. If the enemies are spread out inside a building not far apart with someone near the entrance then they are all likely to spot the player upon entry and mob them even from the back of the building.
 +
 
 +
There are several ways around this such as adding Guard packages to the NPCs or clustering them in certain spots.
 +
 
 +
Personally for tight environments such as hotels and offices with numerous NPCs I like to block off several pathways to slow them down. I also try and create gaps within the ranks to allow for breathing space for stealthier players to advance further.
 +
 
 +
Think about how far in you want the NPC to get before they are attacked. I usually allow at least one empty room or corridor on entry so the player can take stock of their surroundings and if sneaky enough get inside undetected. Vanilla often does this too but not always.
 +
 
 +
[This does not matter so much with most Creatures who cannot open doors such as Geckos, Mole Rats & Mantises].
 +
 
 +
=====Object Spacing=====
 +
Try and leave a gap the size of a small door frame (approx 4 office/factory floor tiles if I remember correct) wherever you want NPCs or creatures to walk (or wherever you intend to Navmesh). You can get away with less in some circumstances (small bridges with no walls either side) but trying to limit that space with clutter or walls will cause problems for 'wide' creatures such as Deathclaws, Super Mutants and Mantises.
 +
 
 +
=====Fast Navmesh=====
 +
Get used to holding down Ctrl and A when dropping vertices. Every third vertice dropped without releasing control will automatically create a navmesh triange. After this you can just drop a single vertice and the last two highlighted vertices will automatically create a new triangle. Sounds complicated but in practice is very simple. This works better outdoors or navmeshing large areas as for cluttered rooms still require a degree of attention as to which vertice goes where which will eventually cause problems using this approach.
 +
 
 +
To navmesh clustered environments such as rubble-strewn offices I used to drop a vertice at every corner and then link up all the triangles after. Now I use a combo of this and the holding Ctrl approach which tends to get the job done very fast.
 +
 
 +
Check out some vanilla navmesh too. It's not that detailed and does not venture into every nook and cranny. Take into account that even melee opponents have a wide radius of attack so you don't need to go right up to every wall. Also if you try and navmesh too small a gap then NPCs will just ignore it as being inaccessible.
 +
 
 +
To copy an interior and it's Navmesh, it is easiest just to duplicate it in the Cell Window. This will copy the navmesh and keep everything in place.
 +
 
 +
Copying the bulk of an interior from one Cell to another I can't think of a way to take the navmesh with it. There may be one but I don't know it.
 +
 
 +
With a little practice Navmesh becomes a very easy mindless repetitive task (caves and very uneven landscapes being the exception). Don't be worried about starting again for the most part. Offices and similar can be done in a few minutes. A bit dull but OK if you have some music on or something.
 +
 
 +
=====Fast travel to specific Object or NPC in Render Window=====
 +
Right click on object in the Object Window & select 'Use info'.
 +
 
 +
This will list each appearance of said object. Then just double click on each in turn to be taken to it's exact location in the Render Window. This works well for books & guns (but not tin cans or anything too common).
 +
 
 +
=====Interior Light and Fog settings=====
 +
In the interior locations there is an edit window which can be accessed from the Cell View window by right clicking. Im not sure about exterior locations (never edited lighting for them) but with any luck it's similar.
 +
 
 +
There's 3 color boxes in the lighting window. Make sure to uncheck any ticked boxes relating to predefined lighting settings else changing them will not save properly. One of the two on the left is ambient lighting, I'm not sure what the other one is so I generally make them very similar. The one on the right is Fog.
 +
 
 +
There are 4 boxes at the end for entering numerical values for the fog (from memory).
 +
* For Close - the point at which the fog starts forming around the player (128 is about right for dark areas, 512 is enough for a well lit and spacious office).
 +
Fog Far - The distance at which the fog theoretically becomes a solid wall (anything below 1000 is very close, 2000 is about right for a medium lit tight location but in order to see for long distances a very high value needs to be set (around 4000-6000). To compensate for this in big dark areas it is best just to set the colors to very dark tones but keep these values high so light spots in the distance are still visible.
 +
* Fog Density - Just a multiplier for the amount of fog. 1 is standard.
 +
* Fog Clipping - The cut-off point beyond which nothing is visible but the color of the fog (or maybe that unknown block on the left). This should always be a higher value than the "Fog Far" setting to prevent a sudden impenetrable wall of fog cutting through objects at a certain distance (which can look very bad through scopes and such).
 +
 
 +
For reference purposes the height of a standard Office Block unit is 288, a utility hall is 256 and an epic cave is 512.
 +
 
 +
=====Locating Objects=====
 +
Once you get used to building interiors the bulk of the time taken to build a level is spent locating the correct objects in the object window.
 +
 
 +
Here's some stuff that's not so easy to spot and a few general tips:
 +
* MINES:
 +
:* Active Mines (all variants) are found in the 'Projectiles'. folder. Make them friendly to a faction by adding ownership in the edit box after dropping them into the Render Window.
 +
:* Inactive mines are found in the 'Weapons' folder.
 +
* TRAPS:
 +
:* All other traps are found in the 'Activator' folder.
 +
:* In FNV GECK look out for the TestTraps cell the editors included which has most of the traps already set out for easy copy/paste.
 +
:* If you wanna swap a tripwire for a pressure pad or vice versa just use the Ctrl-F function to swap it out after pasting. They are all prefixed by 'traps',
 +
* FLOOR CLUTTER/RUBBISH:
 +
:* [Static Folder]:
 +
::* AssortedPapers01-06
 +
::* StreetLitter01-02
 +
::* Paper01
 +
::* OfficePaper01
 +
::* ShackPaperDebris01-05
 +
::* Eyechart
 +
::* DLC04Sodacup01-02 (FNV & Point Lookout)
 +
::* DLC04PopcornBox (FNV & Point Lookout)
 +
::* DLC04StreetLitter01-02 (FNV & Point Lookout)
 +
::* RorsaschTest01-03 [FNV Only]
 +
::* MS (or quest) Documents (e.g MS15ConstitutionStatic) [FO3 Only]
 +
:* [Movable Static]:
 +
::* DeskPadPlanner
 +
* OFFICE CLUTTER:
 +
:* [Static Folder]:
 +
::* Typewriter
 +
::* TerminalDesk... (several variants)
 +
::* HotelLamp
 +
::* LampGeneric
 +
::* HamRadio01-03 (several variants) [FNV Only]
 +
::* ComputerPart01-06 [FNV Only]
 +
::* Clock01
 +
::* SafeCracked
 +
::* StarburstClock01
 +
:* [Movable Static Folder]:
 +
::* Telephone
 +
::* OfficeFan
 +
::* Globe
 +
:* [Activator]:
 +
::* VintageRadio (several)
 +
* GORE:
 +
:* [Static]:
 +
::* Vault87Blood01-09
 +
::* GorePile01-04
 +
::* RaiderGutsDressing01-08 (FO3 Only)
 +
::* RaiderCorpseDressing01-06
 +
::* FXFlyswarm [FNV Only]
 +
::* NVHeadPike01-06 (FNV Only)
 +
:* [Movable Static]:
 +
::* BrahminRibcage
 +
::* BrahminSkull
 +
::* GoryCorpsePartsTorsos
 +
::* Skull
 +
::* SkullBloody
 +
::* Skeletons (Lots)
 +
::* TIntestine
 +
::* TGoreArmGore01
 +
::* TGoreLegGore01
 +
:* [Misc Items]:
 +
::* BodyPart01-05
 +
::* DeathclawHand
 +
:* [Container]:
 +
::* GoreBags
 
</div>
 
</div>
 +
 +
====Static Collections====
 +
Others have suggested you might want to add ''static collections''. You can group entire rooms into a static collection, which you can change in game. This makes much easier if you want multiple versions of the same room.
 +
 +
However, it is not always a good idea. Making SCOLs that are very large, composed of many different objects, is just bad practice.  SCOLs only help if you're making them out of 2-3 of the same objects, or if all the objects share the same type.
 +
 +
For building purposes, yes: It's convenient. But too many SCOLs, especially if they are large, can produce even worse performance than if the statics were by themselves.
 +
 +
The beauty of SCOLs is that once they are in place, you can ungroup them. It allows you to make more complicated objects and place them with the intent of splitting them later. One thing that this is useful for is if you were to make an indoor garden. You could put the planter and the plants in the same static collection and make a few template planters.
 +
 +
If all the objects share the same textures, then it may be even better to keep them in a static collection (if you use the static collection more then once).
  
 
=== LOD Generation ===
 
=== LOD Generation ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB TESTG: LOD/VWD Overview] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/58562/? FNVLODGen/xLODGen] Tool by '''zilav'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/skyrim/mods/60733/? Tree LOD billboard creator for xLODGen] Tool by '''zilav'''.
 +
* [http://wiki.step-project.com/User:EssArrBee/FalloutNewVegas#Running_FNVLODGen S.T.E.P. Fear and Loathing Guide: Running FNVLODGen] by '''EssArrBee'''.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/234818-blender-read-this-1st/ Blender: Mastering Low-Poly Design for Gaming - YouTube Parts 1-5] Video series.  Individual links follow:
 +
:* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EHhJwUVX7ZI Blender Gameobject Tutorial 1/5] Video.
 +
:* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ywk-l6PWs_k Blender Gameobject Tutorial 2/5] Video.
 +
:* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yv62ET4-Uc4 Blender Gameobject Tutorial 3/5] Video.
 +
:* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=doMVhrP2YxY Blender Gameobject Tutorial 4/5] Video.
 +
:* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vj2SU5I74VI Blender Gameobject Tutorial 5/5] Video.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rtO9maU709k BLENDER Tutorial: Low poly forest assets!] Video.
 +
* [http://www.gamesas.com/lod-data-t33037.html Fallout 3 LOD Data] Thread. Includes Object (statics) generation.
 +
* [http://www.truancyfactory.com/tutorials/fallout3/fallout_lod.html Fallout 3 LOD Tutorial] HTML.
 +
* [http://www.gamesas.com/confused-about-lod-object-generation-t51147.html FO3: Confused about LOD Object generation] Thread.
 +
* [http://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnvlodgen TTW: FNVLODGen] Thread on differences between FO3 and FNV LOD "trees".
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61315/? Guide: Editing Individual LOD Meshes] Resource collection including tutorials.
 
* [[Generating_Tree_LOD_FNV/F3|Generating Tree LOD FNV/F3]] Wiki.
 
* [[Generating_Tree_LOD_FNV/F3|Generating Tree LOD FNV/F3]] Wiki.
* [[LOD_Generation_For_New_Vegas_and_Fallout_3|LOD Generation For New Vegas and Fallout 3]] Wiki.
+
* [[LOD_Generation_For_New_Vegas_and_Fallout_3|GECK: LOD Generation For New Vegas and Fallout 3]] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61206/? LOD additions and improvements] Resource mod.
 +
: NOTE: The GECK LOD generation process uses "decimation" to create it's "low polygon meshes" for LOD/VWD.  Please read the TESTG site sub-topic [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB#The_problem_with_LOD.2FVWD_files The problem with LOD/VWD files] about why this is believed to be less effective than that used in later games such as '''Skyrim'''.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-LODGen"></span>
 +
====TIP '''xLODGen'''====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Even the casual user of the tool '''xLODGen''' should read the [http://web.archive.org/web/20170713081056/http://www.darkcreations.org/testg/wiki/Category:VWD-OB TESTG: LOD/VWD Overview] article and the thread [http://taleoftwowastelands.com/content/fnvlodgen TTW: FNVLODGen] to gain an understanding of what is involved.  Among other things the later thread points out that the "green billboards and trees" are deliberately added by '''xLODGen''' to flag that they are missing textures (sort of like the red "!" to flag missing meshes, but specific to LOD).  '''xLODGen''' lists them in it's log when generating LOD.<br>
 +
The resulting '''xLODGen.esp''' file needs to remain in your load order.  It should be regenerated whenever you add or remove "background" meshes and textures, as the "load order" affects the "quads" constructed to stitch together the distant view.</div>
  
 
=== Misc Topics ===
 
=== Misc Topics ===
 +
Subjects with only a short list of entries, not yet warranting their own section.
 +
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
 +
==== ESM and ESP Files ====
 +
'''Master''' Files (those with a ".ESM" extension - e.g. '''Fallout3.esm''') and '''Plugin''' files ("TES files" or "mods" for short - files with a ".ESP" - e.g., '''Fallout3mod.esp''') are the core data files of Bethesda games.  A master file acts as a database of all of the data for the world, including object data, dialogue, game settings, object placements, AI settings, landscape, script commands, cells, etc. The '''GECK''' is the primary tool we use to create, view, and edit master files and plugins for the "Fallout 3" and "Fallout: New Vegas" series.
 +
 +
(However, not all game data files are '''Master''' and '''Plugin''' files. Textures, meshes, sounds, videos, etc. are all part of the full game. More about these files elsewhere.)
 +
 +
'''Master''' files and '''Plugins''' are largely identical in format, but have some important distinctions in practice. The main practical difference is that '''GECK''' will not (natively) create '''Master''' files. Nor will it allow '''Plugin''' files to modify other '''Plugin''' files.  (The '''Extender''' and '''PowerUp''' addons overcome this limitation.)  However, be aware that when you change an ESP to an ESM, you can only do this properly in '''xEdit/FNVEdit''' so that the '''ONAM''' record is generated; otherwise overrides to cells will not work.  Additionally references by packages to ''markers'' and other scripted objects need to be '''''persistent''''' or they will not work in an ESM.  See the [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Category:Data_Files GECK: Data Files] entry for more.
 +
 +
It sometimes helps to think of using ".ESM" files to ''add new things'', and ".ESP" files to ''change existing things or modify existing areas''.  Depending on how you create your "ESM", it might not modify existing things in-game. In other words, if there is an existing navmesh, an "ESP" will overwrite that navmesh, but an "ESM" might not. Similarly, if your "ESM" deletes an object (like a rock) it might work as an "ESP" but the rock might still be there as an "ESM".
 +
 +
It is possible for more than one '''Plugin''' file to ''depend'' upon the same '''Master''' file.  They don't even have to be by the same author.  Such '''Plugins''' are called ''dependencies''.  '''xEdit''' (aka '''FNVEdit''') is the primary tool used to identify and manipulate such "master/dependent" relationships.  (See the wiki article [[Missing_Masters|Missing Masters]].  '''LOOT''' can also detect such dependencies, but not alter them.)  It can also be used to edit the values of specific records, and to create "compatibility" and "merge" patch files.  (See the wiki [[Merged_Plugin_Guidelines_for_Personal_Use|Merged Plugin Guidelines for Personal Use]] article.)
 +
 +
If you have a problem with navmeshes after converting an ESP to an ESM, the problem likely is the original navmesh was deleted and your edit needs to be changed to an ''override'' (using '''xEdit/FNVEdit'''), then '''refinalized''' in '''GECK'''.  A navmesh in the ESP will also eventually stop working. It is a known bug in the '''Gamebryo Engine''' and was not fixed until later in '''Skyrim''''s life ('''Creator Engine''').
 +
 +
<span id="Tip-ESMOnly"></span>
 +
===== TIP When can you use an ESM only mod =====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When creating an ESM there are rules you have to follow so you don't corrupt everything.
 +
 +
* All ESM plugins start out life as ESP files.
 +
 +
* If your mod changes or deletes existing game references, it may not work properly as an ESM.
 +
 +
* Use ESM master files for resources or NPCs. One rule is <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">''add'' or ''change'', but don't ''delete''.</span>  You can delete things while you are creating your ESM, but once another mod (ESP or ESM) references records in (i.e. ''depends on'') your first ESM (i.e. treats it as a "master file"), don't ever delete anything out of that ESM or things can go very bad. If you've created a bunch of NPCs and you decide you don't need one, just leave it in the ESM and don't place it anywhere in-game. If it's already placed by the ESP, then set it to ''initially disabled'' and never enable it.
 +
 +
* Once your mod (as an ESP file) is done: if you then convert it to an ESM using '''FNVedit''' (by toggling the "ESM" field flag of the "File Header") and saving, and YOU DO ABSOLUTELY NOTHING ELSE TO IT, it will work. (That's in caps because it's important).
 +
 +
* Once you change your ESP into an "ESM" in the ''file header'' of '''FNVEdit''', make sure you change the file extension to ESM to match.  '''FNVEdit''' loads files based upon their extension and timestamp, period.  (But other games may ignore those same attributes and load based upon the "plugins.txt" file sequence.)  Both '''FNVEdit''' and the game engine don't care about the internal ESM flag on ESP extension files; they get loaded after other ESMs.  Fortunately '''LOOT''' does detect such internally flagged ESP files and sorts them with the rest of the actual ESM files.  And since version 4 of '''xEdit''', it's "Sort Masters" option automatically matches them to the current "load order".  Besides, using a different extension from the purpose of the plugin confuses your customers: the players.
 +
 +
* If you have something like an NPC or an AI package or pretty much anything in an ESM, and something modifies that NPC/package/whatever in another ESP or another ESM, do not ever change the NPC/package/whatever in the original ESM afterwards. That can really corrupt your mod. You'll also save yourself a lot of headaches if you don't modify things in another ESP/ESM. In other words, if you have an NPC defined in an ESM, but then you place the NPC in the game in an ESP, do not modify the original NPC definition (Base-ID form) in the ESP. You can modify your ''reference'' in the ESP all you want. Just don't modify the original NPC definition.  (If that sentence confuses you, please see the [[#GECK_Form-ID,_Base-ID,_Ref-ID,_and_Editor-ID|GECK Form-ID, Base-ID, Ref-ID, and Editor-ID]] section again for the distinctions.)
 +
 +
* Any NPC you define in an ESP will likely suffer from the infamous "mismatched head/body texture" bug (e.g. a head with one skin texture on a body with a different skin texture). Some people think that all you need to do is edit your INI files and you can fix this bug, but while that works for some mods and people, the solution doesn't work for others. If you don't want your NPCs to have mismatched skin textures, and you want it to be done reliably so it works for everyone, you need to define the NPCs in an ESM, period.  Take the time to plan ahead.
 +
 +
* If you do modify the NPC in the ESP, do not go back into the ESM and modify it there too, as those changes will get lost. With an NPC it's not so bad, but if you are editing terrain, you can end up with landscape tears and all kinds of texture, navmesh, or world problems. <span style="color: red; background-color:#fff5f5;">Basically, once something in another mod references something from an ESM, consider that "thing" in the ESM as "'''locked'''" and don't touch it again, because if you do touch it you'll break stuff.</span>
 +
 +
* Another issue with ESM files relates to how you edit them. It's probably easiest to explain using an example.
 +
<div name="Simulated code box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Warning Notice"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px; border:1px dashed #DAA520; color: lightgray; background-color:#424242; padding:3px;
 +
/* Remove the next four 'white-space' lines to restore default white-space processing. */
 +
white-space: pre-wrap;      /* css-3 */
 +
white-space: -moz-pre-wrap;  /* Mozilla, since 1999 */
 +
white-space: -pre-wrap;      /* Opera 4-6 */
 +
white-space: -o-pre-wrap;    /* Opera 7+ */
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Let's say you want to fill in one of the unused homes in Goodsprings. This home in the vanilla files has a static door and boards across the door. You create an ESM which deletes the static door and the boards and adds a real door and an interior cell. All is well. You use '''FNVEdit''' to convert your ESP to an ESM, and all is still well. But then you edit your ESM in the '''GECK''' (using the '''GECK''' '''Extender''' or '''Powerup''' addons, because the vanilla '''GECK''' can't edit ESM files) and all of a sudden the static door and the boards are back, blocking your new real door.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
: There are a couple of ways to avoid this problem.
 +
:* One is to only use ESM files for new things, and use ESP files whenever you modify something in the vanilla game, or in another master.
 +
:* The only way known to keep your mod functioning correctly once it's an ESM, is to convert it back to an ESP every time you edit it, and then convert it back to an ESM using '''FNVedit''' when you are done.
 +
:* Another way is to keep a copy of your original ESP for editing, then convert a different copy to ESM for actual use in-game. If you need to make more changes, edit the ESP, then copy and convert to ESM.  (This is the preferable method, as it keeps a backup in case things go wrong.)
 +
 +
<div name="Caution" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Missing Links"
 +
style="color: red;background-color: #fdd; margin: 0 1em; padding: 0 10px;
 +
border: 1px solid #aaa;
 +
/* Remove the next four 'white-space' lines to restore default white-space processing. */
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">
 +
CAUTION: You may have heard it's also possible to convert your mod to an ESM using '''TESsnip''' (which was created for '''Oblivion''' files before the '''xEdit''' tool was developed).  Experience teaches us that you should '''never''' ''ever'' use '''TESsnip''' with FO3/FNV: as it can corrupt your mod and ruin your save games and cause all kinds of trouble.  This because it doesn't understand all the file format changes.  You'll get the above corruption bug as soon as you convert your mod to an ESM with '''TESsnip''', regardless of whether you edit the mod later with the '''GECK''' or not. Just the conversion to ESM with '''TESsnip''' is enough to cause the bug to show up.</div>
 +
 +
Because of these issues, depending on what you are doing, you might need to have both an ESP and an ESM for your mod.
 +
 +
There are plenty of mods that have been released as ESM only. As long as you do it correctly, it's not a problem.
 +
</div>
 +
 +
==== Factions and Reputation ====
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5f-x2ws6ySo GECK: Factions/Reputation] Video.
 +
==== GIMP Posters and Images ====
 
* [[Gimp_create_old_weathered_posters_and_other_images|Gimp: create old weathered posters and other images]] Wiki.
 
* [[Gimp_create_old_weathered_posters_and_other_images|Gimp: create old weathered posters and other images]] Wiki.
* [https://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/5184015-guide-replacing-vanilla-hair-with-modded-hair/ GUIDE: Replacing Vanilla Hair with Modded Hair] Thread. Unlike most hair mods, this procedure replaces vanilla hair instead of adding new choices.
+
<span id="HowToSection"></span>
 +
==== How to ''do something'' ====
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-GMSTs"></span>
 +
===== How to change '''''Game Settings''' aka '''GMSTs''''' =====
 +
: Thanks to '''punchbattle''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">As one might expect, the game has many variables it uses in various functions and algorithms.  Where are these and how can you change them?  They can be altered using either [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34703/? xEdit/FNVEdit] (freeware) to edit '''GMST''' records or the '''GECK''' to change "Game Settings".
 +
 
 +
Example: Change "decapitation rates".
 +
Making your own mod file:
 +
# Open the '''GECK''', then go to the upper left menu and click "File | Data..."
 +
# A list of ".ESM" files should pop up. Check the box next to '''FalloutNV.esm''' and uncheck any other box that might be checked.  (If this is an annoying problem with the DLCS, please see [[#Issue_-_GECK_does_not_automatically_select_FalloutNV_or_some_DLC_ESM_file|Issue - GECK does not automatically select FalloutNV or some DLC ESM file]].)
 +
# Highlight FalloutNV.esm, then click "Set as Active File", and press OK
 +
# Once it's done loading up, you should be ready to start editing!
 +
[But first: change the filename to "make it your own".]
 +
 
 +
Editing '''Game Settings''' in the '''GECK''':
 +
# Click "Gameplay | Settings...".
 +
# A window should pop up with a long list of game variables. You can type things into the '''Filter''' field to see specific variables.
 +
 
 +
These are the ones you're looking for in this example:
 +
* '''iCombatDismemberPartChance'''
 +
* '''iMessCrippledLimbExplodeBonus'''
 +
* '''iMessIntactLimbDismemberChance'''
 +
* '''iMessIntactLimbExplodeBonus'''
 +
* '''iMessTargetedLimbExplodeBonus'''
 +
* '''iMessTorsoExplodeChance'''
 +
 
 +
It is believed that '''iCombatDismemberPartChance''' is the base chance a limb will ''dismember'', and the '''iMess...''' values kick in if you have the ''Bloody Mess'' perk. Just put in whatever values you think feel right, and see how things go. It may take a couple of tweaks before you get it exactly where you want it to be.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToChallenge"></span>
 +
===== How to create '''''a challenge''''' =====
 
* [[How_to_create_a_challenge|How to create a challenge]] Wiki.
 
* [[How_to_create_a_challenge|How to create a challenge]] Wiki.
 +
 +
<span id="HowToMessage"></span>
 +
===== How to create '''''a message''''' =====
 
* [[How_to_create_a_message|How to create a message]] Wiki.
 
* [[How_to_create_a_message|How to create a message]] Wiki.
* [[How_to_create_a_perk|How to create a perk]] Wiki.
+
 
 +
<span id="HowToPerk"></span>
 +
===== How to create '''''a perk''''' =====
 +
* [http://youtu.be/BLRFMVQkpFQ GECK Tutorial - Perk (Ability)] Video by '''Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/62bHp1_PIdk GECK Tutorial - Perk (Entry Point)] Video by '''Seddon4494'''.
 +
* [[How_to_create_a_perk|How to create a perk]] Wiki article.
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToPrimative"></span>
 +
===== How to create a '''''Primative'' - activators, trigger volumes, multibounds, and occlusion planes''' =====
 +
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Creating_Primitives How to create a Primative (activators, trigger volumes, multibounds, and occlusion planes)] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-TransparentActivators"></span>
 +
====== Tip Transparent Activators ======
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' and '''pixelhate''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Sometimes you want an activation prompt based on scripting conditions, not proximity.  You need the mesh to be there; but not the texture.  Activators require the collision and the mesh to be under the reticle to be activated, but the texture apparently doesn't need to be visible.  That might be an ''invisible texture'' or the ''null texture set''.  Any texture would work (like a 4x4 saved as DXT1 format); so it doesn't need to be transparent (DXT5).  Just bring the Alpha of the ''NiMaterialProperty'' to 0.
 +
 
 +
Caution: Some have had the ''null texture set'' not work for manual activation, but a ''fully transparent'' texture did.
 +
 
 +
To add an ''Editor Marker'' to a mesh NIF (easier to spot and move in GECK) it must have the following structure (nomenclature has to be respected):
 +
* A ''NiNiode'' named "EditorMarker" containing a ''NiTriStrips'' named "EditorMarker:0"
 +
* The ''Shader'' of the ''NiTriStrips'' must be a ''BSShaderNoLightingProperty'' with ''SF_VertexAlpha'' ticked.
 +
* The ''Color'' of the marker is changed by altering the ''Vertex Colors'' in the ''NiTriStripData''.
 +
* ''Bit 5'' (Editor Marker Present) has to be ticked in the ''BSXFlags''.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToIcon"></span>
 +
=====  How to make '''''a working pipboy icon''''''' =====
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/65589?tab=description FNV Icon Tutorial - How to make icons with Inkscape] PDF and resources by '''ZuTheSkunk'''.  '''Inkscape''' is linked in the [[#Image_Tools|Image Tools]] portion of the [[#Programs_and_Tools|Programs and Tools]] section.
 +
* [[How_to_make_a_working_pipboy_icon|How to make a working pipboy icon]] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-PipboyIcons"></span>
 +
======  Tip Pipboy Icons ======
 +
: Thanks to '''Leakingroof''' of the Nexus Fallout3 forum for the wiki article, and '''scrivener07''' of the New Vegas Mod Talk forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 50px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">To edit an existing "Pipboy Icon" you will have to extract the default icon out of the vanilla "Fallout - Textures2.BSA" or mod file, and then move it to somewhere under the "Textures" folder in your data folder: such as "Data\Textures\interface\icons\<category>". Don't forget the "Message Icon" as well.  (This is the icon that is used outside of the inventory.) It will most likely be named the same but with "glow_" prefixed on the front and located under other sub-folders of the "interface\icons\<category>" folder.  The "<category>" may be "message icons", "pipboyimages_small", or "typeicons", etc.
 +
 
 +
Edit your replacement or create a new icon.  The key to a functional Pipboy Icon is that the simple "white" image on a transparent background goes into the "alpha channel", has a square cropped size of a power of 2 (e.g. 256x256 pixels), and is saved as a DXT3 format DDS file. The resulting saved file should be exactly 65,664 bytes and placed in the appropriate "textures\interface\icons\pipboyimages\<category>" sub-folder.  (The icon color when displayed is controlled by the HUD color for the Pipboy.)  See the Nexus wiki article [[How_to_make_a_working_pipboy_icon|How to make a working pipboy icon]] for details.
 +
 
 +
To replace an existing icon: open the '''GECK''' and start a fresh new ESP mod. Name it something to distinguish it from the original like "<original item> - Icon Patch". Open the item in question and click the edit button and navigate to "Data\Textures\interface\icons\<category>" containing the new pipboy icon file and load that icon and the "Message Icon" in and save the mod. Load this "<original item> - Icon Patch" plugin in your game "load order" right after the "<original item>" plugin and it should overwrite the previous icon and you won't loose your tweaks if you ever want to update the original mod.  (You can merge both the original and the patch plugins if you know how.)  If you want to share this patch on the nexus you would upload the ".ESP" and the textures using the exact file structure you used.  See the mod [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/34737/? Misc Item Icons - New Vegas] as an example of a plugin containing only icons to replace the use of the generic "scrap metal" icon for certain misc. items.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="HowToMoveNPC"></span>
 +
===== How to '''''Move a Quest NPC''''' =====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''kingbeast88''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">If you go to move an NPC (typically a "named" one) to another cell and are warned by the GECK they are part of a quest, you need to stop and check what is going to get broken if you proceed.  Check what references them in the GECK (e.g. Scripts, Packages, Linked Markers, etc.).  If any of those reference the NPC's location, you will need to update them with your new location for that NPC.
 +
 
 +
When you do move the NPC, be sure to "<Ctrl+C>" and "<Ctrl+M>".
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
==== Import Custom Videos ====
 
* [[Importing_custom_videos_into_FNV/F3/Skyrim/Oblivion|Importing custom videos into FNV/F3/Skyrim/Oblivion]] Wiki.
 
* [[Importing_custom_videos_into_FNV/F3/Skyrim/Oblivion|Importing custom videos into FNV/F3/Skyrim/Oblivion]] Wiki.
 +
 +
==== Item Creation and placement ====
 
* [[Item_creation_and_placement|Item creation and placement]] Wiki.
 
* [[Item_creation_and_placement|Item creation and placement]] Wiki.
* [https://youtu.be/-jDloCLWFYc GECK: Making a Recipe] Video.
+
 
* [[Making_Havok_ragdolls_in_Blender|Making Havok ragdolls in Blender]] Wiki.
+
==== Make Readius Screenglares ====
 
* [[Making_Pipboy_Readius_screenglares|Making Pipboy Readius screenglares]] Wiki.
 
* [[Making_Pipboy_Readius_screenglares|Making Pipboy Readius screenglares]] Wiki.
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5f-x2ws6ySo GECK: Factions/Reputation] Video.
 
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61538/? Hairs - Eyes - Races Auto - Patcher] Mod. Extracts all the hair / eyes / races records from every plugin loaded in your load order - then, it rewrites the list of eyes and hairs for every race found. So, if you untick / unflag a hair mod from your load order, these records won't be loaded by the game itself and consequently won't be found by this mod because they don't exist.
 
* [https://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/984792-tutorial-working-with-the-nicontrollermanager/ NifSkope: Working with the NiControllerManager] Thread.
 
  
=== Music & Sounds ===
+
<span id="Tip-NewMarkers"></span>
 +
==== Markers ====
 +
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Markers GECK: Markers] Wiki.
 +
* [http://fallout.wikia.com/wiki/Dummy_Cell_for_Scripted_XMarkers Dummy Cell for Scripted XMarkers] Wiki.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">You don't need to make a new XMarker object. Just drag the existing XMarker static object into the GECK "Render Window" and it makes a new reference to that object.  (Look over to the right of the object field a bit and you will see a count of "uses".  It's used everywhere and you can use it too.)  Then if you need to use and reference ''your marker'' in some way, you can double click the one you just placed in the render window and edit it's information to distinguish it from all others (for example, for the Edit-ID you might put "xMyModMarker", then later in a Script or AI Package or what not, use that Edit-ID for reference).
 +
 
 +
The base Form-ID is blocked from view by the game engine. When you made a new one, it automatically assigns a new Form-ID. That is not blocked by the game engine from being viewed in game.  Its the same way with all the markers in the game.</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-PortableMarkers"></span>
 +
===== TIP Portable xMarkers =====
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Suppose you want an NPC's "home" to be changeable to a new location.  You can either place different xMarkers at the potential sites, or use a "creature" that is initially "disabled" for your Marker.  Static objects like the default XMarker object cannot be moved, but a "persistent creature" set as a "quest object" can be moved and assigned as a "marker".  Then drop the "marker/creature" in the new "home" cell. "Creature" positions are always updated in the game, whereas static objects are not, so you don't need to use the "enable/disable" trick to update their location.  You then assign a "GoHome" travel AI Package to the marker as it's destination, and another "sandbox behavior" AI Package to let it wander the immediate area of the marker.  See the wiki article [http://geck.technodeep.net/index.php/Bethsoft_Tutorial_NPC_population GECK: Bethsoft Tutorial NPC population].</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="NVSEPlugins"></span>
 +
==== NVSE Plugins ====
 +
Unfortunately there is neither documentation nor tutorials on creating an NVSE Plugin.  The only advice is to use the older, freeware '''IDA 5.0 Disassembler''' by [http://www.hex-rays.com/products/decompiler/ Hex-Rays] for 32-bit executables, which is hosted on the [http://www.scummvm.org/news/20180331/ ScummVM] site, and your knowledge of "C-like" programming languages.  From that page:
 +
<blockquote>
 +
    A recent discussion [Mar 2018] about the most recent IDA Disassembler freeware 7.0 revealed that it no longer supports disassembling older DOS and Windows executables. This is obviously a problem for potential contributors, as well as potential GSoC students wanting to reverse engineer an old adventure game or RPG for their project. The obvious solution is to provide an earlier freeware version that still supports them.
 +
    Consulting with Hex-Rays, they're kindly consented for us to host one of the earlier IDA freeware versions, for those in the future who wish to use it.
 +
</blockquote>
 +
 
 +
==== PAINTdotNET ''Normal Maps'' ====
 +
* [http://tesalliance.org/forums/index.php?/tutorials/article/119-graphic-artistry-normal-maps-in-paintnet/ Graphic Artistry: Normal Maps in Paint.Net] Tutorial.
 +
 
 +
==== Recipes ====
 +
* [http://youtu.be/-jDloCLWFYc GECK: Making a Recipe] Video.
 +
 
 +
==== UV Mapping ====
 +
* [[UV_Mapping:_An_Explanation|UV Mapping: An Explanation]] Wiki.
 +
* [[Making_square_UV_maps_in_Blender|UV Mapping: Making square UV maps in Blender]] Wiki.
 +
 
 +
==== XML ====
 +
XML is a "data definition" structure, based upon a "data schema" which was defined by Bethesda.  They didn't publish their "schema", but some things have been learned about it.  However, without a published scheme, you must either use only elements found in other XML files, or be willing to experiment.
 +
* [http://www.w3schools.com/xml/ W3School's XML Tutorial] Wiki.  Covers various XML standards such as Ajax, DOM, XPath, XSLT, XQuery, DTD, Schema, and Services.
 +
* [http://cs.elderscrolls.com/index.php?title=Category:Oblivion_XML Category:Oblivion XML] Wiki (Oblivion, but still applies to FO3 and FNV).
 +
* [http://content3.uesp.net/wiki/Tes4Mod:Oblivion_XML/Traits Tes4Mod:Oblivion XML/Traits] Wiki (Oblivion, but still applies to FO3 and FNV).
 +
* [http://www.loverslab.com/topic/53411-reading-ui-hud-xml-files/ Reading UI & HUD XML files] by '''DoctaSax''' (Adults (18+)Only site).  Covers XML Basics.
 +
* [http://qxmledit.org/ QXmlEdit] (freeware) XML Editor.  Note the tutorials on this site are regarding the tool's features; not XML in general.
 +
 
 +
=== Music and Sounds ===
 +
Fallout New Vegas features a brand new music engine versus that of the one used within '''Fallout 3''' and '''Oblivion''', which has effectively rendered the ''music'' tab within the creation of cells useless.  See the Wiki tutorial [[Fallout_New_Vegas_Music|Fallout New Vegas Music]] for the description of how this now works.
 +
 
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 
* [[Fallout_New_Vegas_Music|Fallout New Vegas Music]] Wiki.
 
* [[Fallout_New_Vegas_Music|Fallout New Vegas Music]] Wiki.
 
* [[Replacing_radio_songs|Replacing radio songs]] Wiki.
 
* [[Replacing_radio_songs|Replacing radio songs]] Wiki.
* Tip: Adding a new sound (not dialogue) file.
+
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjjuwd4JR6U&t=6s GECK Tutorial - Radio Station] by '''Seddon'''.  Video. See [[#TIP-CallingFormat|TIP: Format to call a song]].
:* Place your sound file somewhere in "Data\Sounds\fx\<YourModFolder>"
+
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/274194-tutorial-how-to-create-a-new-radio-station/ GECK Tutorial - How to Create A New Radio Station] by '''DorostheConqueror'''.  Forum post. See [[#TIP-CallingFormat|TIP: Format to call a song]].
:: If your sound file (WAV, MP3, OGG, etc.) is imported, be sure to strip out any "metadata" (cover art, album name, author, etc.) it may be encoded with as the game is not prepared to deal with it.  There are a number of tools available on the web, including the [http://www.audacityteam.org/ Audacity] (free) sound editor, which can covert other formats.
+
* [http://www.freesfx.co.uk/ Free Sound Effects] Web site.
:: NOTE: The GECK seems to see/list all sound files as MP3, regardless of their actual extension (i.e. WAV or OGG).  The extension does not seem to matter and the sound plays fine ''in game'', but only WAV files play in the editor.
+
* [http://great78.archive.org/ The Great 78 Project] Web site.  About 78,000 (and growing) old 78 LP's ranging from 1898 till around some time in the 1950's.  But would-be users need to note the [http://archive.org/about/terms.php Terms of Use] required by the Internet Archive organization.  In short, their material is "free to access" but not particularly "free to distribute", and may be subject to various copyright laws.  Access is granted for scholarship and research purposes only.  It is your responsibility to ensure such legalities are complied with for individual titles.
:: If you intend to "overwrite" a vanilla sound file, you must first extract the sound file from it's BSA file into it's intended folder.  This is primarily to create the correct folder path.
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63052/? Silent Voice Generator by Enter_77] Mod.
:* Your sound ''MUST'' be a mono, 16-bit sample size, and 22, 32, or 44.1KHz sample rate WAV (adpcm) file, if you want to be able to click "play" and hear it in the editor.  No other file type plays in the editor, even though many vanilla files are in other formats. Its a GECK thing.
+
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/61265/? Latest Ogg Vorbis Libraries] by KaneWright. The game uses it for decoding OGG audio format.
:* MP3 files should be mono, 16-bit sample size, 44.1KHz sample rate, Bit Rate: constant, 64 kbps.
+
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
:* OGG Vorbis files should be mono, 44.1KHz, Bit rate: constant, 48kbps (128kbps for dialogue).
+
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
:: When in doubt about which "KHz sample rate" to use, be guided by what similar vanilla sound files in the same location are using.
+
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
:* Open GECK.
+
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">NOTE: There is a distinction between, and in the requirements for, each type of sound. '''Stereo''' won't fade (attenuate) over distance; '''mono''' will.  This accounts for why some ''fx'' and all ''voices'' need to be in '''mono'''.
 +
 
 +
Some sounds appear to be "hard-coded" into the game engine in that they are not found as separate files in the loose files under the "Data" folder nor in the "Fallout - Sound.BSA" file.  (The "havok" collision sounds are an example of this.)  Some sounds have an entry in the '''GECK''', that appear to never be used despite the fact you can open a form and see them entered.  (Another example of differences in behavior is with the ''heartbeat'' sounds for low health, which can be replaced by other sounds externally in '''Windows Explorer''', despite having entries in the '''GECK''' which it claims are unused.)  Consequently, some experimentation is usually required.
 +
 
 +
'''Stereo''' sound files are considered superior to '''mono''' because they have relative 2D positioning built into them already.  However in reality, for games, when you want to achieve a 3D ''surround sound'' positioning effect, in almost all cases it's '''mono''' files that need to be used.  That way the game engine kind of ''re-stereos'' them into the entire 3D sound output of your gameplay.  There are exceptions to this, and often ways to ignore this rule, but in general, game designers use '''mono''' for 3D sounds and '''stereo''' for 2D, even in modern games.
 +
</div>
 +
: File folders by type:
 +
:* '''collision sounds''' made by objects hitting other objects or the ground are aspects of the "Havok Material Properties" (edited with '''NifSkope'''), and are addressed under the topic of "Collision" in [[#Tip-CollisionSounds|TIP: Collision Impact Sounds.]]  These sounds are hard-coded into the game engine, but the main game typically uses only 32 of the identified 96 possibilities.
 +
:* '''music''' (Data\Music): location/event soundtrack.  ''MP3'' '''stereo''' files.
 +
:* '''songs''' (Data\Sound\songs\radionv): radio playlists.  Individual song title files begin with the "mus_" prefix, and a "_mono" suffix.  '''Mono''': ''WAV'' (Pipboy) or ''OGG'' (radios/speakers) files; or '''Stereo''': ''MP3'' (Pipboy) files.  Besides the obvious problem of a gigantic difference in file size (''WAV'' files are roughly 5 times those of ''MP3''s), this engine will actually play a ''stereo WAV'' file on a radio station twice (first the left channel will play, and then the right channel).  This problem does not occur with ''stereo MP3'' song files.  See the [[#TIP-CallingFormat|TIP: Format to call a song]] for more detail on file formats for "radio stations".
 +
:* '''sounds''' (Data\Sound\fx): noise/ambience/special effects(fx).  ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.  There are a number of sub-folders in the BSA under this category.  These are just a sampling of common interest under this category:
 +
::* '''amb''' (background noises): ''OGG'' files.
 +
::* '''fx''' (sound effects): ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.
 +
::* '''mus''' (location music): ''OGG'' files.  Sub-folders for ''types'':
 +
:::* '''bttl\allcityintro'''
 +
:::* '''bttl\allcityoutro'''
 +
:::* '''bttl\allruralintro'''
 +
:::* '''bttl\allruraloutro'''
 +
:::* '''endgame'''
 +
:::* '''inc\night'''
 +
:::* '''inc\peaceful'''
 +
:::* '''inc\day'''
 +
:::* '''inc\creepy'''
 +
:::* '''mysteriousstranger'''
 +
:::* '''tenpenny'''
 +
::* '''npc''' (by type of actor): ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.
 +
::* '''voc''' (sound effect "voices"): ''WAV'' '''mono''' files.  These can be "broadcast" from radios or speakers with the ''playsound'' function in the ''menumode for terminals''.  The sound file length controls the timing.
 +
:* '''voices''' (Data\Sound\voice): dialog.  ''OGG'' and ''LIP'' '''mono''' files.  These are "spoken" by Actors as "talking head" dialog.  The '''LIP''' file controls the timing.
 +
 
 +
<span id="TIP-AddingASound"></span>
 +
====Tip Adding a new ''sound noises or fx'' file====
 +
: Thanks to '''EDPGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for contributing clarifications to the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Place your sound file somewhere in "Data\Sounds\fx\<YourModFolder>".
 +
: If your sound file (''WAV, MP3, OGG'', etc.) is imported, be sure to strip out any "metadata" (cover art, album name, author, etc.) it may be encoded with as the game is not prepared to deal with it.  There are a number of tools available on the web, including the [http://www.audacityteam.org/ Audacity] (free) sound editor, which can covert other formats.
 +
: NOTE: The GECK seems to see/list all sound files as ''MP3'', regardless of their actual extension (i.e. ''WAV'' or ''OGG'').  The extension does not seem to matter to GECK and the sound plays fine '''in game''', but only ''WAV'' files play in the '''editor'''.
 +
: If you intend to "overwrite" a vanilla sound file, you must first extract the sound file from it's BSA file into it's intended folder.  This is primarily to create the correct folder path for your replacement file.
 +
* Your '''fx/sound''' ''MUST'' be a '''mono''', 16-bit sample size, and 22, 32, or 44.1KHz sample rate ''WAV'' (ADPCM: "Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation") file, if you want to be able to click "play" and hear it in the editor.  No other file type plays in the editor, even though many vanilla files are in other formats. Its a GECK thing.
 +
* ''MP3'' sound files (other than "songs" for "radio") should be '''mono''', 16-bit sample size, 44.1KHz sample rate, Bit Rate: constant, 64 kbps.
 +
* ''OGG'' Vorbis sound files should be '''mono''', 44.1KHz, Bit rate: constant, 48kbps (128kbps for dialogue).  Still need to generate ''WAV'' files to make ''LIP'' files since GECK won't make them, but once the ''LIP'' file is done you can dispense with the ''WAV'' file.  (See the [[#Dialogue_&_Lip-synch|Dialogue & Lip-synch]] section.)  On average, an ''OGG'' file uses much less memory.
 +
: When in doubt about which "KHz sample rate" to use, be guided by what similar vanilla sound files in the same location are using.
 +
* Open GECK.
 
:* Look in the object window for "Audio", then click on "Sound".
 
:* Look in the object window for "Audio", then click on "Sound".
 
:: The list here is not of actual sound files, but rather a list of GECK Form-IDs that point to the sound files.
 
:: The list here is not of actual sound files, but rather a list of GECK Form-IDs that point to the sound files.
 
:: Then you must create a sound object in the GECK. You can't directly link the audio portion of your weapon (etc.) directly to your sound file. Again, you MUST create a sound object first. And then link that object to your weapon in the "Art and Sound" tab. You must be able to hear your sound play as a GECK sound object BEFORE linking it to your weapon.
 
:: Then you must create a sound object in the GECK. You can't directly link the audio portion of your weapon (etc.) directly to your sound file. Again, you MUST create a sound object first. And then link that object to your weapon in the "Art and Sound" tab. You must be able to hear your sound play as a GECK sound object BEFORE linking it to your weapon.
:: To create a new record from scratch:
+
:: To create a new sound record from scratch:
 
::* Move to the right window, right click and select "New".
 
::* Move to the right window, right click and select "New".
 
::* Click on "Add sound file".
 
::* Click on "Add sound file".
 
:::* Adjust "Attenuation distance".
 
:::* Adjust "Attenuation distance".
:::: Check stock vanilla sounds of the same type (i.e. a gunshot) for a good idea on how to set them.
+
:::: Check stock vanilla sounds of the same type (e.g. a gunshot) for a good idea on how to set them.
 
:::* Flag "Mute when submerged", then the "OK" button.
 
:::* Flag "Mute when submerged", then the "OK" button.
 
:::: Check stock vanilla sounds for other flags and settings as well.
 
:::: Check stock vanilla sounds for other flags and settings as well.
Line 334: Line 3,097:
 
::* Make your modifications to that sound, and point it towards your own added sound file.
 
::* Make your modifications to that sound, and point it towards your own added sound file.
 
:* Click "OK", and it will ask: "Create a new form?"; to which you say YES, then make note of the new Form-ID.
 
:* Click "OK", and it will ask: "Create a new form?"; to which you say YES, then make note of the new Form-ID.
:* Now when you are in your "Art and Sound" tab (if its a weapon or something) just click on the sound buttons and find your new sound by the new Form-Id you noted.
+
:* Now when you are in your "Art and Sound" tab (if its a weapon or something) just click on the sound buttons and find your new sound by the new Form-Id you noted.</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="TIP-CallingFormat"></span>
 +
====TIP Format to call a song====
 +
: Thanks to '''EDPGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">For a radio station, a "song" file will '''''ideally''''' meet the following requirements:
 +
* Your song must be converted to ''.MP3'' format if you want it to be recognized and used on a game radio station ''in stereo''.
 +
:* 128 kbps CBR ("Constant Bit Rate"; 256 is said to work but not tested) ''in stereo''.
 +
:* '''Mono''' files will play, but obviously they won't play ''in stereo''.
 +
* Most tutorials on radio stations only refer to ''WAV'' files, giving the impression that they are the only file format that will work.  This is not the case, but there are specific differences to use ''MP3'' songs.  (Both ''Stereo'' and ''Mono MP3'' songs will work if the same procedures are followed.)  Other than the ability to be in ''stereo'', the other huge advantage to using ''MP3'' files is how much smaller they are (roughly 1/5).
 +
* To call a song in a radio station: ''.MP3''s NEED braces (see example below) around the response name; but ''.WAV'' or ''.OGG'' files won't work with them.  (The reason the vanilla stations have mono ''.OGG'' files as well in the '''Fallout - Sound.bsa''' file is: those are what plays in the world on a speaker/radio that isn't your Pip-Boy.)
 +
: If you look at any of the vanilla radio stations in the GECK, they all use ''.MP3''s, and the name of each entry is something like this:
 +
:<pre>..{Song 1 A Winter Romance}</pre>
 +
: Note that like the vanilla script '''vCountryRadioQuest''', you should put '''two spaces''' (represented here by ''two periods'' to be visible) before the first brace. (Not tested without.)
 +
: If you save '''mono''' ''OGG'' files in the radio folder that are named identically to the "song" files but with '''_mono''' appended to them (e.g. "song1.mp3" and "song1_mono.ogg"), the radio station will play them in the game world at the correct time.  I've seen a lot of different ways to encode them but I have always used 65kbps '''mono''' and (I believe) 22050hz, and have always had them play as intended.
 +
* '''Seddon'''s video guide on how to make a station is a good one, but its major flaw is that he was operating under the presumption that ''mono WAV'' files were required.  '''You''' must make the above calling convention adjustments if using ''MP3'' or ''stereo'' files instead.
 +
* '''DorostheConqueror'''s text-based guide is slightly more comprehensive than Seddon's if I recall, but suffers from the same ''mono WAV'' file presumption, and the same adjustments apply.
 +
* NOTE: Radio stations are similar to dialog in that their ''quests'' must be checkboxed to "start enabled".  If the ''quest'' isn't "active" the ''topics/songs'' will not play.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-MusicAndDialog"></span>
 +
==== TIP Music and Dialog ====
 +
: Thanks to '''Glenrhee''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">When you have the problem of your added music won't fade or mute during dialog, probably you have not encoded it correctly.
 +
# The music has to be in '''mono .wav''' format.
 +
# It has to be in a CBR (constant bit rate) of 256 or less. Most audio editing programs let you choose to export it this way.
 +
# It'll sound louder '''out-of-game''' than '''in-game''', so don't lower the volume too much on it.
 +
Now your music should automatically get quieter when in dialog.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-BattleMusic"></span>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Replacing Battle Music====
 +
: Thanks to '''KadoDragon''' and '''DaemonGrin''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">You need to know what ''audio object'' (in the GECK) to edit in the ''audio tab'' which means you need to know the names of the battle songs you want to replace. All you have to do once you have that information is redirect the ''audio object'' to the '''wav, mp3 or ogg''' file of the new one. Or you can find the '''mp3, wav, ogg''' you want to replace with your own music and just rename yours to the same names of the vanilla files (after backing them up of course); making sure to leave them in the correct directory path(s) in the "Data\sound\" folder path.  Not hard at all.  Really the hardest thing to do with sound is creating the ''intro'' and ''outro'' segments: they are super short and need to blend nicely with the fade-in of the battle music.
 +
 
 +
The game combines the ''intros'' and ''outros'' from the '''Data\Sound\fx\mus\bttl''' sub-folder and then plays the music from the appropriate '''Data\Music\''' sub-folder.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-WeaponFiring"></span>
 +
<span id="Tip-DetectionEvents"></span>
 +
==== TIP TCD and Gunfire Detection Events ====
 +
: Thanks to '''punchbattle''' of the "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following.
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">A really helpful command is called [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/ToggleCombatDebug ToggleCombatDebug (TCD)]. Running it in-game adds graphical elements to combat that help give you a better understanding of what's going on under the hood. For instance, one really helpful thing it does is create "teal colored" bubbles (called '''Detection Events''') to mark sounds made by the player and NPCs. If an NPC is close enough to a '''Detection Event''', they'll "hear it" and begin searching for the enemy it belongs to. This revealed something very ... odd. And bad.
 +
 
 +
The only part of a gunshot that creates a '''Detection Event''' is the '''projectile''', and ''only at the point of impact''. This means NPCs will completely ignore the sound of the gun going off, and instead choose to wander right into the enemy's crosshairs. Bethesda is infamous for their "less than realistic" stealth systems, but learning about this completely ruined stealth for the author and made them want to fix it.
 +
 
 +
There's a function that lets you make your own '''Detection Events'''. It's called (strangely enough) [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/CreateDetectionEvent CreateDetectionEvent].
 +
 
 +
An initial idea was to attach a script to a gun, and have it create a '''Detection Event''' at the location of the shooter whenever they pull the trigger. This didn't work for a number of reasons. Instead, using a quest that checks for anyone with a gun doing an attack animation, and casting a '''Detection Event''' spell on them works perfectly!
 +
 
 +
For anyone reading this who wants to mess around with '''Detection Events''' as well: Any field that asks you to assign a '''Sound Level''' to a weapon or projectile is actually asking you how big you want your weapon's '''Detection Event''' bubble to be. But remember! Weapons don't actually create '''Detection Events''' when '''''fired''''', despite what the '''GECK''' seems to imply: only upon '''''projectile impact'''''!  The size of each "Sound Level" bubble is controlled by these settings:
 +
* iSoundLevelLoud - 100
 +
* iSoundLevelNormal - 50
 +
* iSoundLevelSilent - 10
 +
 
 +
People say that '''Detection Events''' can't be larger than 100, but this isn't true. You can assign values into the thousands, and it still works. Also, 100 is ...very small.  (As in 128 [http://geckwiki.com/index.php/Units game units] is the equivalent of the default 6 foot tall NPC actor.)  Makes one wonder if that isn't perhaps a percentage multiplier to the "standard" bubble size; whatever that might be?
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
====TIP Weapon firing sounds====
 +
: Thanks to '''Scott Clemmons''' of the GameAs "Fallout: New Vegas" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">In New Vegas, there are two different 3D shooting sounds for many weapons: A normal shooting sound, and a distant shooting sound. As the distance between you and the shooter increases and the normal shooting sound starts to fade, the distant sound should start taking over while the normal sound continues fading away.
 +
 
 +
The distant sound has a bit of an echo, so the effect of using this different sound for shots from a large distance is nice.  The distant sound doesn't start playing until the normal shooting sound has stopped playing completely.  So as you get further away the normal shooting sound fades until the gun is almost silent. Then, when the sound is completely gone, the distant sound takes over. Usually, this distant sound is disconcertingly louder than the fading at the end of the closer distance sound!
 +
 
 +
So what happens? You have someone shooting at you, and the further you get away, the less loud the sound gets. But then when you pass a certain distance, the shooting sound goes from nearly silent to relatively loud again.
 +
 
 +
Using the 'getdistance player' console command, you can track the distance (measured in [[Fallout 3/NV Game Units|game units]]) between the shooting NPC and yourself. Approaching the 2400 unit distance the gunfire sound is almost silent. Then, upon increasing the distance between yourself and the NPC a little more, the louder distant shooting sound takes it's place.
 +
 
 +
In the GECK Weapon record Form there are "attack sound" fields on two different tabs: "Art and Sound", and "Mod Info".
 +
* Art and Sound tab: Unmodified weapon attack sounds.
 +
* Mod Info tab: Weapon attack sounds when an appropriate "weapon mod" is used: i.e. "suppressor/silencer".
 +
 
 +
Testing showed that adding a "Suppressor/Silencer" "weapon mod" seemed to have no effect on the sound heard in most cases.  Turns out a huge part of this is the specific sound files chosen, and for which of the different fields.  Apparently many mod makers use the same sounds for both tabs (probably not understanding the different roles).
 +
* The "3D" field's sound "attenuates" (fades) as you move from the point of origin starting at approximately 255 units up to 2400 units distance.
 +
* The "Dist" sound is a 3D effect that kicks in approximately at 2400 units up to 8500 units.
 +
* The 2D field sound does not "attenuate" (fade) with distance.  This is the "1st person" sound: "right in your ear".
 +
 
 +
The following choices illustrate the difference of this effect for a .308 caliber weapon (The 'Gobi Desert Sniper Rifle', using WMX to modify it).  The "CCSP" files chosen are from the [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/52633 Combined Community Sound Pack (CCSP)].  Other choices depend upon the mods installed.
 +
 
 +
"Art and Sound" tab: (Unmodified weapon attack sounds).
 +
* Attack Sound (3D): "CCSPsniperrifle3d" (there are several choices and all are generally "loud".)
 +
* Attack Sound (Dist): "CCSPsniperrifledistant" (this in particular is a more muffled distant sound than other similar options.)
 +
* Attack Sound (2D): "CCSPsniperrifle2d" (there are several choices and all are generally "next to you loud".)
 +
 
 +
"Mod Info" tab: (Modified weapon attack sounds).
 +
* Attack Sound(s): "CCSPsniperriflesilenced3d" (shorter, quieter 3D shot.)
 +
* Attack Sound (2D): "WPNRifleAssaultSilencedFire2D" (shorter, quieter 2D shot.)
 +
 
 +
Now an unmodified rifle sounds as expected, and one equipped with a silencer is obviously quieter.  The contrast between the fading 3D sound and the "Dist" sound is something the sound file makers will have to calibrate.  But using a more faded "dist" sound will reduce the jarring effect.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== Navmeshing ===
 +
(The process is essentially the same between the '''GECK''' and the '''Creation Kit'''.  See also the [[#Worldspace_Creation|Worldspace Creation]] section.)
 +
 
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://www.creationkit.com/index.php?title=Bethesda_Tutorial_Navmesh Creation Kit Tutorial: Bethesda Navmesh Tutorial] Wiki.  Generally applies to GECK as well.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSb7TY1ai2w Creation Kit Tutorial: Guide to Bethesda Creation Kit - Navmesh: pathing test and finalizing] Video by '''Hellcat5'''.
 +
* [http://youtu.be/5JGpfOLiLic Creation Kit Tutorial: How to Navmesh] Video by '''Darkfox127'''. Specific to Skyrim but compatible essentials.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKbOLdzC6-k Creation Kit Tutorial: Linking Cells] Video by '''Darkfox127'''.
 +
* [http://geck.bethsoft.com/index.php?title=Bethsoft_Tutorial_Navmesh GECK: Bethsoft Navmesh Tutorial] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2pZmWgJ0FE&feature=youtu.be GECK: How to edit pre-existing nav-meshs for an exterior worldspace GECK] Video by '''001cf73'''.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vqjwa1fKI4 GECK: NavMesh Tutorial] Video by '''Illusive Man'''.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8F1A-MPu3gY GECK: NavMesh Tutorial] Video by '''Staring@MyKeyboard'''.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/62041/? Navmesh Fixes and Improvements] Mod by '''sandbox6'''.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QApfS9NRYPY NavMesh Tutorial: Stairs] Video by '''Staring@MyKeyboard'''.
 +
* [http://www.creationkit.com/index.php?title=TES5Edit_Documentation TES5Edit: Documentation] Wiki.
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-ZQtgveKaM TES5Edit: Fixing Deleted Navmesh with TES5edit] Video by '''soupdragon'''.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NavmeshBug"></span>
 +
====TIP Bug extending NavMesh====
 +
: Thanks to '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">There's a massive bug that has a 'cult following' of sorts, in that it doesn't seem to be discussed quite so often as most of the other fundamentals of modding, but when you do find a discussion about it, there is an unmistakable fire at work, and it burns with unmatched vitriol.
 +
 
 +
It seems that if your plug-in is not a "master file" (.ESM), there's only so much you can do with navmeshes before the game just can't take it and pathing simply breaks.
 +
 
 +
In my case, I had an interior cell basement with a number of roaches, and they had a very specific 'setpiece' AI.  It all worked perfectly.  Then I built the rest of the area and it still worked.  Finally, when I navmeshed just the adjacent room (extending the same navmesh), I incurred a fully reproducible form of this bug (which takes many forms, though this is my only first-hand experience): everything in the entire space works 100% perfectly -- until I load my save and test it again.  That's right, everything; and the amount of intense scripting and 'scenes' occurring here is extraordinary.  But if anything causes the navmesh to be re-encountered again after any attempt to resume the same game session from a previous save point (load my current save, quit to the main menu and then load my save, load another save, or anything that doesn't involve closing the application and relaunching the ".EXE"), the roaches will just idle there, or sometimes run full-speed into the wall or door perpetually and never get where their package is meant to bring them.  Sometimes they'll even teleport as they idle, gradually materialising closer to the Package Target but not quite getting there.  Leaving and returning to the room without loading a save game appears to work fine.
 +
 
 +
So, I found some information on my trusty Google machine, and decided to try my file as an ".ESM".  Flawless results every time.  So try that.  Just make sure you back up your file.  ".ESP to .ESM" conversions have a bit of quirkiness unless you understand the "rules" pertaining to them.  (See [[#Tip-ESMOnly|TIP: When can you use an ESM only mod?]].)
 +
 
 +
Making an ESP file into an ESM can solve some problems with spawning actors appearing "jammed up" in a particular spot instead of where you placed them.
 +
 
 +
Toggling "ArchiveInvalidation" seems to sometimes clear up an AI package acting buggy when making changes to your navmesh.  However, this will not satisfactorily resolve the problem for your users.
 +
 
 +
<div style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px solid #00C600;color: lightgray; background-color:#424242;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">ONAM records are special records created that allow Master files to communicate with one-another when references need to be passed. '''xEdit''' ensures that as part of the "Plugin to Master" conversion process, these ONAM records are built and correctly ordered. This is why it is better to make the "Plugin to Master" conversion using '''xEdit'''.  See the [http://www.creationkit.com/index.php?title=TES5Edit_Documentation TES5Edit Documentation] section on "Converting a Plugin into a Master".
 +
 
 +
Summary from a Skyrim discussion:<br>
 +
Basically when an ESP plugin wants to change something in the base game, it either adds a new object, or has an object that shares it's ID with something in one of it's master files. Since the ID is the same as the one in the master, only the one loaded last is used. This is called an '''override'''.
 +
 
 +
ESMs cannot normally do '''overrides'''. If they add something that shares the same FormID, you get a collision error. EXCEPT if you have what's known as an ONAM record. Basically this is a small sub-record in the header of the file that tells the game engine: "This ID is overwritten in this file".
 +
 
 +
Although the CK won't add an ONAM list [but FNVEdit's "MasterUpdate" function will -Editor], you can still ESM'ify by changing the extension to ESM, opening as "Active", then saving. There's no guarantee it'll fix anything w/o an ONAM list though.
 +
 
 +
The ONAM lists seem to help the engine's object permanence when an ESM overrides its master(s) cell children, ensuring the overrides A) work properly and B) aren't forgotten when they unload. It's a TES4 (header) subrecord (ACHR, NAVM, LAND, REFR, PHZD). ThePitt.ESM was the first Beth plugin to get an ONAM list and every applicable Beth ESM since has one (save for one iteration of Update.ESM). Not sure exactly how it works but, in Oblivion, if one moved something from Oblivion.ESM around with another ESM flagged plugin, the ground would vanish in game. This is most likely why '''Oblivion's Shivering Isles''' was merged in and its ESP was empty.  Currently [2011], the only way to get an ONAM list is with FO3/FNVEdit.
 +
 
 +
Note though, ESM's are not 100% immune to navmesh related bugs. 
 +
 
 +
You cannot slave an ESM to an ESP; only the other way around.  You can split an existing ESP into an ESM/ESP pair: as long as the items in the ESP are "non-edits" of the new ESM (things that exist only in the ESP and do not edit anything from the ESM: i.e. "all new content")  Such ESP items will be beginning with "mod index"/form-id 02 when only those two files are loaded.  It will translate into loaded save games properly.  Any records that go directly into the ESM will be treated as a new mod and reset on first load.</div>
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NavmeshQuickly"></span>
 +
====TIP Draw Navmesh Quickly====
 +
: Thanks to '''kingbeast88''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">To quickly draw your extended navmesh boundaries:
 +
* Make your first triangle.  (See any of the above tutorials.)
 +
* Then hold <Ctrl> and <Right-Click> your mouse at each of the next vertice locations.  The nearest boundary line will automatically redraw to include that vertice.
 +
* Press <Tab> when you need to switch sides of the two vertices of the boundary line currently selected to extend in a different direction.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NavMeshBoundaries"></span>
 +
====TIP Navmesh Boundaries====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''' and '''EPDGaffney''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">NPCs will stray slightly outside the bounds of a navmesh, so you don't have to be super-precise in laying down their boundaries.  If you're a bit sloppy the NPCs will still usually manage to figure out how to go where they should.
 +
 
 +
"Off-screen" NPCs do not require any navmeshing.  An NPC was set to run his script even when the Player wasn't in the area (meaning: unlike the majority of NPCs, his ''No Low-Level Processing'' box was not ticked in the G.E.C.K.) but without any navmeshing.  He acted "funny" when on-screen with the Player, but the game updated his task to "completed" once the Player left the area.
 +
 
 +
If you have a container with items in the area, and the gap between the navmesh and the container is too small, it is at least theoretically possible an NPC in combat might grab a more powerful item from the container.  However such instances should be rare.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NavMeshExteriors"></span>
 +
====TIP Navmeshing Exterior cells====
 +
: Thanks to '''madmongo''', '''EPDGaffney''', and '''kingbeast88''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">Most tutorials on "navmeshing" are done in interior cells.  Which means they don't have to deal with "cell boundaries".  However, "exterior navmeshes" DO have to deal with cell boundaries, and this can lead to some confusion.
 +
 
 +
Outdoor navmeshes work mostly the same as indoor ones, except that the navmesh path can't cross cell boundaries.  However, when the navmesh boundaries are adjacent at the cell boundaries, NPCs can cross between cells.  See the [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q2pZmWgJ0FE&feature=youtu.be How to edit pre-existing nav-meshs for an exterior worldspace GECK] Video by '''001cf73''' for the basics.
 +
 
 +
When you finalize your outdoor navmesh, it will attempt to link up with the neighboring cell's navmesh. Any line segment along the edge of the navmesh that successfully links to the next cell will turn green. Navmesh vertices (the "node points" the lines align with) will often end up being automatically split by the GECK so that it can match up vertices. If part of the cell border isn't green, then the navmeshes between the two cells in that location aren't linked and NPCs won't cross from one cell to the other properly.
 +
 
 +
You don't have to be exact when lining up vertices on your navmesh, but you have to be reasonably close. If your navmesh triangle edges are too far away from the triangle edges in the next cell, the GECK won't be able to match them up. You don't '''have to''' "match vertex for vertex", but if you '''don't''' "match vertex for vertex", what can often happen is that part of the triangle is too far away vertically (Z-axis) from the triangle in the next cell and the GECK refuses to link it.  (You can just lift a navmesh's vertex a bit up (hold <Z> to lock it to the vertical, or Z-axis) to make sure it's above the ground, and then hit <F> like any other object to snap it to the first piece of collision that's directly below the vertex.  But, watch out that you don't drop your vertex onto a piece of virtually invisible light and assume it's on the ground when it isn't.) So "matching vertex for vertex" will generally give you the best results.
 +
 
 +
If the cell boundary line isn't turning green, delete the navmesh triangles along the cell border and redo them so that the vertices are closer, then finalize your navmesh for that cell again.
 +
 
 +
Moving vertices is often not the best way to go about adjusting the navmesh.  If you're not careful (or aren't used to 3D modelling or UV-mapping) you can accidentally end up with triangles that have flipped normals and a navmesh for that cell that doesn't work. In which case, you're better off deleting any triangles that go under your addition (e.g. in the referenced video: a house straddling both cells) and then add new triangles to circumscribe the addition (e.g. the house).  Remember, any cell that you change the navmesh in needs to be finalized. Just making navmesh triangles isn't enough.
 +
 
 +
Observations:
 +
* Make sure to check your navmesh work from all different angles (that is: rotate it) to be certain it really is the shape you think it is.
 +
 
 +
* Apparently there is a '''check cover edges''' button which needs to be pressed before pressing '''finalize''' in all cells affected. So as long as you have no warnings, and have your vertex Z-axis lined up close with your triangle edges touching each other, this will most of the time create a new cell boundary (green) line.
 +
 
 +
: You can occasionally create this "green line" where no boundary was before by using only '''finalize''', but this doesn't seem to be the case when you delete them or make edits that remove the "green line".
 +
 
 +
* Keep your navmesh "triangle" count to 500 or less, at least in exterior cells.  If you exceed that limt, the engine does "weird things" like spawn items randomly that otherwise are not placed there.
 +
 
 +
* You don't need to draw ''cover'', really.  That gets done by the button designated for it on the navmesh ''toolbar''.  Never had a problem with the way the GECK does it automatically.  Haven't really pushed its limits or anything, so don't know how it would do in a really complex room, but think the average navmesh would have adequate cover drawn by the GECK with no input from you afterwards.
 +
 
 +
* You need to navmesh places where AI will go, but don't need to bother with it anywhere that can't have AI in it.  However, remember that the player can have companions, and they will need a navmesh.  You can of course force the player not to bring companions in your mod, but you should probably have a good reason for it.
 +
 
 +
* Note that nothing bad will happen if your companions can't come with you.  They'll just wait where the navmesh ends and then teleport to you when you exit the cell if need be.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-NavmeshPortal"></span>
 +
====TIP Navmesh marker for Portal relocates====
 +
: Thanks to '''chucksteel''' and '''madmongo''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas GECK and Modders" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">After editing a navmesh, the green triangle that indicates a portal appears ... not under the door, nor near the marker, but in some completely random location.  What gives?  Is this a problem?
 +
 
 +
Nothing is wrong.  The portal will function properly, allowing followers and NPCs to use it correctly.  The "green triangle" only confirms the connection and does not need to always be under the portal marker itself.  The player and NPC's will always spawn properly on the portal marker regardless of where the navmesh green triangle is located.
 +
 
 +
This seems to only happen if you create a navmesh, save the mod, then edit it later.  If it really bugs you, then you can delete the entire navmesh for the cell and re-do it. No big deal for a small simple cell, but probably not something you want to do for a very complex navmesh in a large cell.
 +
</div>
 +
 
 +
=== NifSkope Mesh Editor ===
 +
[When linking to a Video, be sure to check the page sidebar for additional, related subject videos.]
 +
* [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BvitRKEa1X0 How To Rotate A Mesh In Nifskope] 2 minute video by Zylice Liddell.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56009/? Jokerine's Misc Resources Tutorials and Novac Bungalow: NifSkope Texture Paths by Jokerine] Mod PDF.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/64746 NIF tangents and binormals updater] Command line tool to batch update tangents/binormals.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/56203/? Material and Texture Animations in NifSkope - Tutorial] PDF/DOC download.
 +
* [http://niftools.sourceforge.net/wiki/NifSkope NifSkope Wiki] Wiki.
 +
* [http://forums.nexusmods.com/index.php?/topic/984792-tutorial-working-with-the-nicontrollermanager/ NifSkope: Working with the NiControllerManager] Forum Thread.  Alternate images available [http://www.mediafire.com/file/p0srsyrfuaszevp/Tutorial.zip here].
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/45444/? Tutorials on Screenshots, NifSkope, Outfit creation and Posing by jonas opines] Mod.
 +
* [http://www.nexusmods.com/newvegas/mods/63770/? Nifskope Testing Skeleton] by clanky4. Mod for testing animations in NifSkope only.
 +
 
 +
<span id="Tip-AttachLightSource"></span>
 +
==== TIP Attaching a light source to a mesh ====
 +
: Thanks to '''MonsterMonkey''' of the Nexus Fallout "New Vegas Mod Talk" forum for the basis of the following:
 +
<div name="Note Box" class="boilerplate metadata" id="Notice Box"
 +
style="margin:0px 10px 10px 10px;border:1px dashed #DAA520;color: lightgray;
 +
background-color:#333333;padding:3px;
 +
word-wrap: break-word;      /* Internet Explorer 5.5+ */
 +
">So, you have an existing mesh that needs a light source added to illuminate only a portion of it.  How do you go about it?
 +
* Open your mesh in '''NifSkope''', and attach a "new node > ''bsvaluenode''" where you want the light source.